Casualties of the September 11 attacks
This article needs additional citations for verification. (September 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
During the September 11 attacks of 2001, 2,977 victims and 19 hijackers were killed and more than 6,000 others were injured. The immediate deaths included 265 on the four planes (including the terrorists), 2,606 in the World Trade Center and in the surrounding area, and 125 at the Pentagon. The attacks were the deadliest terrorist act in world history, and the most devastating foreign attack on United States soil since the attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941.
Most of those who perished were civilians except for 343 firefighters and 71 law enforcement officers who died in the World Trade Center and on the ground in New York City, and another law enforcement officer who died when United Airlines Flight 93 crashed into a field near Shanksville, Pennsylvania, 55 military personnel who died at the Pentagon in Arlington County, Virginia, and the 19 terrorists who died on board the four aircraft. Overall, 2,605 U.S. citizens, including 2,135 civilians, died in the attacks, while an additional 372 non-U.S. citizens (excluding the 19 perpetrators) also perished, which represented about 12% of the total. More than 90 countries lost citizens in the attacks, including the United Kingdom (67 deaths), the Dominican Republic (47 deaths), and India (41 deaths).
2,974 victims were confirmed to have died in the initial attacks. In 2007, the New York City medical examiner's office began to add people who died of illnesses caused by exposure to dust from the site to the official death toll. The first such victim was a woman, a civil rights lawyer, who had died from a chronic lung condition in February 2002. In September 2009, the office added a man who died in October 2008, and in 2011, a male accountant who had died in December 2010. This raises the number of victims at the World Trade Center site to 2,753, and the overall 9/11 death toll to 2,996.
As of August 2013[update], medical authorities concluded that 1,140 people who worked, lived, or studied in Lower Manhattan at the time of the attack have been diagnosed with cancer as a result of "exposure to toxins at Ground Zero". It has been reported that over 1,400 9/11 rescue workers who responded to the scene in the days and months after the attacks have since died. At least 11 pregnancies were lost as a result of 9/11. Neither the FBI or New York City officially recorded the casualties of the 9/11 attacks in their crime statistics for 2001, with the FBI stating in a disclaimer that "the number of deaths is so great that combining it with the traditional crime statistics will have an outlier effect that falsely skews all types of measurements in the program's analyses."
- 1 Evacuation
- 2 Survivors
- 3 Fatalities
- 4 Forensic identification
- 5 See also
- 6 References
- 7 Further reading
- 8 External links
Most tall buildings in the United States at the time were not designed for complete evacuation during a crisis, even after the 1993 World Trade Center bombing. It was also procedural for announcements in the case of high-rise fire safety for individuals to stay in their offices unless they were near the burning floor. The two World Trade Center buildings housed three stairwells in the center core of each tower, with the stairwells being 70 feet apart in the North Tower and about 200 feet apart in the South Tower. The three stairwells were labeled A, B, and C, and were as tall as the buildings with two built to 44 inches in width and the third being 56 inches wide.
At the time of the attacks, media reports suggested that tens of thousands might have been killed, as on any given day upwards of 100,000 people could be inside the towers. Estimates of the number of people in the Twin Towers when attacked on Tuesday, September 11, 2001, range between 14,000 and 19,000. The National Institute of Standards and Technology estimated that approximately 17,400 civilians were in the World Trade Center complex at the time of the attacks. Turnstile counts from the Port Authority indicate that the number of people typically in the Twin Towers by 10:30 am was 14,154.
In interviews with 271 survivors, researchers in 2008 found that only about 8.6% had fled as soon as the alarm was raised while about 91.4% stayed behind to wait for more information or carrying out at least one additional task (collecting belongings/calling a family member). The interviews also showed that 82% of those who were evacuating stopped at least once during their way down, due to congestion on the stairs, to take a rest, or due to environmental conditions (smoke/debris/fire/water).
In the moments after Flight 11 struck the North Tower, the roughly 8,000 people who could evacuate from the floors below the point of impact (the 93rd to 99th floors) were faced with a harrowing scenario. The towers of the World Trade Center complex had not been designed to facilitate a mass evacuation of everybody in the buildings, and in each tower there were only three narrow stairwells descending to the ground level. Another hindrance to the evacuation of the World Trade Center was that as the planes struck, the force of the impact caused the buildings to shift enough to jam doors in their frames, and stairwells became blocked by broken wall boards, trapping dozens of people throughout the building, mostly on the floors closer to the impact zone. For those that were above the point of impact, many were trapped within their offices, with one victim relaying to 911 after the first plane hit that the stairs were inaccessible for the 106th floor. At least 28 people were freed on the 86th and 89th floors by members of the Port Authority office workers who had to pry open jammed doors.
Many people began to evacuate via the stairs on their own, while others chose to wait for instructions from the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey. Others who chose to evacuate were also pushed into action by loved ones who had been able to contact them. As evacuees descended the staircases in the North Tower, they were directed to descend to the concourse level beneath the World Trade Center complex, where the mall was located. Others who managed to escape credit the "Survivors Staircase," an outdoor staircase that survived the disaster, and World Trade Center workers who knew escape routes. A survivor stated "Between the 11th floor and the 9th floor, we wound through this maze. When we got to the plaza level we were walking through and there was one emergency light on. There was water up to our calves. All of a sudden there was a voice. We saw someone in a miner hat. He opened the door and said 'Just keep going.'"
When first responders arrived at Ground Zero, and they were alerted to the fire above the 78th floor, teams were ordered to help evacuate occupants of the tower. Within moments of Flight 11's impact, the Port Authority issued a complete evacuation of the North Tower.
Meanwhile, in the South Tower, many people saw what had happened in the North Tower and chose to evacuate as a precaution. However, the major hindrance to this process was that for the 17 minutes between the impacts of Flight 11 and Flight 175, it had not yet been determined that a terrorist attack was unfolding, and as a result the Port Authority in the South Tower spread the word via the building's intercom system and security guards for workers in the South Tower to remain in their offices. In a phone message to his wife by a victim who worked for AON Risk Management, part of the initial announcement can be heard stating: "May I have your attention, please. Repeating this message: the situation occurred in Building 1. If conditions warrant on your floor, you may wish to start an orderly evacuation." A package deliverer told reporters he heard the first crash and as he evacuated he heard "The building is secure. The safest place is inside; stay calm and do not leave." Others who ignored the message were met with officials at the lobby who told them to return to their respective floors. In a recorded radio conversation about two minutes after the first plane hit, the director of the South Tower stated "I'm not going to do anything until we get orders from the Fire Department or somebody." This was done in order to avoid overcrowding on the plaza and concourse levels, which was feared would slow the evacuation and rescue operations in the North Tower.
Despite the announcements, thousands of people continued to evacuate the South Tower. In the South Tower between the 78th Floor Sky Lobby and the Observation Deck on the 107th and 110th Floors, there were an estimated 2,000 employees, including 1,100 on the floors occupied by AON Insurance (the 92nd and the 98th through 105th). One of AON's executives, Eric Eisenberg, initiated the evacuation of their floors within moments of the impact of Flight 11. Similar evacuations were carried out on the floors occupied by Fiduciary Trust, on the 90th, 94th–97th floors, as well as in the offices of Fuji Bank (on floors 79–82), CSC (floor 87) and Euro Brokers on floor 84, which occupied the floors directly above the 78th Floor Sky Lobby. Executives such as Eisenberg instructed their employees to take the stairs down to the 78th floor Sky Lobby, where they could take an express elevator to the ground level and exit the building.
Many were aided in their evacuation by other building occupants such as Welles Remy Crowther, who was extremely identifiable due to the red bandanna around his mouth, and who helped guide groups of evacuees to safety. Within a window of roughly 17 minutes, between 8:46 AM and 9:03 AM, an estimated 1,400 people successfully evacuated the upper floors of the South Tower, while roughly 600 people did not. At the moment of the impact of Flight 175, an estimated 200 people had packed into the Sky Lobby on the 78th Floor and were waiting for the express elevators. Almost all of these people then died, as the lobby was in the lower section of Flight 175's impact zone.
World Trade Center Hotel
World Trade Center 3 is also known as the World Trade Center Hotel, the Vista Hotel, and the Marriott Hotel. During evacuations of the two larger towers, the twenty-two story hotel was used as an evacuation runway for about 1,000 people who were evacuating from the area. A majority of the registered 940 guests at the hotel began to evacuate after alarms were raised due to a piece of one of the plane's landing gear landing on the top floor of the pool. Some did not immediately do so, with at least one guest recounting that he woke up to the first plane hitting the North Tower, and went back to bed only to be awoken by the impact of the plane hitting the South Tower. He then watched the news and took a shower, got dressed, and gathered his belongings before evacuating after watching the South Tower collapse. The guests and others who were evacuated through the hotel were guided by hotel staff through the hotel's bar and outside onto Liberty Street.
Once both towers had been struck, the order to evacuate the North Tower quickly spread to encompass not only the entire World Trade Center complex, but most high rise buildings in Lower Manhattan and surrounding areas as well. The evacuation of employees from the North and South towers continued past the plaza and through the concourse. Evacuees from the North Tower were directed across the full length of the concourse to 5 World Trade Center, from where they exited the complex onto Church Street. Evacuees from the South Tower were provided with a separate route in order to deter congestion, with theirs leading them to 4 World Trade Center and exiting onto Liberty Street.
To relieve congestion within the city and clear the evacuees and civilians, boats and ferries were used to further evacuate Lower Manhattan. Some of the boats were a part of the Coast Guard, others were civilian, company or state owned, that acted independently or after seeking the permission of the Coast Guard, who initially instructed vessels to stand by and then issued a request for all available boats to participate.
No one survived in or above the impact area in the North Tower. There is a report of at least one survivor who had reached the 22nd floor when the tower began to collapse, and reportedly fell 15 floors and later rescued, although some find the account unreliable.
Only 14 people escaped from the impact zone of the South Tower (floors 77 to 85) after it was struck by United Airlines Flight 175, and only four people escaped from the floors above it. Individuals escaped from the South Tower as high up as the 84th floor using stairwell A in the northwest corner, the only stairwell left intact after the impact. Investigators believe that stairwell A remained passable until the South Tower collapsed at 9:59 am. Because of communication difficulties between 911 operators and FDNY and NYPD responders, most of them were unaware that stairwell A was passable and instructed survivors above the impact zone to wait for assistance by rescue personnel.
After the towers collapsed, only 23 individuals in or below the towers escaped from the debris, including 15 rescue workers. The last survivor removed from the WTC collapse debris was found in the ruins of the North Tower 27 hours after its collapse. An unknown number of other people survived the initial collapse, but were buried in air pockets deep beneath the rubble and could not be rescued in time. Some were able to rescue themselves and others from the rubble by climbing through the rubble or digging and listening for sounds of life in order to safely remove the victims from the rubble.
As of September 28, 2008, a total of over 33,000 police officers, firefighters, responders, and community members have been treated for injuries and sickness related to the 9/11 attacks in New York City, including respiratory conditions, mental health problems like PTSD and depression, gastrointestinal conditions, and at least 4,166 cases of cancer; according to one advocacy group "more cops have died of illness linked to the attack than had perished in it".
|Jon Stewart speaks as part of hearing on 9/11 Victim Compensation Fund - GLOBAL NEWS|
Talk show host Jon Stewart and others succeeded in pushing for a law passed by Congress in 2015 that permanently extends health care benefits for the responders and adds five years to the victims' compensation program. Stewart's advocacy on the issue continued into 2019, in June 2019 he testified in front of Congress on behalf of 9/11 first responders who did not have proper health care benefits from the September 11th Victim Compensation Fund. During the testimony he was critical that "Sick and dying, they [first responders] brought themselves down here to speak to no one" and that it was "Shameful" and "...an embarrassment to the county and it is a stain on this institution."
World Trade Center
An estimated 2,606 people who were in the World Trade Center and on the ground perished in the attacks on and the subsequent collapse of the towers. This figure consisted of 2,192 civilians (including eight EMTs and paramedics from private hospital units); 343 members of the New York City Fire Department (FDNY); and 71 law enforcement officers including 23 members of the New York City Police Department (NYPD), 37 members of the Port Authority Police Department (PAPD), five members of the New York State Office of Tax Enforcement (OTE), three officers of the New York State Office of Court Administration (OCA), one fire marshal of the New York City Fire Department (FDNY) who had sworn law enforcement powers (and was also among the 343 FDNY members killed), one member of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), one member of the New York Fire Patrol (FPNY), and one member of the United States Secret Service (USSS). This included a bomb-sniffing dog named Sirius, who was not included in the official death toll.
1,402 people died at or above the floors of impact in the North Tower. According to the Commission Report, hundreds were killed instantly by the impact while the remainder of the fatalities were trapped above the impact zone and died after the tower collapsed. Although a few people would subsequently be found alive in the rubble following the collapse of the towers, none of these individuals were from above the impact zone. An additional 24 people officially remain listed as missing[when?].
John P. O'Neill was a former assistant director of the FBI who assisted in the capture of 1993 World Trade Center bomber Ramzi Yousef and was the head of security at the World Trade Center when he was killed trying to rescue people from the North Tower. Cantor Fitzgerald L.P., an investment bank on the 101st–105th floors of One World Trade Center, lost 658 employees, considerably more than any other employer. Marsh Inc., located immediately below Cantor Fitzgerald on floors 93–100 (the location of Flight 11's impact), lost 295 employees and 63 consultants. Risk Waters, a business organization, was holding a conference in Windows on the World at the time, with 81 people in attendance.
614 people were killed at or above the floors of impact in the South Tower. Only 18 people are known to have managed to escape using staircase A before the South Tower collapsed; a further 11 people killed in the attacks are known to have been killed below the impact zone after United Airlines Flight 175 struck the South Tower. The 9/11 Commission notes that this fact strongly indicates that evacuation below the impact zones was a success, allowing most to safely evacuate before the collapse of the World Trade Center.
World Trade Center Hotel
There is no precise number of deaths that occurred within the hotel as many who sheltered in the hotel during and after the collapse of the South Tower were protected by the reinforced beams that had been installed by the Port Authority after the 1993 bombing. At least two hotel employees are believed to have died during the collapse as they were outside of the safe zone.
Deaths involving elevators
A USA Today report estimated that approximately 200 people perished inside the elevators, while only 21 escaped the elevators. Many elevators did not plunge, but were destroyed by the crash and subsequent fires, or were stranded in the shafts. A locking mechanism prevented escapees and rescuers, except on one elevator, from opening the doors on stranded elevators. One survivor recounted having to pry open a narrow gap between the doors of the elevator to escape by utilizing the stairs.
Deaths by jumping or falling
Before the Twin Towers collapsed, an estimated 200 people fell to their deaths from the burning towers, landing on the streets and rooftops of adjacent buildings hundreds of feet below at a speed of almost 150 miles per hour—sufficient to cause instantaneous death upon impact, but insufficient to cause unconsciousness throughout the actual fall. Most of those who fell from the World Trade Center had jumped from the North Tower. A secondary casualty was seen when a civilian landed on and killed a fireman near the intersection of West and Liberty streets, around 9:30 am.
To witnesses upon the ground, many of the people falling from the towers seemed to have deliberately jumped to their deaths, including the person whose photograph became known as the Falling Man. The NIST report officially describes the deaths of 104 jumpers but states that this figure likely understates the true number of those who died in this manner. The sight and sound of these individuals falling from the towers, then "smashing like eggs on the ground" horrified and traumatized many witnesses. The jumpers' death certificates state the cause of death as "blunt trauma" due to homicide. Some of the occupants of each tower above its point of impact made their way upward toward the roof in hope of helicopter rescue, only to find the roof access doors locked. Port Authority officers attempted to unlock the doors but control systems would not let them; in any case, thick smoke and intense heat would have prevented rescue helicopters from landing.
Contrary to some conspiracy theories about Jews being warned not to go to work that day, the number of Jews who died in the attacks is variously estimated at between 270 and 400, based on the last names of the dead.
List of the dead
The following list details the number of deaths reported by companies in business premises at the World Trade Center. The list includes WTC tenants (all buildings), vendors, visitors, independent emergency responders, and some hijacked passenger-related firms.
|Marsh & McLennan||North||93–100||295|
|Aon Corporation||South||92, 98–105||175|
|Fiduciary Trust International||South||90, 94–97||87|
|Windows on the World||North||106–107||72|
|Keefe, Bruyette & Woods||South||85, 88–89||67|
|Sandler O'Neill and Partners||South||104||66|
|Euro Brokers Inc.||South||84||61|
|New York State Department of Taxation and Finance||South||86–87||39|
|Port Authority of New York and New Jersey||North||3, 14, 19, 24, 28, 31, 34||37|
|Fred Alger Management||North||93||35|
|Forte Food Service||North||Cantor Fitzgerald||21|
|Risk Waters Group||North||Windows on the World||16|
|Washington Group International||South||91||12|
|Summit Security Services||Both||N/A||11|
|Morgan Stanley||Both||North: 59–74
South: 43–46, 56, 59–74
|Empire Blue Cross Blue Shield Association||North||27–28, 30–31||8|
|Observation Deck 107||7|
|Accenture||North||Windows on the World||6|
|Harvey Young Yurman Inc.||North||Windows on the World||6|
|Bronx Builders||North||Windows on the World||5|
|Forest Electric Corp.||North||Cantor Fitzgerald||5|
|Harris Beach LLP||South||85||5|
|OCS Security||Throughout Complex||N/A||5|
|Baseline Financial Services||South||77–78||4|
|Compaq||North||Windows on the World||4|
|Data Synapse||North||Windows on the World||4|
|International Office Centers||North||79||4|
|Merrill Lynch||North||Windows on the World||4|
|Zurich American Insurance||North: 2
|Bank of America||North||81||3|
|Bank of New York||N/A||Killed by falling debris||3|
|Bloomberg L.P.||North||Windows on the World||3|
|Callixa||North||Windows on the World||3|
|The Chuo Mitsui Trust and Banking Co.||South||83||3|
|Encompys||North||Windows on the World||3|
|IPC Kleinknecht Electric Co.||North||105||3|
|IQ Financial Systems||South||83||3|
|New York State Department of Transportation||North||82||3|
|Reinsurance Solutions Inc.||North||94||3|
|Structure Tone||North: 1
|Thomson Financial Services||North||Windows on the World||3|
|BP Air Conditioning||North||101||2|
|Certified Installation Services||South||105||2|
|Deutsche Bank||WTC 4||N/A||2|
|Fine Painting and Decorating||South||Observation Deck||2|
|First Commercial Bank||N/A||N/A||2|
|Franklin Templeton Investments||South||95||2|
|Imagine Software||North||Windows on the World||2|
|Studley, Inc.||North||86, 88||2|
|Kidder Peabody-Paine Webber||North||101||2|
|Marriott World Trade Center Hotel||N/A||N/A||2|
|Metropolitan Life Insurance||North||89||2|
|New York Presbyterian Hospital||N/A||N/A||2|
|Nomura Research Institute Ltd.||North||Windows on the World||2|
|Ohrenstein & Brown||North||85||2|
|One Source Networks (Hudson Shatz)||N/A||N/A||2|
|P.E. Stone Inc.||Both||North: 92
|Petrocelli Electric||N/A||Morgan Stanley Offices||2|
|Radianz||North||Windows on the World||2|
|Random Walk Computing||North||80||2|
|Reuters||North||Windows on the World||2|
|Rohde & Liesenfeld||North||20, 32–33||2|
|Slam Dunk Networks||North||101||2|
|Sybase||North||Above Impact Zone||2|
|UME Voice||North||Windows on the World||2|
|Zurich Scudder Investments||North||Windows on the World||2|
|Algorithmics Inc.||North||Windows on the World||1|
|American Stock Exchange||North||Windows on the World||1|
|ARC Partners||North||Windows on the World||1|
|Association of Independent Recruiters||North||79||1|
|BEA Systems||North||Windows on the World||1|
|BMO Nesbitt Burns||North||Cantor Fitzgerald||1|
|Boston Investor Services||North||Windows on the World||1|
|Cadwalader, Wickersham & Taft||North||Windows on the World||1|
|Cambridge Technology Partners||North||Windows on the World||1|
|Caplin Systems||North||Windows on the World||1|
|Chase Manhattan Bank||N/A||N/A||1|
|Civilian Complaint Review Board (Heart Attack)||N/A||N/A||1|
|Colonial Art Decorators||North||Windows on the World||1|
|Credit Suisse First Boston||North||Windows on the World||1|
|Cultural Institution of Retirement Systems||North||39||1|
|Deloitte Consulting||North||Marsh & McLennan||1|
|Federal Bureau of Investigation||N/A||N/A||1|
|Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation||North||Windows on the World||1|
|Fine & Schapiro restaurant||N/A||N/A||1|
|First Liberty Investment Group||North||79||1|
|Forest Hills Ambulance Corps||N/A||N/A||1|
|Frank W. Lin & Co.||North||89||1|
|G.M.P. Inc.||North||Cantor Fitzgerald||1|
|GoldTier Technologies||North||Windows on the World||1|
|Holland & Knight||N/A||N/A||1|
|Howard Hughes Medical Institute||N/A||N/A||1|
|Industrial Bank of Japan||North||Cantor Fitzgerald||1|
|Insurance Overload Systems||North||79||1|
|Internal Revenue Service||N/A||N/A||1|
|Janus Capital Group||North||Windows on the World||1|
|Jennison Associates||North||Windows on the World||1|
|LaBranche & Co.||South||28–30||1|
|Lanagan Engineering and Environmental Services||N/A||N/A||1|
|Lee Hecht Harrison||South||93||1|
|LG Insurance Co.||N/A||N/A||1|
|Liberty Electrical Supply Inc.||N/A||Basement||1|
|LION Bioscience AG||South||94||1|
|MAS Security||North||Windows on the World||1|
|May Davis Group||North||87||1|
|MoneyLine||North||Windows on the World||1|
|National Acoustics Inc.||North||103||1|
|Office Centers Corp.||North||79||1|
|Optus||North||Windows on the World||1|
|Pfizer Inc.||North||Windows on the World||1|
|Proven Electrical Contracting Inc.||N/A||N/A||1|
|QRS Corp.||Marriott World Trade Center||17||1|
|Rent-a-PC||North||Windows on the World||1|
|Risk Solutions International||North||Marsh & McLennan||1|
|Royal & SunAlliance||South||AON||1|
|Royston and Zamani||South||Fuji Bank||1|
|Seabury & Smith Co.||South||49||1|
|Sidley Austin Brown & Wood||North||54, 56–59||1|
|Siemens||N/A||Killed by falling debris||1|
|Signature Painting and Decorating||North||Cantor Fitzgerald||1|
|Singer Frumento LLP||South||104||1|
|Skidmore, Owings & Merrill||South||AON||1|
|Soundtone Floors Inc.||N/A||N/A||1|
|Sweeney and Heeking Carpentry||N/A||N/A||1|
|Syncorp||North||Marsh & McLennan||1|
|TCG Software||North||Windows on the World||1|
|Telekurs USA||North||Windows on the World||1|
|The Westfield Group||South||17||1|
|Top of the World Cafe||South||107, 110||1|
|UBS Warburg||North||Windows on the World||1|
|United Staffing||North||Cantor Fitzgerald||1|
|Vanderbilt Group Inc.||South||N/A||1|
|Vital Computer Services||North||Marsh & McLennan||1|
|World Trade Center||N/A||N/A||1|
|World Trade Center Project Renewal||N/A||N/A||1|
125 people working at the Pentagon were killed, most of whom worked for the United States Army or the United States Navy. Of those 125 deaths, 70 were civilians – 47 Army employees, six Army contractors, six Navy employees, three Navy contractors, seven Defense Intelligence Agency employees, and one Office of the Secretary of Defense contractor – and 55 were members of the United States Armed Forces – 33 Navy sailors and 22 Army soldiers. Lieutenant General Timothy Maude, an Army Deputy Chief of Staff, was the highest-ranking military official killed at the Pentagon.
Aboard the four planes
265 fatalities aboard the 4 planes include 87 civilians (including 11 crew members) and the five hijackers aboard American Airlines Flight 11; 60 civilians (including 9 crew members) and the five hijackers aboard United Airlines Flight 175; 59 passengers (including 6 crew members) and the five hijackers aboard American Airlines Flight 77; and 39 civilians (including 7 crew members), a U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service officer, and the four hijackers aboard United Airlines Flight 93. The dead included eight children: five on American Airlines Flight 77, aged 3 to 11, and three on United Airlines Flight 175, aged 2, 3, and 4. The youngest victim was a two-and-a-half-year-old child on Flight 175 and the oldest was an 85-year-old passenger on Flight 11.
Among those killed were television producer David Angell, who co-created the sitcom Frasier, and actress Berry Berenson, both passengers on Flight 11. Barbara Olson, television political commentator and the wife of then-U.S. Solicitor General Theodore Olson, was aboard Flight 77.
Excluding the 19 perpetrators, people from 77 different countries died, representing more than 12% of the total number of deaths in the attacks, almost half of whom were British, Dominican, Indian, or South Korean. The British Overseas Territory of Bermuda had the highest number of deaths per capita in the World Trade Center attack. Without accounting for some cases of dual citizenship, here is a list of their nationalities:
After the attacks
During the attacks and afterwards there was a large amount of toxic dust, debris and ash that was centralized around Ground Zero and created long term health problems. Toxic materials such as asbestos, lead, and mercury were in the air and the debris and many victims and first responders did not wear respirators.
It was reported in 2018 that at least 15 FBI agents had died from cancer due to their roles in the aftermath and investigation of the attack. Further, a medical director of the World Trade Center Health Program at Mount Sinai Hospital reported in 2018 that out of the approximately 10,000 first responders and others who were at Ground Zero and have developed cancer as a result, more than 2,000 have died due to 9/11 related illnesses. The Uniformed Firefighters Association of Greater New York also reported over 170 deaths of firefighters due to 9/11-related illnesses, and that roughly 1 in 8 firefighters who were at Ground Zero have developed cancer. At least 221 policemen have died in the years since 2001 from illnesses related to the attacks in New York City.
Identifications through DNA can be made by comparing the DNA profile of reference samples with those found in the human remains, through obtaining samples from personal items (toothbrush/hairbrush), banked biological samples, relatives, or other identified remains. The extreme heat, pressures and contamination from the collapse of the buildings has caused some of the DNA to become degraded and unusable. Samples were also degraded because some body fragments remained in the rubble for 8 to 10 months. In response to this, the medical examiner's office and other scientific groups created new techniques to process the bone fragments. The Associated Press reported that the medical examiner's office possesses "about 10,000 unidentified bone and tissue fragments that cannot be matched to the list of the dead". Bone fragments were still being found in 2006 as workers prepared the damaged Deutsche Bank Building for demolition.
In order to extract the DNA, medical examiners pulverize the fragments, and compare the extracted DNA to the collection of genetic material from victims and/or their relatives, with scientists revisiting bone fragments multiple times in an attempt to identify the victims. Other issues with identification is seen with those who either fell, or jumped from the top floors of the towers, as many are unsure about the identity of those who did die in this manner, or how many died in this manner.
As of September 11, 2012[update], a total of 2,753 death certificates had been filed relating to the attacks. Of these, 1,588 (58%) were forensically identified from recovered physical remains.
On April 17, 2013, five possible remains were recovered after being sifted at Fresh Kills Landfill on Staten Island. The medical examiner said evidence of a possible victim of the attacks was recovered as well two days later. On June 21, 2013, the medical examiner's office matched its 1,637th victim, a 43-year-old woman, to its list of victims as a result of DNA testing of debris collected from the site. By family request, her name was not released. On July 5, 2013, the medical examiner's office identified the remains of FDNY firefighter Lt. Jeffrey P. Walz, 37, after they were retested. His remains were recovered months after the attack and is now the 1,638th victim forensically identified.
On August 7, 2017, the medical examiner's office matched its 1,641st victim. The victim was identified through retesting of DNA from remains recovered in 2001. In 2017 it was reported that only 1,641 victims, or just under 60%, have identified remains.
On July 25, 2018, the medical examiner's office matched its 1,642nd victim. The victim, 26-year-old Scott Michael Johnson, was identified through the retesting of DNA from remains recovered in 2001.
- Alicia Esteve Head, supposed survivor of the attacks who was later revealed to be a fraud
- Health effects arising from the September 11 attacks
- Henryk Siwiak homicide – aside from the terrorist attacks, the only homicide recorded in New York City for September 11, 2001
- September 11th Families for Peaceful Tomorrows
- World Trade Center Health Program
- List of deaths on September 11, 2001
- "Nine facts about terrorism in the United States since 9/11". The Washington Post. September 11, 2013. Retrieved November 26, 2015.
- "September 11th Fast Facts". CNN. March 27, 2015. Retrieved May 14, 2015.
- "Accused 9/11 plotter Khalid Sheikh Mohammed faces New York trial". Cable News Network. November 13, 2009. Retrieved August 29, 2010.
- "First video of Pentagon 9/11 attack released". Cable News Network. May 16, 2006. Retrieved September 10, 2006.
- Matthew J. Morgan (August 4, 2009). The Impact of 9/11 on Politics and War: The Day that Changed Everything?. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 222. ISBN 0-230-60763-2.
- "September 11 Memorial" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on April 12, 2019. Retrieved April 9, 2015.
- "Richard J. Guadagno". nps.gov.
- Stone, Andrea (August 20, 2002). "Military's aid and comfort ease 9/11 survivors' burden". USA Today. Retrieved September 2, 2011.
- Walker, Carolee (September 11, 2006). "Five-Year 9/11 Remembrance Honors Victims from 90 Countries". United States Department of State. Archived from the original on May 16, 2008. Retrieved May 18, 2008.
- Dunlap, David W. (July 10, 2008). "The Toll From 9/11 Grows Again, to 2,751". New York Times. Retrieved May 14, 2015.
- DePalma, Anthony (May 24, 2007). "For, the First Time, New York Links a Death to 9/11 Dust". The New York Times.
- Foderaro, Lisa W. (September 2009). "9/11's Litany of Loss, Joined by Another Name". New York Times. Retrieved September 12, 2009.
- Hartocollis, Anemona (June 18, 2011). "New Death Is Added To the Toll From 9/11". New York Times. Retrieved September 11, 2011.
- Evans, Heidi (September 8, 2013). "1,140 WTC 9/11 responders have cancer – and doctors say that number will grow". New York Daily News. New York: Daily News, L.P. Archived from the original on September 11, 2013. Retrieved September 11, 2013.
- "The death toll from 9/11 continues to rise". Retrieved September 24, 2014.
- "9/11 memorial honors unborn babies". Newsday. Retrieved September 24, 2014.
- "Crime in the United States 2001" (PDF). Federal Bureau of Investigation. October 28, 2002. p. 2. Retrieved September 12, 2018.
- Hanrahan, Mark (September 8, 2011). "Henryk Siwiak, Shot To Death On September 11th: Case Remains Unsolved". Huffington Post. Retrieved September 6, 2016.
- Dwyer, Jim. "9/11 Tape Has Late Change On Evacuation". Retrieved September 11, 2018.
- "How the Design of the World Trade Center Claimed Lives on 9/11". HISTORY. Retrieved September 13, 2018.
- Averill, Jason D.; et al. (2005). "Occupant Behavior, Egress, and Emergency Communications". Final Reports of the Federal Building and Fire Investigation of the World Trade Center Disaster (PDF). National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Archived from the original (PDF) on July 14, 2009.
- Dwyer, Jim and Kevin Flynn (2005). 102 Minutes. Times Books. p. 266.
- Glendinning, Lee (September 9, 2008). "9/11 survivors put off evacuation to shut down computers, study finds". the Guardian. Retrieved September 11, 2018.
- Times, The New York. "Fighting to Live as the Towers Died". Retrieved September 18, 2018.
- Times, The New York. "Accounts From the North Tower". Retrieved September 13, 2018.
- "2 friends exit World Trade Center on 9/11 via survivors' stairs". palmbeachpost. Retrieved September 13, 2018.
- "1st FDNY battalion chief to enter the north tower on 9/11 is retiring". ABC News. July 12, 2018. Retrieved September 13, 2018.
- "Preliminary Results from the World Trade Center Evacuation Study – New York City, 2003".
- Vulliamy, Ed (September 16, 2001). "Anger of survivors told to stay inside blazing towers". the Guardian. Retrieved September 11, 2018.
- "9/11 Survivors Reflect on Their Miraculous Escape from the South Tower 16 Years Later: 'We'll Be Brothers for Life'". PEOPLE.com. Retrieved September 18, 2018.
- Dwyer, Jim and Flynn, Kevin, 102 Minutes: p. 23
- "On 9/11, Delaware company got all its workers out of Tower 2". delawareonline. Retrieved September 11, 2018.
- Clark, Brian (April 30, 2002). "A Twin Towers' Survivor Story". www.pbs.org. Retrieved September 8, 2019.
- "=Welles Crowther - Boston College". www.bc.edu. Retrieved September 18, 2018.
- "Five Who Survived". Newsweek. September 8, 2002. Retrieved July 8, 2019.
- "Accounts from the South Tower". The New York Times. May 26, 2002. Retrieved July 8, 2019.
- Dwyer, Jim; Fessenden, Ford (September 11, 2002). "One Hotel's Fight to the Finish; At the Marriott, a Portal to Safety as the Towers Fell". Retrieved June 2, 2019.
- Lupin, Michael (September 10, 2013). "9/11 Survivor Recalls Escaping Collapsing Marriott Center". VOA. Retrieved June 2, 2019.
- "A Year Later, Downtown NY Remembers 9/11". Hotel Business. September 11, 2002. Retrieved June 2, 2019.
- Kendra, James M; Wachtendorf, Tricia (2016). American Dunkirk: The Waterborne Evacuation of Manhattan on 9/11. Temple University: Temple University Press. ISBN 978-1439908211.
- "Study focuses on 9/11 evacuation of Manhattan by water". www1.udel.edu. Retrieved September 18, 2018.
- National Commission on Terrorist Attacks (July 22, 2004). The 9/11 Commission Report (first ed.). W. W. Norton & Company. p. 294. ISBN 0-393-32671-3.
- Donnelly, Laura (September 8, 2012). "9/11 survivor tells how he 'surfed' 15 floors down the collapsing tower". ISSN 0307-1235. Retrieved September 18, 2018.
- "FACT CHECK: Man at WTC Survives Fall". Snopes.com. Retrieved September 18, 2018.
- Dwyer, Jim; Lipton, Eric; Fessenden, Ford (May 26, 2002). "Accounts From the South Tower; Transcripts of Interviews". The New York Times. Retrieved September 8, 2019.
- Walters, Joanna. "9/11: 'I was the last person pulled alive from the rubble of the Twin Towers'". www.express.co.uk. Retrieved September 22, 2015.
- Langton, James. "Twin tower victims 'buried alive'". www.standard.co.uk. Retrieved September 22, 2015.
- Cauchon, Dennis; Moore, Martha. "Miracles emerge from debris". www.USATODAY.com. USA TODAY. Retrieved September 22, 2015.
- "Frozen in Time: Wristwatch Tells Tale of Survival". National September 11 Memorial & Museum. Retrieved September 18, 2018.
- Liss, Rebecca (September 11, 2015). "An Unlikely Hero". Slate. ISSN 1091-2339. Retrieved September 18, 2018.
- "9/11 Health Crisis Fact Sheet: The 9/11 Health Crisis, 911 Health Now" (PDF). September 28, 2008. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 4, 2017.
- Reporter, Michael McAuliff Senior Congressional; Post, The Huffington (December 23, 2015). "Why Jon Stewart Fought So Hard For 9/11 Responders". The Huffington Post. Retrieved February 7, 2017.
- Nast, Condé. "Watch Jon Stewart Shred Congress Over Lack of Health Care for 9/11 First Responders". Vanity Fair. Retrieved July 26, 2019.
- "September 11 by the Numbers". New York. September 5, 2002. Archived from the original on September 1, 2006. Retrieved September 10, 2006.
- "Deadliest Days in Law Enforcement History". National Law Enforcement Memorial Fund. Archived from the original on July 8, 2016. Retrieved April 17, 2015.
- NIST NCSTAR1-8
- "WTC Police Dog Remembered". CBS News. February 11, 2009. Retrieved December 25, 2012.
- Beveridge, Andrew. "9/11/01-02: A Demographic Portrait Of The Victims In 10048". Gotham Gazette.
- "Victims of the World Trade Center attack, listed by age". Lewis Mumford Center for comparative urban and regional research. Retrieved September 11, 2006.
- USA Today: People killed in plane attacks. September 25, 2011.
- "Heroism and Honor". National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States. U.S. Congress. August 21, 2004. Archived from the original on August 15, 2007. Retrieved September 8, 2006.
- "24 Remain Missing". September 11 Victims. August 12, 2006. Archived from the original on August 22, 2006. Retrieved September 7, 2006.
- "FBI terrorist fighter's body found at WTC". Cable News Network. September 22, 2002. Retrieved April 16, 2007.
- "Marsh & McLennan Companies 9/11 Memorial". Retrieved September 7, 2011.
- "Milestones of Marsh & McLennan Companies". Retrieved September 7, 2011.
- Citizens of the World, on Time for a Meeting in Harm's Way, The New York Times, September 11, 2001
- Field, Peter, Remembering September 11 The Day I'll Never Forget Archived April 10, 2008, at the Wayback Machine, Risk Waters website
- 9/11 Commission. "Chapter 9". 9/11 Commission Report. Government Printing Office. Archived from the original on August 15, 2007.
- Cauchon, Dennis; Moore, Martha T. (September 4, 2002). "Elevators were disaster within disaster". USA Today. Retrieved October 27, 2018.
- "Five Who Survived". Newsweek. September 8, 2002. Retrieved September 18, 2018.
- "USATODAY.com – Desperation forced a horrific decision". usatoday.com.
- Cauchon, Dennis and Martha Moore (September 2, 2002). "Desperation forced a horrific decision". USATODAY. Retrieved September 9, 2006.
- Smith, David James (September 10, 2011). "Twin Towers jumpers that Americans will not talk about". Daily Nation. Nairobi, Kenya. Archived from the original on September 12, 2011. Retrieved September 13, 2011.
- "Poor Info Hindered 9/11 Rescue". CBS News. May 18, 2004. Retrieved September 11, 2006.
- "The 4,000 Jews Rumor: Rumor surrounding Sept. 11th proved untrue. Internet Archive – which appeared in the September 12 internet edition of the "Jerusalem Post". It stated, "The Foreign Ministry in Jerusalem has so far received the names of 4,000 Israelis believed to have been in the areas of the World Trade Center and the Pentagon at the time of the attacks."". Web.archive.org. Archived from the original on April 8, 2005. Retrieved October 15, 2010.
- The Mitzvah To Remember (09/05/2002) Gary Rosenblatt, August 3, 2007 Archived May 6, 2006, at the Wayback Machine
- A survey of the 1,700 victims whose religion was listed found approximately 10% were Jewish indicating around 270 in total. A survey based on the last names of victims found that around 400 (15 1⁄2%) were possibly Jewish. A survey of 390 Cantor Fitzgerald employees who had public memorials (out of the 658 who died) found 49 were Jewish (12 1⁄2%). According to the 2002 American Jewish Year Book, New York State's population was 9% Jewish. Sixty-four per cent of the WTC victims lived in New York State.
- "The Resuscitation of Anti-Semitism: An American Perspective: An Interview with Abraham Foxman". Jcpa.org. Archived from the original on June 8, 2011. Retrieved May 30, 2011.
- September 11: One Year After. The Boston Globe; September 11, 2002.
- "National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States". U.S. Congress. August 21, 2004. Retrieved September 8, 2006.
- Goldberg et al., pp. 208–212.
- "September 11, 2001 Pentagon Victims". patriotresource.com.
- "Remembering the Lost". Timothy J. Maude, Lieutenant General, United States Army. Arlington National Cemetery. September 22, 2001. Retrieved April 16, 2001.
- "September 11: Chronology of terror". Cable News Network. September 12, 2001. Retrieved January 23, 2015.
- "A Place of Remembrance". National Geographic. Archived from the original on October 12, 2011. Retrieved September 5, 2011.
- Richard Jerry Guadagno, National Law Enforcement Officers Memorial
- "Staff Monograph on the Four Flights and Civil Aviation Security" (PDF). National Archives and Records Administration. September 2005. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 12, 2014. Retrieved September 5, 2011.
- Flight 93 Memorial Effort Gains Over 900 Acres, The New York Times, March 19, 2008
- American Flight 77 victims at a glance., USA Today, September 25, 2011.
- USA Today: United Flight 175 victims at a glance. September 25, 2011.
- Susman, Tina (September 11, 2011). "At Sept. 11 sites, a powerful day of remembrance". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved March 27, 2012.
- "US terrorism victims". The Guardian. Retrieved September 12, 2013.
- "American Airlines Flight 11 – Victims". CNN. Archived from the original on May 16, 2008. Retrieved June 6, 2008.
- "Wife of Solicitor General alerted him of hijacking from plane". CNN. September 12, 2001.
- Office of International Information Programs (August 2, 2007). "A list of the 77 countries whose citizens died as a result of the attacks on September 11, 2001". Washington, D.C.: United States Department of State. Archived from the original on October 6, 2007. Retrieved May 28, 2011.
- (in Spanish) 11-S: A cinco años. Las familias de los argentinos aún buscan respuestas, Clarín 9 de septiembre de 2006
- Sutton, Ron (September 8, 2011). "September 11: The Australian stories". SBS. Australia: Special Broadcasting Service. Archived from the original on April 26, 2014. Retrieved April 26, 2014.
- Salam, M. Tawsif (September 11, 2009). "Tribute: The Bangladeshis Killed in 9/11". The Writer's Club. WordPress. Archived from the original on November 26, 2009. Retrieved November 26, 2009.
- Belarusian embassy Archived October 10, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
- "Overblijfselen enige Belgische slachtoffer 9/11 nog steeds niet gevonden". HLN.
- "U.S. Consul Lays Wreath at 9/11 Memorial". BerNews. September 11, 2011. Retrieved September 12, 2011.
- "Lembranças de dor e perplexidade: Emoção marca cerimônia pelos mortos em 11 de setembro". Jornal do Brasil (in Portuguese). September 11, 2003. Archived from the original on September 19, 2003. Retrieved September 19, 2003.
Dentre eles, os de três brasileiros: Anne Marie Sallerin Ferreira, Sandra Fajardo Smith e Ivan Kyrillos Barbosa
- "List of the Canadian victims of 9/11". cnews.canoe.ca. Archived from the original on July 10, 2012. Retrieved June 2, 2011.
- "Canadians who died in the September 11, 2001 Disaster". members.shaw.ca.
- Atkins, Stephen E. (2011). "International Reactions to September 11". The 9/11 Encyclopedia: Second Edition. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO, LLC. p. 248. ISBN 978-1-59884-921-9. Retrieved April 26, 2014.
Although the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001, targeted the United States, many other countries throughout the world were also affected. In addition to the 2,657 Americans killed, 316 foreign nationals from 84 different countries also died in the attacks, including 67 Britons, 28 South Koreans, 26 Japanese, and 25 Canadians. The shock and horror engendered by the attacks were truly international in scope.
- Fenlon, Brodie (September 6, 2011). "The Canadians Who Died In 9/11: List Of Victims Of The September 11 Terrorist Attacks". The Huffington Post: Canada. The Huffington Post, Inc. Archived from the original on September 26, 2011. Retrieved September 26, 2011.
- "Highest percentage of Hispanics killed in 9 /11 were Dominican". Dominican Today. Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic: The Dominican Republic News Source. September 10, 2009. Archived from the original on September 17, 2009. Retrieved September 17, 2009.
- "Forty-Seven Dominicans to be Honored at National 9/11 Memorial". HS-News.com. Archived from the original on March 29, 2012. Retrieved September 10, 2011.
- "Ethiopia -Two Ethiopians among those killed on September 11". September 11, 2008.
- "Quatre Français ont péri dans le World Trade Center ce jour-là". Retrieved July 7, 2013.
- Rajendran, P. (September 14, 2006). "41 victims from India in 9/11". The Rediff Special. India Limited. Archived from the original on February 29, 2008. Retrieved February 29, 2008.
- The New York Times (June 2, 2002). "Eric Hartono: Modest Go-Getter". The New York Times. New York City, New York: The New York Times Company. Archived from the original on April 3, 2009. Retrieved April 3, 2009.
- "RTÉ News Interactive: US under siege". rte.ie. Archived from the original on January 15, 2002.
- "Ireland remembers their victims of 9/11 in nationwide ceremonies". IrishCentral.com. September 12, 2011.
- Cashman, Greer Fay (September 12, 2002). "Five Israeli victims remembered in capital". The Jerusalem Post. The Jerusalem Post. p. 3. Archived from the original on November 4, 2002. Retrieved October 17, 2006.
- (in Italian) Consulate General of the United States in Milan, Italy Archived October 30, 2008, at the Wayback Machine Opening of the World Trade Center Memorial in Padua, Italy
- Aldern, Natalie (September 9, 2011). "Remembering the Italian Victims of 9/11". ITALY Magazine.
- Long, Lolita (September 20, 2001). "20 Jamaican victims: 3 dead, 17 missing". The Jamaica Gleaner. Gleaner Company Ltd. Archived from the original on October 4, 2001. Retrieved December 1, 2001.
- Kyodo News International, Inc. (September 14, 2004). "Father of 9/11 victim asks Japanese to reflect on terrorism". Japan Policy & Politics. Kyodo News International, Inc. Archived from the original on July 10, 2012. Retrieved April 30, 2014.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
- Jumana Heresh (October 2, 2001). "Doany family schedules memorial service for son Ramzi". jordanembassyus.org. Archived from the original on June 5, 2011. Retrieved June 2, 2011.
- Marsh & McLennan Companies (September 11, 2002). "Tribute Page for Ramzi Doany". Remembering Our Colleagues. Marsh & McLennan Companies, Inc. Archived from the original on May 15, 2003. Retrieved May 15, 2003.
- "Family organizes memorial service for Elias Telhami, WTC victim". jordanembassyus.org. October 4, 2001. Archived from the original on June 5, 2011. Retrieved June 2, 2011.
- Yoga, S.S. (September 11, 2011). "Never forgotten". The Star Online. Malaysia: Star Publications Berhad. Archived from the original on February 21, 2013. Retrieved April 30, 2014.
- Stone, Andrew (September 10, 2011). "Fallout from September 11 still drifting over us". The New Zealand Herald. New Zealand: APN New Zealand Limited. Archived from the original on April 28, 2014. Retrieved April 27, 2014.
On a clear blue morning 10 years ago the world shifted gear. Terrorists flew aircraft into talismanic American buildings, taking nearly 3000 lives. The victims included two New Zealanders. One was an American who had become a New Zealand citizen, the other a New Zealander who had moved to the United States.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
- Eriksen, Alanah (September 11, 2009). "NZ victim of 9/11 has place in memorial". The New Zealand Herald. New Zealand: APN New Zealand Limited. Archived from the original on April 28, 2014. Retrieved April 27, 2014.
A September 11 memorial will include childhood details of the only New Zealander killed in the attacks, thanks to a chance meeting between a Californian flight attendant and a group from Invercargill. Alan Beaven, a 48-year-old environment lawyer, died eight years ago today on United Airlines Flight 93.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
- "Remembering the Muslims who were killed in the 9/11 attacks". Newsweek magazine. September 11, 2011. Archived from the original on August 20, 2015. Retrieved August 11, 2015.
- KBK (September 13, 2014). "US Embassy remembers 16 Pinoys killed in 9/11 attacks". GMA News. GMA Network, Inc. Archived from the original on April 30, 2014. Retrieved April 30, 2014.
- FilipinoHome (September 11, 2011). "Remembering the 9/11 Filipino American victims". FilipinoHome. WordPress. Archived from the original on April 30, 2014. Retrieved April 30, 2014.
- (in Portuguese) Obituaries in Visão magazine, issue 446, September 20, 2001
- (in Romanian) "Patru români, victime ale atentatelor de la 11 septembrie 2001", A1.ro
- Lee, Aruna (September 5, 2011). "Ten Years After 9/11: Korean Families Still Hurting". New America Media. San Francisco, California: Pacific News Service. Archived from the original on November 8, 2011. Retrieved November 8, 2011.
- (in Spanish) Las víctimas españolas del 11-S, El País 1 de septiembre de 2002
- "U.S. Embassy Honours September 11 Victims". Daily Mirror. September 11, 2011.
- "Hans son omkom i attacken mot WTC". Sveriges Television. Retrieved August 25, 2016.
- Högström, Erik. "Svenske David Tengelin dog på 100:e våningen". Expressen. Retrieved August 25, 2016.
- Mark Beaumont, BayBytes. "British Memorial Garden, New York". Britishmemorialgarden.org. Retrieved June 2, 2011. The tally 68 in the source includes two fatality from Bermuda
- British and Irish nationals, The Guardian
- Walters, Joanna (September 10, 2016). "Former EPA head admits she was wrong to tell New Yorkers post-9/11 air was safe". the Guardian. Retrieved September 12, 2018.
- "FBI employees grapple with 9/11-related illnesses, deaths". NBC News. Retrieved September 12, 2018.
- "Deaths From 9/11 Illnesses Will Outnumber Those Lost". AM 600 WMT – NewsRadio. Retrieved September 12, 2018.
- Hughes, Roland (March 25, 2018). "Obituary: The 9/11 rescuers who died a day apart". BBC News. Retrieved September 12, 2018.
- Ritter, Nancy. "Identifying Remains: Lessons Learned From 9/11" (PDF). National Institute of Justice Journal. 256: 20–26.
- "DNA advances enhance IDs of 9/11 victims". Newsday. Retrieved September 11, 2018.
- "Massive DNA effort to name 1121 unknown dead of 9/11". New Scientist. Retrieved September 11, 2018.
- "Ground Zero Forensic Work Ends". CBS News. February 23, 2005. Retrieved September 8, 2006.
- "Bone fragments are found". xtimeline. Archived from the original on June 24, 2013. Retrieved June 22, 2013.
- "9/11 Victim's Remains Identified Nearly 16 Years Later". Forensic Magazine. August 8, 2017. Retrieved September 11, 2018.
- "We choose not to forget". tnonline.com. Retrieved June 22, 2013.
- "Identification of 9/11 remains comes to an end". Cable News Network. February 23, 2005. Retrieved February 23, 2005.
- Moore, Martha T. (February 24, 2005). "NYC's work to ID 9/11 victims ends – for now". USA Today. Retrieved February 23, 2005.
- "More Potential Human Remains Identified In WTC Sifting". NY1. Archived from the original on May 12, 2013. Retrieved April 20, 2013.
- "ME's Office: Victim Of September 11th Attacks Identified By ID Testing Of Remains". NY1. Archived from the original on June 24, 2013. Retrieved June 22, 2013.
- "12 years later: Remains of firefighter killed in 9/11 attacks identified". CNN. July 6, 2013. Retrieved July 6, 2013.
- "New World Trade Center victim identified, city ME says". Newsday. August 7, 2017.
- "Keeping Its Promise to Families, New York Identifies Another 9/11 Victim". New York Times. July 30, 2018.
- "The Injured: A Fireball, a Prayer to Die, Then a Hard Battle to Live". The New York Times. October 17, 2001.
- "The Battery Is Down, All Right, and Crippled". The New York Times. October 3, 2001.
- "THE MOURNER: In a Landscape of Sadness, Offering Just Her Presence". The New York Times. October 1, 2001. The story of Carol O'Neill, wife of a founder of Sandler O'Neill, which lost 67 of 180 employees.
- "THE TRADE CENTER: The Evacuation That Kept a Horrible Toll From Climbing Higher". The New York Times. September 21, 2001.
- "190 Feared Dead at the Pentagon". The NY Times. AP.
- "Hopes Are Raised, and Dashed, About Rescue of Firefighters". The New York Times. September 13, 2011.
- Inside the Twin Towers. Discovery Channel. Archived from the original on September 17, 2008.
- "Collateral Damage, The forgotten Muslim victims of September 11, 2001". The Independent. October 11, 2001.
- Fussman, Cal (September 11, 2017). "Story Building Come Down on My Head. An unforgettable story of survival and rebirth on the anniversary of 9/11". Medium.
- "Victims-World Trade Center". 9-11heroes.us. Full list of WTC attacks victims.
- "Memorial page dedicated to FDNY Firefighters lost on 9/11". NYFD.com.
- "US Senate passes bill allowing 9/11 victims to sue Saudi Arabia". abna24.com. May 18, 2016.