Casiri (Tacna)

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Casiri
Paucarani, Paugarani
Nevados Casiri.jpg
Highest point
Elevation5,650 m (18,540 ft)
Coordinates17°28′S 69°48′W / 17.467°S 69.800°W / -17.467; -69.800Coordinates: 17°28′S 69°48′W / 17.467°S 69.800°W / -17.467; -69.800[1]
Geography
Casiri is located in Peru
Casiri
Casiri

Casiri is a mountainous complex in the Barroso mountain range in the Andes of Peru, about 5,650 metres (18,537 ft) high, and is located in the Tacna Region. Casiri, also known as Paucarani, is a volcano consisting of four individual volcanic edifices with lava domes; the southeasternmost edifice has been active during the Holocene, producing thick lava flows that have overrun moraines of Pleistocene age. Although no historical eruptions are known, the volcano is considered to be potentially active.

The volcano features geothermal manifestations and is linked to a larger geothermal field that has been prospected for geothermal power generation, and sulfur mines are found on Casiri too. Finally, the Paucarani reservoir that covers the bulk of Tacna's water supply is associated with Casiri; the Rio Uchusuma that flows through the reservoir originates on the volcano and the reservoir is located on the foot of Casiri.

Name[edit]

The name "Casiri" might mean "bawler" in Aymara.[2] Casiri is also known as Paucarani[3] or Paugarani[1] although Casiri and Paucarani are sometimes treated as distinct volcanoes.[4] A lake with the name "Casiri" lies about 5 kilometres (3.1 mi) north from the volcano;[5] it is a glacial lake[6] and a reservoir.[7]

Geography and geomorphology[edit]

Txu-oclc-224300691-se19-6 (cropped on Casiri).jpg

Casiri is a 5,650 metres (18,540 ft) high[1] stratovolcano with lava domes;[8] the volcano rises about 1,050 metres (3,440 ft) above the surrounding terrain[9] and has a volume of about 7 cubic kilometres (1.7 cu mi) with a diameter of 5 kilometres (3.1 mi).[9] There are four individual volcanic edifices at Casiri, three older ones which form a 5 kilometres (3.1 mi) long chain and a southeasterly younger edifice with a well preserved lava dome in its crater.[1] An older lava dome also exists[10] in the western part of the complex.[11]

Lava flows, thick from viscosity,[12] originate in the younger edifice[10] and spread in several directions.[12] The flows reach lengths of 2 kilometres (1.2 mi)[1] and are well preserved, displaying flow lines;[12] on images taken from space they have dark colours.[11] Some parts of the volcano have undergone hydrothermal alteration[13] producing gray-white rocks[14] and clay.[15]

Casiri is part of the Cordillera del Barroso [es];[16] generally, the terrain around Casiri is dominated by various volcanic and fluvioglacial formations along with some moraines.[5][13] The mountain chains Barroso and Huancune lie southwest and south from Casiri, respectively,[13] and the neighbouring mountains Auquitapie and Iñuma are covered with snow.[17] Geologically, Casiri is considered to be part of the so-called "Paucarani Volcanics".[18]

Hydrology and Paucarani reservoir[edit]

The Rio Uchusuma, a tributary of the Rio Mauri, originates on Casiri.[16] A natural lake called Paucarani exists on the southeastern foot of Casiri,[13][17] and the Quebrada Achuco valley[8] is also located south of Casiri,[13] accompanied by wetlands.[19][13] On the other side, the southeastward flowing Quebrada Mamuta lies to the north and northeast of the volcano. Finally, to the northwest lie streams which flow through the lake Casiri and the lake Liñuma and from there into the Rio Mauri.[5] Volcanic activity has influenced the drainages through the formation of lava dams, altering watersheds.[18]

An earth dam[17] on the Rio Uchusuma[20] was built in 1982-1986[21] and forms a reservoir also called Paucarani[19] on the southeastern foot of the volcano just southwest from the natural lake Paucarani.[13] This reservoir has a capacity of 10,500,000 cubic metres (370,000,000 cu ft) of water[22] and is a key[21] part of the water supply of Tacna;[23] water is transferred from the Paucarani reservoir through the Canal Uchusuma to Tacna,[24][7] covering 90% of Tacna's water consumption for both irrigation and human use.[25]

The Paucarani reservoir is also involved in the regulation of the Rio Caplina.[26] In 2012, a damaged floodgate caused a damaging flood.[27] Alterations in the reservoir that increased its storage volume[21] may be responsible for water leaks in the dam;[28] contamination with heavy metals - especially arsenic - has been an issue at Paucarani as well.[29]

Human geography[edit]

Casiri is located in the Tarata Province[17] of the Tacna Region of Peru;[16] it lies about 100 kilometres (62 mi) northeast from the city of Tacna and close to the border with Chile and Bolivia.[9] The volcano is situated north of the town of Paucarani;[8] other human structures in the area south of Casiri are Calachata and Tulipiña. There are also numerous roads in the area[13] including one which runs south of the volcano and reaches the Capaja camp to its west.[5] The town of Paucarani can be reached from the highway that connects Tacna with Charaña in Bolivia and Villa Industrial in Chile, through a secondary road.[30] A rain gauge of the Servicio Nacional de Meteorología e Hidrología del Perú was active there at 4,600 metres (15,100 ft) elevation from 1946 to 2003.[31]

The volcano is considered a potential tourist attraction[32] owing to its scenery.[33] It is also part of the Monumento Natural de Paucarani geopark[17] and has been proposed to become a protected area.[33] The Paucarani reservoir could be exploited for tourism purposes as well.[17]

Geology[edit]

The subduction of the Nazca Plate beneath the South America Plate causes volcanism along the western margin of South America. This volcanism is distributed over three volcanic belts, the Northern Volcanic Zone, the Central Volcanic Zone and the Southern Volcanic Zone. Among these, the Central Volcanic Zone includes the volcanoes of southern Peru,[34] a country with over 300 volcanoes. Of these, El Misti, Huaynaputina, Sabancaya, Ticsani, Tutupaca, Ubinas and Yucamane have been active during historical time. Geothermal manifestations such as fumaroles, geysers and hot springs also occur in the country.[35] In general though volcanism in Peru is poorly known.[34]

Composition[edit]

The volcano has erupted andesite, basaltic andesite and trachyandesite with a porphyric texture, the rocks contain biotite, hornblende, plagioclase and sanidine crystals.[8][18] Deposition of sulfur from gases has formed sulfur deposits.[36]

Eruption history[edit]

The Quaternary-age[37] Casiri is one of the youngest volcanic systems in southern Peru[8] with postglacial activity,[38] and Peru's southernmost Holocene volcano.[39] Holocene lavas sourced from fissure vents[40] overlie Pleistocene-age moraines and are uneroded;[41] radiometric dating on the volcano has yielded ages of 50,000 years.[42]

There are no reported eruptions[1] but activity may[43] or may not have occurred in historical time;[11] Casiri however features hot springs and solfataras[17] and has been classified as a latent[44] or potentially active volcano[45] with a moderate threat level.[46] In 2012, the Geophysical Institute in Peru announced that it would begin monitoring Casiri along with two other volcanoes in southern Peru with seismometers.[47]

Human use[edit]

Mining[edit]

The Gloria sulfur mine lies on Casiri,[36] specifically on the foot of Paucarani[48] and southeast from the lava flows.[1] The sulfur is contained in heavily altered rocks covering an area of about 1 square kilometre (0.39 sq mi) and is genetically related to the activity of Casiri. It has been excavated through trenches and wells;[49] some installations could still be exploitable.[17] Another mine known as San Luis may also be associated with Paucarani;[49] it is located on the northwestern flank.[39][5] Precious metals might occur in the hydrothermally altered areas at Casiri.[50]

Geothermal power[edit]

The area of Casiri also features the Chungará-Kallapuma geothermal field, where about 50 separate vents occur along the path of the Quebrada Chungará and the Kallapuma River; they reach temperatures of 83.4 °C (182.1 °F). These phenomena appear to relate to the activity of neighbouring volcanoes, which supply the heat to the geothermal field,[51] while rainfall supplies the water and faults the paths for the ascending water; the hot springs are currently used as spas by the local population.[52]

The geothermal power potential of the Tacna Region has been researched, partly because currently the Tacna Region covers its electricity demand with either nonrenewable oil or with hydropower which is subject to climate variations. Mining is an important economic resource in Tacna and a major consumer of electricity as well.[53] In the case of the Chungará-Kallapuma geothermal field, the capacity of a 75 megawatt power plant exists;[54] however, despite ongoing research since 1974 and a high geothermal potential no geothermal power production has taken place in Peru as of 2013.[35]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g Vela et al. 2016, p. 19.
  2. ^ Juan Carlos Mamani Morales, Cuentos de Parinacota, 2009, p. 48: Casiri: del aymara q'asiri, gritador/a
  3. ^ INGEMMET 2000, p. 47.
  4. ^ INGEMMET 2000, p. 62.
  5. ^ a b c d e Mendívil Echevarría 1965, Map2.
  6. ^ Mendívil Echevarría 1965, p. 12.
  7. ^ a b "ABASTECIMIENTO DE AGUA Y CALIDAD DELAGUA EN LA CIUDAD DE TACNA" (PDF). Municipalidad Provincial de Tacna (in Spanish). May 2014. p. 2. Retrieved 29 May 2019.
  8. ^ a b c d e Cervantes G. & Monge Miguel 2000, p. 7.
  9. ^ a b c de Silva & Francis 1990, p. 288.
  10. ^ a b de Silva & Francis 1990, p. 296.
  11. ^ a b c de Silva & Francis 1990, p. 297.
  12. ^ a b c Mendívil Echevarría 1965, pp. 64-65.
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h Cervantes G. & Monge Miguel 2000, Map4.
  14. ^ Mendívil Echevarría 1965, p. 57.
  15. ^ Zavala Carrión & Steinmüller 1997, p. 66.
  16. ^ a b c Galloso Carrasco, Armando; Loaiza Choque, Edwin (2009). "Actividad minera artesanal en las zonas de Apurímac, Cusco, Tacna y Moquegua - [Boletín E 7]". Instituto Geológico, Minero y Metalúrgico - INGEMMET: 74.
  17. ^ a b c d e f g h INGEMMET 2000, p. 277.
  18. ^ a b c Mendívil Echevarría 1965, p. 64.
  19. ^ a b Cervantes G. & Monge Miguel 2000, p. 8.
  20. ^ Yepes del Castillo, Ernesto; Novak Talavera, Fabián; Gamarra Elías, Carlos; Brousset Barrios, Jorge (2018). "Intereses del Perú en la Región Sur". Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú: 31.
  21. ^ a b c "Represa de Paucarani se encuentra en peligro". Diario Correo. 24 February 2019. Retrieved 29 May 2019.
  22. ^ "Represa de Paucarani tiene 46% de agua almacenada". Diario Correo. 16 April 2015. Retrieved 29 May 2019.
  23. ^ INGEMMET 2000, p. 271.
  24. ^ Sánchez Velásquez 1996, p. 63.
  25. ^ Nieto, Luz Elena Vega (24 December 2014). "Racionarán agua en Tacna por anuncio de sequía". La República. Retrieved 29 May 2019.
  26. ^ Acosta Pereira, Cotrina Chávez & Peña Laureano 2009, p. 11.
  27. ^ "Crecida de río arrasa puentes y bocatomas en la sierra de Tacna". Diario Correo (in Spanish). 17 January 2017. Retrieved 29 May 2019.
  28. ^ Sánchez Velásquez 1996, p. 62.
  29. ^ Rivas, Jorge Turpo (7 August 2012). "Tacna: Advierten aumento de arsénico en agua". La República. Retrieved 29 May 2019.
  30. ^ Mendívil Echevarría 1965, p. 5.
  31. ^ Acosta Pereira, Cotrina Chávez & Peña Laureano 2009, p. 29.
  32. ^ INGEMMET 2000, p. 272.
  33. ^ a b INGEMMET 2000, p. 283.
  34. ^ a b de Silva & Francis 1990, p. 287.
  35. ^ a b Cacya Dueñas, Vargas Rodríguez & Cruz Pauccara 2013, p. 8.
  36. ^ a b Cervantes G. & Monge Miguel 2000, p. 10.
  37. ^ Núñez Juárez, Morche & Fídel Smoll 1997, p. 12.
  38. ^ Mendívil Echevarría 1965, p. 28.
  39. ^ a b "Nevados Casiri". Global Volcanism Program. Smithsonian Institution.
  40. ^ INGEMMET 2000, p. 4.
  41. ^ Mendívil Echevarría 1965, p. 2.
  42. ^ INGEMMET 2000, p. 270.
  43. ^ Mendívil Echevarría 1965, p. 65.
  44. ^ INGEMMET 2000, p. 182.
  45. ^ Núñez Juárez, Morche & Fídel Smoll 1997, p. 34.
  46. ^ Vela et al. 2016, p. 29.
  47. ^ Rivas, Jorge Turpo (10 August 2012). "Con modernos equipos le tomarán el pulso en tiempo real a tres volcanes de Tacna". La República. Retrieved 29 May 2019.
  48. ^ Mendívil Echevarría 1965, p. 62.
  49. ^ a b Mendívil Echevarría 1965, p. 79.
  50. ^ Zavala Carrión & Steinmüller 1997, p. 7.
  51. ^ Cacya Dueñas, Vargas Rodríguez & Cruz Pauccara 2013, p. 55.
  52. ^ Cacya Dueñas, Vargas Rodríguez & Cruz Pauccara 2013, p. 69.
  53. ^ Cacya Dueñas, Vargas Rodríguez & Cruz Pauccara 2013, p. 3.
  54. ^ Cacya Dueñas, Vargas Rodríguez & Cruz Pauccara 2013, p. 112.

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