Casualties of the September 11 attacks
|This article needs additional citations for verification. (September 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)|
During the September 11 attacks in 2001, 2,996 people were killed and more than 6,000 others wounded. These immediate deaths included 265 on the four planes, 2,606 in the World Trade Center and in the surrounding area, and 125 at the Pentagon. The attacks of September 11, 2001, were the deadliest terrorist act in world history and the most devastating foreign attack on American soil since the attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941.
Most of those who perished were civilians except for 343 firefighters and 71 law enforcement officers who died in the World Trade Center and on the ground in New York City, one law enforcement officer who died when United Airlines Flight 93 crashed into a field near Shanksville, Pennsylvania, 55 military personnel who died at the Pentagon in Arlington County, Virginia, and the 19 terrorists who died on board the four aircraft. Overall, 2,605 U.S. citizens, including 2,135 civilians, died in the attacks, while an additional 372 non-U.S. citizens (excluding the 19 perpetrators) also perished, which represented about 12% of the total. More than 90 countries lost citizens in the attacks, including the United Kingdom (67 deaths), the Dominican Republic (47 deaths), and India (41 deaths).
During the initial attacks, 2,974 victims were confirmed to have died; this includes Sneha Anne Philip, a doctor, who in 2008 was ruled to have died on 9/11. However, in 2007, the New York City medical examiner's office began to add people who died of illnesses caused by exposure to dust from the site to the official death toll. The first such victim was a woman, a civil rights lawyer, who had died from a chronic lung condition in February 2002. In September 2009, the office added a man who died in October 2008, and in 2011, a male accountant who had died in December 2010. This raises the number of victims at the World Trade Center site to 2,753, and the overall 9/11 victim death toll to 2,977.
As of August 2013[update], medical authorities concluded that 1,140 people who worked, lived, or studied in Lower Manhattan at the time of the attack have been diagnosed with cancer as a result of "exposure to toxins at Ground Zero". It has been reported that over 1,400 9/11 rescue workers who responded to the scene in the days and months after the attacks have since died. At least ten pregnancies were lost as a result of 9/11.
|This section needs additional citations for verification. (September 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)|
At the time of the attacks, media reports suggested that tens of thousands might have been killed, as on any given day upwards of 100,000 people could be inside the towers. Estimates of the number of people in the Twin Towers when attacked on Tuesday, September 11, 2001, range between 14,000 and 19,000. The National Institute of Standards and Technology estimated that approximately 17,400 civilians were in the World Trade Center complex at the time of the attacks. Turnstile counts from the Port Authority indicate that the number of people typically in the Twin Towers by 10:30 am was 14,154.
In the moments after Flight 11 struck the North Tower, the roughly 8,000 people on the floors below the point of impact (the 93rd to 99th floors) were faced with a harrowing scenario. The towers of the World Trade Center complex had not been designed to facilitate a mass evacuation of everybody in the buildings, and in each tower there were only three narrow stairwells descending to the ground level. Many people began to evacuate via the stairs on their own, while others chose to wait for instructions from the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey. Another hindrance to the evacuation of the World Trade Center was that as the planes struck, the force of the impact caused the buildings to shift enough to jam doors in their frames, trapping dozens of people throughout the building, mostly on the floors closer to the impact zone. As evacuees descended down the staircases in the North Tower, they were directed to descend to the concourse level beneath the World Trade Center complex, where the mall was located.
Within moments of Flight 11's impact, the Port Authority issued a complete evacuation of the North Tower. Meanwhile, in the South Tower, many people saw what had happened in the North Tower and chose to evacuate as a precaution. However, the major hindrance to this process was that for the seventeen minutes between the impacts of Flight 11 and Flight 175, it had not yet been determined that a terrorist attack was unfolding, and as a result the Port Authority in the South Tower spread the word via the building's intercom system and security guards for workers in the South Tower to remain in their offices.
This was done in order to avoid overcrowding on the plaza and concourse levels, which was feared would slow the evacuation and rescue operations in the North Tower. Regardless, thousands of people continued to evacuate the South Tower anyway. For example, in the uppermost section of the South Tower between the 78th Floor Sky Lobby and the Observation Deck on the 107th and 110th Floors, there were an estimated 2,000 employees on those floors, including 1,100 on the floors occupied by AON Insurance, those being the 92nd, and 98th-105th. One of AON's executives, Eric Eisenberg, initiated the evacuation of their floors within moments of the impact of Flight 11.
A similar evacuation was carried out on the floors occupied by Fiduciary Trust, on the 90th, 94th-97th floors, as well as in the offices of Fuji Bank (on floors 79-82) and Euro Brokers on floor 84, which occupied the floors directly above the 78th Floor Sky Lobby. Executives such as Eisenberg instructed their employees to take the stairs down to the 78th floor Sky Lobby, where they could take an express elevator to the ground level and exit the building. Within a window of roughly 17 minutes, between 8:46 AM and 9:03 AM, an estimated 1,400 people successfully evacuated the upper floors of the South Tower, while roughly 600 people did not. At the moment of the impact of Flight 175, an estimated 200 people had packed into the Sky Lobby on the 78th Floor and were waiting for the express elevators. Almost all of these people then died, as the lobby was in the lower section of Flight 175's impact zone.
Once both towers had been struck, the order to evacuate the North Tower quickly spread to encompass not only the entire World Trade Center complex, but most high rise buildings in Lower Manhattan and surrounding areas as well. The evacuation of employees from the North and South towers continued past the plaza and through the concourse. Evacuees from the North Tower were directed across the full length of the concourse to 5 World Trade Center, from where they exited the complex onto Church Street. Evacuees from the South Tower were provided with a separate route in order to deter congestion, with theirs leading them to 4 World Trade Center and exiting onto Liberty Street.
Only 14 people escaped from the impact zone of the South Tower (floors 77 to 85) after it was struck by United Airlines Flight 175, and only four people from the floors above it. Individuals escaped from the South Tower as high up as the 84th floor using stairwell A in the northwest corner, the only stairwell left intact after the impact. Investigators believe that stairwell A remained passable until the South Tower collapsed at 9:59 am. Because of communication difficulties between 911 operators and FDNY and NYPD responders, most of them were unaware that stairwell A was passable and instructed survivors above the impact zone to wait for assistance by rescue personnel.
After the towers collapsed, only 23 individuals in or below the towers escaped from the debris, including 15 rescue workers. The last survivor removed from the WTC collapse debris was found in the ruins of the North Tower 27 hours after its collapse. An unknown number of other people survived the initial collapse, but were buried in air pockets deep beneath the rubble and could not be rescued in time. A total of over 33,000 police officers, firefighter, responders and community members have been treated for injuries and sickness related to the 9/11 attacks in New York City, including respiratory conditions, mental health problems like PTST and depression, gastrointestinal conditions, and at least 4,166 cases of cancer; more cops have died of illness linked to the attack than had perished in it. Researchers Dr. Jim Dahl and Dr. Kathy Falk published a study on the recovery of survivors from toxicity and its effects using traditional medicine in comparison to herbal supplements of Dr. Pankaj Naram. Talk show host Jon Stewart and others succeed in pushing for a law passed by congress in 2015 that permanently extends health care benefits for the responders and adds five years to the victims' compensation program.
World Trade Center
2,606 people who were in the World Trade Center and on the ground perished in the attacks on and the subsequent collapse of the towers. This figure consisted of 2,192 civilians (including eight EMTs and paramedics from private hospital units); 343 members of the New York City Fire Department (FDNY); and 71 law enforcement officers including 23 members of the New York City Police Department (NYPD), 37 members of the Port Authority Police Department (PAPD), five members of the New York State Office of Tax Enforcement (OTE), three officers of the New York State Office of Court Administration (OCA), one fire marshal of the New York City Fire Department (FDNY) who have sworn law enforcement powers (and was also among the 343 FDNY members killed), one member of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), and one member of the United States Secret Service (USSS).
1,402 people died at or above the floors of impact in the North Tower. According to the Commission Report, hundreds were killed instantly by the impact while the remainder of the fatalities were trapped above the impact zone and died after the tower collapsed. Although a few people would subsequently be found alive in the rubble following the collapse of the towers, none of these individuals were from above the impact zone. John P. O'Neill was a former assistant director of the FBI who assisted in the capture of 1993 World Trade Center bomber Ramzi Yousef and was the head of security at the World Trade Center when he was killed trying to rescue people from the North Tower. An additional 24 people officially remain listed as missing. Cantor Fitzgerald L.P., an investment bank on the 101st–105th floors of One World Trade Center, lost 658 employees, considerably more than any other employer. Marsh Inc., located immediately below Cantor Fitzgerald on floors 93–100 (the location of Flight 11's impact), lost 295 employees and 63 consultants. Risk Waters, a business organization, was holding a conference in Windows on the World at the time, with 81 people in attendance.
614 people were killed at or above the floors of impact in the South Tower. Only 18 people are known to have managed to escape using staircase A before the South Tower collapsed; a further 110 people killed in the attacks are known to have been below the impact zone when United Airlines Flight 175 struck the South Tower. The 9/11 Commission notes that this fact strongly indicates that evacuation below the impact zones was a success, allowing most to safely evacuate before the collapse of the World Trade Center.
A USA Today report estimated that approximately 200 people perished inside the elevators, while only 21 escaped the elevators. Many elevators did not plunge, but were destroyed due to the crash and subsequent fires, or were stranded in the shafts. A locking mechanism prevented escapees and rescuers, except on one elevator, from opening the doors on stranded elevators. This included a bomb sniffing dog named Sirius, who was not included in the official death toll.
Before the Twin Towers collapsed, an estimated 200 people fell to their deaths from the burning towers, landing on the streets and rooftops of adjacent buildings hundreds of feet below at a speed of almost 150 miles per hour—sufficient to cause instantaneous death upon impact, but insufficient to cause unconsciousness throughout the actual fall. Most of those who had fallen from the World Trade Center had jumped from the North Tower. To witnesses upon the ground, many of the people falling from the towers seemed to have deliberately jumped to their deaths, including the person whose photograph became known as the Falling Man. The NIST report officially describes the deaths of 104 jumpers, but states that this figure likely understates the true number of those who had died in this manner. The sight and sound of these individuals falling from the towers, then "smashing like eggs on the ground" horrified and traumatized many witnesses. The jumpers' death certificates state the cause of death as homicide due to "blunt trauma". Some of the occupants of each tower above its point of impact made their way upward toward the roof in hope of helicopter rescue, only to find the roof access doors locked. Port Authority officers attempted to unlock the doors but control systems would not let them; in any case, thick smoke and intense heat would have prevented rescue helicopters from landing.
The following list details the number of deaths reported by companies in business premises at the World Trade Center. The list includes WTC tenants (all buildings), vendors, visitors, independent emergency responders, and some hijacked passenger-related firms.
|Marsh & McLennan||North||93-100||295|
|Aon Corporation||South||92, 98-105||175|
|Fiduciary Trust International||South||90, 94-97||87|
|Windows on the World||North||106-107||72|
|Keefe, Bruyette & Woods||South||85, 88-89||67|
|Sandler O'Neill & Partners||South||104||66|
|Euro Brokers Inc.||South||84||61|
|New York State Department of Taxation and Finance||South||86-87||39|
|Port Authority of New York and New Jersey||North||3,14,19,24,28,31,34||37|
|Fred Alger Management||North||93||35|
|Forte Food Service||North||Cantor Fitzgerald||21|
|Risk Waters Group||North||Windows on the World||16|
|Washington Group International||South||91||12|
|Summit Security Services||Both||N/A||11|
|Morgan Stanley||Both||North: 59-74
South: 43-46, 56, 59-74
|Empire Blue Cross Blue Shield Association||North||27-28, 30-31||8|
|Accenture||North||Windows on the World||6|
|Harvey Young Yurman Inc.||North||Windows on the World||6|
|Bronx Builders||North||Windows on the World||5|
|Forest Electric Corp.||North||Cantor Fitzgerald||5|
|Harris Beach LLP||South||85||5|
|OCS Security||Throughout Complex||N/A||5|
|Baseline Financial Services||South||77-78||4|
|Compaq||North||Windows on the World||4|
|Data Synapse||North||Windows on the World||4|
|International Office Centers||North||79||4|
|Merrill Lynch||North||Windows on the World||4|
|Zurich American Insurance||North: 2
|Bank of America||North||81||3|
|Bank of New York||N/A||Killed by falling debris||3|
|Bloomberg L.P.||North||Windows on the World||3|
|Callixa||North||Windows on the World||3|
|The Chuo Mitsui Trust and Banking Co.||South||83||3|
|Encompys||North||Windows on the World||3|
|IPC Kleinknecht Electric Co.||North||105||3|
|IQ Financial Systems||South||83||3|
|New York State Department of Transportation||North||82||3|
|Reinsurance Solutions Inc.||North||94||3|
|Structure Tone||North: 1
|Thomson Financial Services||North||Windows on the World||3|
|BP Air Conditioning||North||101||2|
|Certified Installation Services||South||105||2|
|Deutsche Bank||WTC 4||N/A||2|
|Fine Painting and Decorating||South||Observation Deck||2|
|First Commercial Bank||N/A||N/A||2|
|Franklin Templeton Investments||South||95||2|
|Imagine Software||North||Windows on the World||2|
|Studley, Inc.||North||86, 88||2|
|Kidder Peabody-Paine Webber||North||101||2|
|Marriott World Trade Center Hotel||N/A||N/A||2|
|Metropolitan Life Insurance||North||89||2|
|New York Presbyterian Hospital||N/A||N/A||2|
|Nomura Research Institute Ltd.||North||Windows on the World||2|
|Ohrenstein & Brown||North||85||2|
|One Source Networks (Hudson Shatz)||N/A||N/A||2|
|P.E. Stone Inc.||Both||North: 92
|Petrocelli Electric||N/A||Morgan Stanley Offices||2|
|Radianz||North||Windows on the World||2|
|Random Walk Computing||North||80||2|
|Reuters||North||Windows on the world||2|
|Rohde & Liesenfeld||North||20, 32-33||2|
|Slam Dunk Networks||North||101||2|
|Sybase||North||Above Impact Zone||2|
|UME Voice||North||Windows on the World||2|
|Zurich Scudder Investments||North||Windows on the World||2|
|Algorithmics Inc.||North||Windows on the World||1|
|American Stock Exchange||North||Windows on the World||1|
|Aramark Corp||South||Observation Deck 107
|ARC Partners||North||Windows on the World||1|
|Association of Independent Recruiters||North||79||1|
|BEA Systems||North||Windows on the World||1|
|BMO Nesbitt Burns||North||Cantor Fitzgerald||1|
|Boston Investor Services||North||Windows on the World||1|
|Cadwalader, Wickersham & Taft||North||Windows on the World||1|
|Cambridge Technology Partners||North||Windows on the World||1|
|Caplin Systems||North||Windows on the World||1|
|Chase Manhattan Bank||N/A||N/A||1|
|Civilian Complaint Review Board (Heart Attack)||N/A||N/A||1|
|Colonial Art Decorators||North||Windows on the World||1|
|Credit Suisse First Boston||North||Windows on the World||1|
|Cultural Institution of Retirement Systems||North||39||1|
|Deloitte Consulting||North||Marsh & McLennan||1|
|Federal Bureau of Investigation||N/A||N/A||1|
|Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation||North||Windows on the World||1|
|Fine & Schapiro restaurant||N/A||N/A||1|
|First Liberty Investment Group||North||79||1|
|Forest Hills Ambulance Corps||N/A||N/A||1|
|Frank W.Lin & Co.||North||89||1|
|G.M.P. Inc.||North||Cantor Fitzgerald||1|
|GoldTier Technologies||North||Windows on the World||1|
|Holland & Knight||N/A||N/A||1|
|Howard Hughes Medical Institute||N/A||N/A||1|
|Industrial Bank of Japan||North||Cantor Fitzgerald||1|
|Insurance Overload Systems||North||79||1|
|Internal Revenue Service||N/A||N/A||1|
|Janus Capital Group||North||Windows on the World||1|
|Jennison Associates||North||Windows on the World||1|
|LaBranche & Co.||South||28-30||1|
|Lanagan Engineering and Environmental Services||N/A||N/A||1|
|Lee Hecht Harrison||South||93||1|
|LG Insurance Co.||N/A||N/A||1|
|Liberty Electrical Supply Inc.||N/A||Basement||1|
|LION Bioscience AG||South||94||1|
|MAS Security||North||Windows on the World||1|
|May Davis Group||North||89||1|
|MoneyLine||North||Windows on the World||1|
|National Acoustics Inc.||North||103||1|
|Office Centers Corp.||North||79||1|
|Optus||North||Windows on the World||1|
|Pfizer Inc.||North||Windows on the World||1|
|Proven Electrical Contracting Inc.||N/A||N/A||1|
|QRS Corp.||Marriott World Trade Center||17||1|
|Rent-a-PC||North||Windows on the World||1|
|Risk Solutions International||North||Marsh & McLennan||1|
|Royal & SunAlliance||South||AON||1|
|Royston and Zamani||South||Fuji Bank||1|
|Seabury & Smith Co.||South||49||1|
|Sidley Austin Brown & Wood||North||54, 56-59||1|
|Siemens||N/A||Killed by Falling Debris||1|
|Signature Painting and Decorating||North||Cantor Fitzgerald||1|
|Singer Frumento LLP||South||104||1|
|Skidmore, Owings & Merrill||South||AON||1|
|Soundtone Floors Inc.||N/A||N/A||1|
|Sweeney and Heeking Carpentry||N/A||N/A||1|
|Syncorp||North||Marsh & McLennan||1|
|TCG Software||North||Windows on the World||1|
|Telekurs USA||North||Windows on the World||1|
|The Westfield Group||South||17||1|
|Top of the World Cafe||South||107, 110||1|
|UBS Warburg||North||Windows on the World||1|
|United Staffing||North||Cantor Fitzgerald||1|
|Vanderbilt Group Inc.||South||N/A||1|
|Vital Computer Services||North||Marsh & McLennan||1|
|World Trade Center||N/A||N/A||1|
|World Trade Center Project Renewal||N/A||N/A||1|
125 people were killed at the Pentagon, most of whom worked for the United States Army or the United States Navy. Of the 125 deaths, 70 were civilians, including 47 Army employees, six Army contractors, six Navy employees, three Navy contractors, seven Defense Intelligence Agency employees, and one Office of the Secretary of Defense contractor; and 55 were members of the United States Armed Forces, including 33 Navy sailors and 22 Army soldiers. Lieutenant General Timothy Maude, an Army Deputy Chief of Staff, was the highest-ranking military official killed at the Pentagon.
Aboard the four planes
265 fatalities aboard the four planes include 87 civilians (including 11 crew members) and the five hijackers aboard American Airlines Flight 11; 60 civilians (including 9 crew members) and the five hijackers aboard United Airlines Flight 175; 59 civilians (including 6 crew members) and the five hijackers aboard American Airlines Flight 77; and 39 civilians (including 7 crew members), a U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service officer, and the four hijackers aboard United Airlines Flight 93. The dead included eight children: five on American Airlines Flight 77, aged 3 to 11, and three on United Airlines Flight 175, aged 2, 3, and 4. The youngest victim was a two-and-a-half-year-old child on Flight 175 and the oldest was an 85-year-old passenger on Flight 11. Among those killed aboard American Airlines Flight 11 was television producer David Angell, who co-created the sitcom Frasier.
Excluding the 19 perpetrators, 372 foreign nationals died, representing more than 12% of the total number of deaths in the attacks, almost half of whom being British, Dominican, Indian, or South Korean. The British Overseas Territory of Bermuda had the highest number of deaths per capita in the World Trade Centre attack. Without accounting for some cases of dual citizenship, here is a list of their nationalities:
As of September 11, 2012, a total of 2,753 death certificates were filed relating to the attacks. Of these, 1,588 (58%) were forensically identified from recovered physical remains. The Associated Press reported that the medical examiner's office possesses "about 10,000 unidentified bone and tissue fragments that cannot be matched to the list of the dead". Bone fragments were still being found in 2006 as workers prepared the damaged Deutsche Bank Building for demolition.
On April 17, 2013, five possible remains were recovered after being sifted at Fresh Kills Landfill on Staten Island. The medical examiner said evidence of a possible victim of the attacks was recovered as well two days later.
On June 21, 2013, the medical examiner's office matched its 1,637th victim, a 43-year-old woman, to its list of victims as a result of DNA testing of debris collected from the site. By family request, her name was not released.
On July 5, 2013, the medical examiner's office identified the remains of FDNY firefighter Lt. Jeffrey P. Walz, 37, after they were retested. His remains were recovered months after the attack and is now the 1,638th victim forensically identified.
- Health effects arising from the September 11 attacks
- September 11th Families for Peaceful Tomorrows
- World Trade Center Health Program
- Alicia Esteve Head, supposed survivor of the attacks who was later revealed to be a fraud
- "Nine facts about terrorism in the United States since 9/11". The Washington Post. September 11, 2013. Retrieved November 26, 2015.
- "September 11th Fast Facts". CNN. March 27, 2015. Retrieved May 14, 2015.
- "Accused 9/11 plotter Khalid Sheikh Mohammed faces New York trial". Cabne News Network. November 13, 2009. Retrieved August 29, 2010.
- "First video of Pentagon 9/11 attack released". Cable News Network. May 16, 2006. Retrieved September 10, 2006.
- Matthew J. Morgan (August 4, 2009). The Impact of 9/11 on Politics and War: The Day that Changed Everything?. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 222. ISBN 0-2306-07632.
- September 11 Memorial
- "Richard J. Guadagno". nps.gov.
- Stone, Andrea (August 20, 2002). "Military's aid and comfort ease 9/11 survivors' burden". USA Today. Retrieved 2011-09-02.
- Walker, Carolee (September 11, 2006). "Five-Year 9/11 Remembrance Honors Victims from 90 Countries". United States Department of State. Retrieved May 18, 2008.
- Dunlap, David W. (July 10, 2008). "The Toll From 9/11 Grows Again, to 2,751". New York Times. Retrieved May 14, 2015.
- DePalma, Anthony (May 24, 2007). "For the First Time, New York Links a Death to 9/11 Dust". The New York Times.
- Foderaro, Lisa W. (September 2009). "9/11's Litany of Loss, Joined by Another Name". New York Times. Retrieved September 12, 2009.
- Hartocollis, Anemona (June 18, 2011). "New Death Is Added To the Toll From 9/11". New York Times. Retrieved September 11, 2011.
- Evans, Heidi (September 8, 2013). "1,140 WTC 9/11 responders have cancer — and doctors say that number will grow". New York Daily News. New York City, New York: Daily News, L.P. Archived from the original on September 11, 2013. Retrieved September 11, 2013.
- "The death toll from 9/11 continues to rise". Retrieved September 24, 2014.
- "9/11 memorial honors unborn babies". Newsday. Retrieved September 24, 2014.
- Averill, Jason D.; et al. (2005). "Occupant Behavior, Egress, and Emergency Communications". Final Reports of the Federal Building and Fire Investigation of the World Trade Center Disaster (PDF). National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST).
- Dwyer, Jim and Kevin Flynn (2005). 102 Minutes. Times Books. p. 266.
- "Preliminary Results from the World Trade Center Evacuation Study --- New York City, 2003".
- Dwyer, Jim and Flynn, Kevin, 102 Minutes: pg. 23
- National Commission on Terrorist Attacks (July 22, 2004). The 9/11 Commission Report (PDF) (first ed.). W. W. Norton & Company. p. 294. ISBN 0-393-32671-3.
- Walters, Joanna. "9/11: 'I was the last person pulled alive from the rubble of the Twin Towers'". www.express.co.uk. Retrieved 2015-09-22.
- Langton, James. "Twin tower victims 'buried alive'". www.standard.co.uk. Retrieved 22 September 2015.
- Cauchon, Dennis; Moore, Martha. "Miracles emerge from debris". www.USATODAY.com. USA TODAY. Retrieved 22 September 2015.
- "9/11 Health Crisis Fact Sheet: The 9/11 Health Crisis, released by the New York Congressional Delegation" (PDF). September 28, 2008.
- Reporter, Michael McAuliff Senior Congressional; Post, The Huffington (2015-12-23). "Why Jon Stewart Fought So Hard For 9/11 Responders". The Huffington Post. Retrieved 2017-02-07.
- Dahl, James J.; Falk, Katherine (2008-01-01). "Ayurvedic herbal supplements as an antidote to 9/11 toxicity". Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine. 14 (1): 24–28. ISSN 1078-6791. PMID 18251318.
- Cite error: The named reference
:1was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
- "September 11 by the Numbers". New York. September 5, 2002. Retrieved September 10, 2006.
- "Deadliest Days in Law Enforcement History". National Law Enforcement Memorial Fund.
- NIST NCSTAR1-8
- "Heroism and Honor". National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States. U.S. Congress. August 21, 2004. Retrieved September 8, 2006.
- "FBI terrorist fighter's body found at WTC". Cable News Network. September 22, 2002. Retrieved April 16, 2007.
- "24 Remain Missing". September 11 Victims. August 12, 2006. Archived from the original on August 22, 2006. Retrieved September 7, 2006.
- "Cantor Fitzgerald, which lost 658 of 960 workers on 9/11, thrives ... but for the boss the nightmare remains". Daily Mail. London: Associated Newspapers. September 9, 2011. Retrieved September 10, 2011.
- "Marsh & McLennan Companies 9/11 Memorial". Retrieved September 7, 2011.
- "Milestones of Marsh & McLennan Companies". Retrieved September 7, 2011.
- Citizens of the World, on Time for a Meeting in Harm's Way, The New York Times, September 11, 2001
- Field, Peter, Remembering September 11 The Day I'll Never Forget, Risk Waters website
- 9/11 Commission. "Chapter 9". 9/11 Commission Report. Government Printing Office.
- Dennis Cauchon and Martha T. Moore. Elevators were disaster within disaster. USA Today September 4, 2002.
- "WTC Police Dog Remembered". CBS News. February 11, 2009. Retrieved December 25, 2012.
- "USATODAY.com - Desperation forced a horrific decision". usatoday.com.
- Cauchon, Dennis and Martha Moore (September 2, 2002). "Desperation forced a horrific decision". USATODAY. Retrieved September 9, 2006.
- Smith, David James (2011-09-10). "Twin Towers jumpers that Americans will not talk about". Daily Nation. Nairobi, Kenya. Archived from the original on 2011-09-12. Retrieved September 13, 2011.
- "Poor Info Hindered 9/11 Rescue". CBS News. May 18, 2004. Retrieved September 11, 2006.
- Beveridge, Andrew. "9/11/01-02: A Demographic Portrait Of The Victims In 10048". Gotham Gazette.
- "Victims of the World Trade Center attack, listed by age". Lewis Mumford Center for comparative urban and regional research. Retrieved September 11, 2006.
- USA Today: People killed in plane attacks. September 25, 2011.
- "The 4,000 Jews Rumor: Rumor surrounding Sept. 11th proved untrue. Internet Archive – which appeared in the September 12 internet edition of the "Jerusalem Post". It stated, "The Foreign Ministry in Jerusalem has so far received the names of 4,000 Israelis believed to have been in the areas of the World Trade Center and the Pentagon at the time of the attacks."". Web.archive.org. Archived from the original on April 8, 2005. Retrieved October 15, 2010.
- A survey of the 1,700 victims whose religion was listed found approximately 10% were Jewish indicating around 270 in total. A survey based on the last names of victims found that around 400 ( 15 1⁄2%) were possibly Jewish. A survey of 390 Cantor Fitzgerald employees who had public memorials (out of the 658 who died) found 49 were Jewish ( 12 1⁄2%). According to the 2002 American Jewish Year Book, New York State's population was 9% Jewish. Sixty-four percent of the WTC victims lived in New York State.
- The Mitzvah To Remember (09/05/2002) Gary Rosenblatt, August 3, 2007 Archived May 6, 2006, at the Wayback Machine.
- "The Resuscitation of Anti-Semitism: An American Perspective: An Interview with Abraham Foxman". Jcpa.org. Archived from the original on 8 June 2011. Retrieved May 30, 2011.
- September 11: One Year After. The Boston Globe; September 11, 2002.
- "National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States". U.S. Congress. August 21, 2004. Retrieved September 8, 2006.
- Goldberg et al., pp. 208–212.
- "September 11, 2001 Pentagon Victims". patriotresource.com.
- "Remembering the Lost". Timothy J. Maude, Lieutenant General, United States Army. Arlington National Cemetery. September 22, 2001. Retrieved April 16, 2001.
- "September 11: Chronology of terror". Cable News Network. September 12, 2001. Retrieved January 23, 2015.
- "A Place of Remembrance". National Geographic. Retrieved September 5, 2011.
- RICHARD JERRY GUADAGNO, National Law Enforcement Officers Memorial
- "Staff Monograph on the Four Flights and Civil Aviation Security" (PDF). National Archives and Records Administration. September 2005. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 12, 2014. Retrieved September 5, 2011.
- Flight 93 Memorial Effort Gains Over 900 Acres, The New York Times, March 19, 2008
- American Flight 77 victims at a glance., USA Today, September 25, 2011.
- USA Today: United Flight 175 victims at a glance. September 25, 2011.
- Susman, Tina (September 11, 2011). "At Sept. 11 sites, a powerful day of remembrance". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved March 27, 2012.
- "US terrorism victims". The Guardian. Retrieved September 12, 2013.
- Office of International Information Programs (August 2, 2007). "A list of the 77 countries whose citizens died as a result of the attacks on September 11, 2001". Washington, D.C.: United States Department of State. Archived from the original on May 28, 2011. Retrieved May 28, 2011. [not in citation given]
- (Spanish) 11-S: A cinco años. Las familias de los argentinos aún buscan respuestas, Clarín 9 de septiembre de 2006
- Sutton, Ron (September 8, 2011). "September 11: The Australian stories". SBS. Australia: Special Broadcasting Service. Archived from the original on April 26, 2014. Retrieved April 26, 2014.
- Salam, M. Tawsif (September 11, 2009). "Tribute: The Bangladeshis Killed in 9/11". The Writer's Club. WordPress. Archived from the original on November 26, 2009. Retrieved November 26, 2009.
- Belarusian embassy Archived October 10, 2008, at the Wayback Machine.
- "Overblijfselen enige Belgische slachtoffer 9/11 nog steeds niet gevonden". HLN.
- "U.S. Consul Lays Wreath at 9/11 Memorial". BerNews. September 11, 2011. Retrieved September 12, 2011.
- "Lembranças de dor e perplexidade: Emoção marca cerimônia pelos mortos em 11 de setembro". Jornal do Brasil (in Portuguese). September 11, 2003. Archived from the original on September 19, 2003. Retrieved September 19, 2003.
Dentre eles, os de três brasileiros: Anne Marie Sallerin Ferreira, Sandra Fajardo Smith e Ivan Kyrillos Barbosa
- "Canoe - C NEWS - Canada: List of the Canadian victims of 9/11". cnews.canoe.ca. Retrieved June 2, 2011.
- "Canadians who died in the September 11, 2001 Disaster". members.shaw.ca.
- Atkins, Stephen E. (2011). "International Reactions to September 11". The 9/11 Encyclopedia: Second Edition. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO, LLC. p. 248. ISBN 978-1-59884-921-9. Retrieved April 26, 2014.
Although the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001, targeted the United States, many other countries throughout the world were also affected. In addition to the 2,657 Americans killed, 316 foreign nationals from 84 different countries also died in the attacks, including 67 Britons, 28 South Koreans, 26 Japanese, and 25 Canadians. The shock and horror engendered by the attacks were truly international in scope.
- Fenlon, Brodie (September 6, 2011). "The Canadians Who Died In 9/11: List Of Victims Of The September 11 Terrorist Attacks". The Huffington Post: Canada. The Huffington Post, Inc. Archived from the original on September 26, 2011. Retrieved September 26, 2011.
- "Highest percentage of Hispanics killed in 9 /11 were Dominican". Dominican Today. Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic: The Dominican Republic News Source. September 10, 2009. Archived from the original on September 17, 2009. Retrieved September 17, 2009.
- "Forty-Seven Dominicans to be Honored at National 9/11 Memorial". HS-News.com.
- "Ethiopia -Two Ethiopians among those killed on September 11". September 11, 2008.
- "Quatre Français ont péri dans le World Trade Center ce jour-là". Retrieved July 7, 2013.
- Rajendran, P. (September 14, 2006). "41 victims from India in 9/11". The Rediff Special. India Limited. Archived from the original on February 29, 2008. Retrieved February 29, 2008.
- The New York Times (June 2, 2002). "Eric Hartono: Modest Go-Getter". The New York Times. New York City, New York: The New York Times Company. Archived from the original on April 3, 2009. Retrieved April 3, 2009.
- "RTÉ News Interactive: US under siege". rte.ie. Archived from the original on January 15, 2002.
- Cashman, Greer Fay (September 12, 2002). "Five Israeli victims remembered in capital". The Jerusalem Post. The Jerusalem Post. p. 3. Retrieved October 17, 2006.[dead link]
- (Italian) Consulate General of the United States in Milan, Italy Archived October 30, 2008, at the Wayback Machine. Opening of the World Trade Center Memorial in Padua, Italy
- Long, Lolita (September 20, 2001). "20 Jamaican victims: 3 dead, 17 missing". The Jamaica Gleaner. Gleaner Company Ltd. Archived from the original on October 4, 2001. Retrieved December 1, 2001.
- Kyodo News International, Inc. (September 14, 2004). "Father of 9/11 victim asks Japanese to reflect on terrorism". Japan Policy & Politics. Kyodo News International, Inc. Archived from the original on July 10, 2012. Retrieved April 30, 2014.
- Jumana Heresh (October 2, 2001). "Doany family schedules memorial service for son Ramzi". jordanembassyus.org. Retrieved June 2, 2011.
- Marsh & McLennan Companies (September 11, 2002). "Tribute Page for Ramzi Doany". Remembering Our Colleagues. Marsh & McLennan Companies, Inc. Archived from the original on May 15, 2003. Retrieved May 15, 2003.
- "Family organizes memorial service for Elias Telhami, WTC victim". jordanembassyus.org. October 4, 2001. Retrieved June 2, 2011.
- Yoga, S.S. (September 11, 2011). "Never forgotten". The Star Online. Malaysia: Star Publications Berhad. Retrieved April 30, 2014.
- Stone, Andrew (September 10, 2011). "Fallout from September 11 still drifting over us". The New Zealand Herald. New Zealand: APN New Zealand Limited. Archived from the original on April 28, 2014. Retrieved April 27, 2014.
On a clear blue morning 10 years ago the world shifted gear. Terrorists flew aircraft into talismanic American buildings, taking nearly 3000 lives. The victims included two New Zealanders. One was an American who had become a New Zealand citizen, the other a New Zealander who had moved to the United States.
- Eriksen, Alanah (September 11, 2009). "NZ victim of 9/11 has place in memorial". The New Zealand Herald. New Zealand: APN New Zealand Limited. Archived from the original on April 28, 2014. Retrieved April 27, 2014.
A September 11 memorial will include childhood details of the only New Zealander killed in the attacks, thanks to a chance meeting between a Californian flight attendant and a group from Invercargill. Alan Beaven, a 48-year-old environment lawyer, died eight years ago today on United Airlines Flight 93.
- "Remembering the Muslims who were killed in the 9/11 attacks". Newsweek magazine. 11 September 2011.
- KBK (September 13, 2014). "US Embassy remembers 16 Pinoys killed in 9/11 attacks". GMA News. GMA Network, Inc. Archived from the original on April 30, 2014. Retrieved April 30, 2014.
- FilipinoHome (September 11, 2011). "Remembering the 9/11 Filipino American victims". FilipinoHome. WordPress. Archived from the original on April 30, 2014. Retrieved April 30, 2014.
- (Portuguese) Obituaries in Visão magazine, issue 446, September 20, 2001
- (Romanian) "Patru români, victime ale atentatelor de la 11 septembrie 2001", A1.ro
- Lee, Aruna (September 5, 2011). "Ten Years After 9/11: Korean Families Still Hurting". New America Media. San Francisco, California: Pacific News Service. Archived from the original on November 8, 2011. Retrieved November 8, 2011.
- "U.S. Embassy Honours September 11 Victims". Daily Mirror. September 11, 2011.
- "Hans son omkom i attacken mot WTC". Sveriges Television. Retrieved 25 August 2016.
- Högström, Erik. "Svenske David Tengelin dog på 100:e våningen". Expressen. Retrieved 25 August 2016.
- Mark Beaumont, BayBytes. "British Memorial Garden, New York". Britishmemorialgarden.org. Retrieved June 2, 2011. The tally 68 in the source includes two fatality from Bermuda
- British and Irish nationals, The Guardian
- "We choose not to forget". tnonline.com. Retrieved 22 June 2013.
- "Identification of 9/11 remains comes to an end". Cable News Network. February 23, 2005. Retrieved February 23, 2005.
- Moore, Martha T. (February 24, 2005). "USA Today". NYC's work to ID 9/11 victims ends - for now. Retrieved February 23, 2005.
- "Ground Zero Forensic Work Ends". CBS News. February 23, 2005. Retrieved September 8, 2006.
- "Bone fragments are found". xtimeline. Retrieved 22 June 2013.
- "More Potential Human Remains Identified In WTC Sifting". NY1. Retrieved 20 April 2013.
- "ME's Office: Victim Of September 11th Attacks Identified By ID Testing Of Remains". NY1. Retrieved 22 June 2013.
- "12 years later: Remains of firefighter killed in 9/11 attacks identified". CNN. July 6, 2013. Retrieved 6 July 2013.
- The Injured: A Fireball, a Prayer to Die, Then a Hard Battle to Live, New York Times, October 17, 2001
- The Battery Is Down, All Right, and Crippled, New York Times, October 3, 2001
- THE MOURNER: In a Landscape of Sadness, Offering Just Her Presence, New York Times, October 1, 2001 the story of Carol O'Neill, wife of a founder of Sandler O'Neill, which lost 67 of 180 employees
- THE TRADE CENTER: The Evacuation That Kept a Horrible Toll From Climbing Higher, New York Times, September 21, 2001
- AP (NY Times)--190 Feared Dead at the Pentagon
- New York Times "Hopes Are Raised, and Dashed, About Rescue of Firefighters" September 13, 2011
- Discovery Channel: Inside the Twin Towers
- Collateral Damage, The forgotten Muslim victims of September 11, 2001, The Independent, October 11, 2001
- Full list of WTC attacks victims
- Memorial page dedicated to FDNY Firefighters lost on 9/11
- US Senate passes bill allowing 9/11 victims to sue Saudi Arabia