Catalan regional election, 2015

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Catalan regional election, 2015

← 2012 27 September 2015 2017 →

All 135 seats in the Parliament of Catalonia
68 seats needed for a majority
Opinion polls
Registered 5,510,853 Green Arrow Up Darker.svg1.8%
Turnout 4,130,196 (75.0%)
Green Arrow Up Darker.svg7.2 pp

  First party Second party Third party
  Artur Mas 2015 (cropped).jpg Inés Arrimadas 2017b (cropped).jpg Miquel Iceta 2015a (cropped).jpg
Leader Artur Mas Inés Arrimadas Miquel Iceta
Party JxSí C's PSC–PSOE
Leader since 15 July 2015 3 July 2015 19 July 2014
Leader's seat Barcelona Barcelona Barcelona
Last election 71 seats, 44.4%[a] 9 seats, 7.6% 20 seats, 14.4%
Seats won 62 25 16
Seat change Red Arrow Down.svg9 Green Arrow Up Darker.svg16 Red Arrow Down.svg4
Popular vote 1,628,714 736,364 523,283
Percentage 39.6% 17.9% 12.7%
Swing Red Arrow Down.svg4.8 pp Green Arrow Up Darker.svg10.3 pp Red Arrow Down.svg1.7 pp

  Fourth party Fifth party Sixth party
  Lluís Rabell 2015d (cropped).jpg Xavier García Albiol 2015b (cropped).jpg Antonio Baños 2015 (cropped).jpg
Leader Lluís Rabell Xavier García Albiol Antonio Baños
Party CatSíqueesPot PP CUP
Leader since 23 July 2015 28 July 2015 30 July 2015
Leader's seat Barcelona Barcelona Barcelona
Last election 13 seats, 9.9%[b] 19 seats, 13.0% 3 seats, 3.5%
Seats won 11 11 10
Seat change Red Arrow Down.svg2 Red Arrow Down.svg8 Green Arrow Up Darker.svg7
Popular vote 367,613 349,193 337,794
Percentage 8.9% 8.5% 8.2%
Swing Red Arrow Down.svg1.0 pp Red Arrow Down.svg4.5 pp Green Arrow Up Darker.svg4.7 pp

CataloniaProvinceMapParliament2015.png
Constituency results map for the Parliament of Catalonia

President before election

Artur Mas
CDC

Elected President

Carles Puigdemont
CDC (JxSí)

The 2015 Catalan regional election was held on Sunday, 27 September 2015, electing the 11th Parliament of the Autonomous Community of Catalonia. All 135 seats in the Parliament were up for election. This was the third regional Catalan election in only five years, after the 2010 and 2012 elections and the first one in over 37 years in which Democratic Convergence of Catalonia (CDC) and Democratic Union of Catalonia (UDC) ran separately, after the dissolution of Convergence and Union (CiU) in June 2015 over disagreements on the coalition's separatist turn.

The plan to hold a snap election in 2015 was announced on 14 January by President Artur Mas. After the non-binding 2014 independence referendum, Mas declared that the election was to be turned into an alternative vote on independence, with pro-independence parties including the independence goal in their election manifestos.[1] As part of the process, CDC, along with Republican Left of Catalonia (ERC), Democrats of Catalonia (DC) and Left Movement (MES) would run together under the Junts pel Sí (JxSí) platform, with support from members of the pro-independence Catalan National Assembly (ANC), Òmnium and the Municipalities' Association for Independence (AMI). The alliance, however, failed to achieve its self-stated goal to attain an absolute majority on its own.

Newly formed Podemos (Spanish for "We can"), Initiative for Catalonia Greens (ICV), United and Alternative Left (EUiA) and Equo stood together under the Catalunya Sí que es Pot (CatSíqueesPot) label, a second novel electoral grouping formed for this election. The alliance was modeled after the Barcelona en Comú platform that won the 2015 Barcelona election, but it failed to garner the decisive support of the city's popular mayor Ada Colau and achieved a poor performance. Citizens (C's) benefited from its anti-independence stance and climbed to second place ahead of a declining Socialists' Party of Catalonia (PSC), which scored a new historical low for the third election in a row. The People's Party of Catalonia (PPC) suffered from its national counterpart decline and scored its worst result since 1992, whereas the left-wing Popular Unity Candidacy saw a strong performance which allowed it to hold the key to government formation with JxSí.

Overview[edit]

Electoral system[edit]

The Parliament of Catalonia was the devolved, unicameral legislature of the autonomous community of Catalonia, having legislative power in regional matters as defined by the Spanish Constitution and the Catalan Statute of Autonomy, as well as the ability to vote confidence in or withdraw it from a President of the Government.[2][3] Voting for the Parliament was on the basis of universal suffrage, which comprised all nationals over eighteen, registered in Catalonia and in full enjoyment of their political rights. Additionally, Catalans abroad were required to apply for voting before being permitted to vote, a system known as "begged" or expat vote (Spanish: Voto rogado).[4]

The 135 members of the Parliament of Catalonia were elected using the D'Hondt method and a closed list proportional representation, with a threshold of 3 percent of valid votes—which included blank ballots—being applied in each constituency. Parties not reaching the threshold were not taken into consideration for seat distribution. Additionally, the use of the D'Hondt method might result in an effective threshold over three percent, depending on the district magnitude.[5] Seats were allocated to constituencies, corresponding to the provinces of Barcelona, Girona, Lleida and Tarragona. Each constituency was allocated a fixed number of seats: 85 for Barcelona, 17 for Girona, 15 for Lleida and 18 for Tarragona.[2][3][6]

The electoral law provided that parties, federations, coalitions and groupings of electors were allowed to present lists of candidates. However, parties, federations or coalitions that had not obtained a mandate in the Parliament at the preceding election were required to secure the signature of at least 0.1 percent of the electors registered in the constituency for which they sought election, whereas groupings of electors were required to secure the signature of 1 percent of electors. Electors were barred from signing for more than one list of candidates. Concurrently, parties and federations intending to enter in coalition to take part jointly at an election were required to inform the relevant Electoral Commission within ten days of the election being called.[7][8]

Election date[edit]

The term of the Parliament of Catalonia expired four years after the date of its previous election, unless it was dissolved earlier. The President of the Government was required to call an election fifteen days prior to the date of expiry of parliament, with election day taking place within from forty to sixty days after the call. The previous election was held on 25 November 2012, which meant that the legislature's term would have expired on 25 November 2016. The election was required to be called no later than 10 November 2016, with it taking place up to the sixtieth day from the call, setting the latest possible election date for the Parliament on Monday, 9 January 2017.[2][3]

The President of the Government had the prerogative to dissolve the Parliament of Catalonia and call a snap election, provided that no motion of no confidence was in process and that dissolution did not occur before one year had elapsed since a previous one under this procedure. In the event of an investiture process failing to elect a regional President within a two-month period from the first ballot, the Parliament was to be automatically dissolved and a fresh election called.[2][3]

Background[edit]

Secessionist process[edit]

After the 2012 regional election resulted in Convergence and Union (CiU) unexpectedly losing seats, President Mas was placed in a difficult political position, as he fell 18 seats short of the absolute majority. He was forced to sign an agreement with Republican Left of Catalonia (ERC), in which the latter pledged to support the government, albeit without entering a formal coalition, in return for a faster process to obtain the independence of Catalonia.

President of Catalonia Artur Mas and Oriol Junqueras, signing the government agreement on 19 December 2012.

On 23 January 2013, the Parliament of Catalonia adopted the Declaration of Sovereignty and of the Right to Decide of the Catalan People, which stated that "The people of Catalonia have—by reason of democratic legitimacy—the character of a sovereign political and legal entity." This declaration was provisionally suspended by the Constitutional Court of Spain on 8 May 2013, and on 25 March 2014 the same court declared that it was void and unconstitutional[9] due to the fact that the Spanish Constitution of 1978 makes the Spanish people as a whole the only subject of sovereignty. At the same time, opinion polls began to show ERC topping the voters' preferences for the first time since the 1932 Catalan election, with the CiU vote declining as a result of the 2012 election backlash, but also because of Mas' management of the economic crisis and the involvement of several CiU leading figures in several corruption scandals. Among those involved was party founder Jordi Pujol, charged in a tax fraud scandal related to an undeclared inheritance in Andorra, accompanied by allegations of bribery, embezzlement, breach of trust, influence peddling, forgery of documents and money laundering crimes allegedly committed during his time as President of Catalonia.[10]

On 12 December 2013, the Government of Catalonia announced that a non-binding referendum on the independence issue would be held on 9 November 2014, for the purpose of giving independence leaders a political mandate to negotiate with the Spanish Government.[11] Mariano Rajoy's government stated shortly after its intention to block such a referendum, which it considered unconstitutional and not within the competences of the Autonomous Community.[12]

In spite of this, a not legally sanctioned referendum was held as scheduled, with over 80% voting for independence, albeit on a low turnout of around 40%. Independence parties considered the result a success. Artur Mas explained in a public act on 25 November his plan to reach independence, proposing calling an extraordinary regional election—turned into an alternative vote on independence—at some point during 2015, on the condition that ERC agreed to join a common list with his party to stand together at the polls. ERC leader Oriol Junqueras agreed with most of the plan but initially refused such a joint list, threatening to break its government pact with CiU in order to force an election in early 2015.[13][14] After weeks of calibrated brinkmanship from both sides, with CDC pushing for a joint candidature to cover for its forecasted loss of support and ERC refusing to run with Artur Mas as presidential candidate, both parties finally reached an agreement, and on 14 January 2015, Mas announced that a snap regional election would be held on 27 September that same year, with the intention to turn in into the true plebiscite on independence.[1]

Aside from the pact to hold an extraordinary election, the agreement also included to complete state structures as a basic element to culminate the process of "national transition" as well as negotiation of budgets.[15][16] Mas and Junqueras also apologized for the rarefied political climate between the pro-independence parties in the negotiations that had taken place during the weeks prior to the announcement.[17]

The Spanish Government, in response to the election announcement eight months ahead of the scheduled date, accused Mas of having "no interest in attending the Catalans' problems, nor it has any capacity to solve them".[18] PP, PSOE and UPyD also criticized the announcement.[19]

CiU breakup[edit]

Tension within both parties forming the CiU federation had reached an all-time high in June 2015 due to differences between the positions the Democratic Union of Catalonia (UDC) leadership and Democratic Convergence of Catalonia (CDC) leader Artur Mas took over the sovereignty process. CDC was in favour of outright independence even if it meant breaking the established Spanish legality, while UDC was against doing it without a successful negotiation with the Spanish Government. As a result, a vote was held on 14 June 2015 between UDC members, asking whether the party should commit itself to continue with the process but establishing several conditions—including not violating the legality in force through unilateral independence declarations—or starting the constituent processes at the margin of legal norms.[20][21] The first option, supported by UDC leaders and contrary to the signed agreements between CDC, ERC and sovereignty entities, was approved by UDC members with a narrow 50.9% to 46.1% choosing to stand at the side of CDC.[22] After this, CDC issued an ultimatum to UDC for the latter to decide within "two or three days" whether it committed itself to the independence plan.[23] On 17 June, after a meeting of the UDC leadership, it was announced that the party was withdrawing all three of its members from the Government of the Generalitat of Catalonia, although they agreed to maintain parliamentary stability until the end of the legislature.[24] That same day at night, the CDC National Executive Committee met and in a press conference the next day confirmed that UDC and CDC would not stand together in the 2015 regional election, and that the political project of the CiU federation was over, spelling the end of 37 years of cooperation between both parties as Convergence and Union,[25][26] a coalition which had dominated Catalan politics since the 1980s.

Run up to election[edit]

On 3 August 2015, President of the Government of Catalonia, Artur Mas, signed the election call decree 9 pm at the Palau de la Generalitat and later made an appearance before the cameras of the Catalan Corporation of Media highlighting the extraordinariness of the proposal's background, which nonetheless did not mention the word plebiscite. The President justified the extraordinary meaning of the election after having unsuccessfully tried to negotiate a legal and agreed-to referendum with the Government of Spain. Mas, however, did not mention how much support did he considered necessary for proceeding with the independence process.[27][28] Only pro-independence parties recognized the plebiscitary character of the election, with other parties arguing that—acknowledging the election's importance—it still was an election to the Parliament of Catalonia as many others had been held in the past. The PPC, PSC and C's, however, hinted on the possibility of a post-election pact to curb the independence process.[29] The Spanish Government said it would keep a close watch closely the legality of the whole election process while demanding neutrality from Mas.[30] Mariano Rajoy stated: "There won't be a plebiscitary election, as there wasn't a referendum", in relation to the 9 November 2014 vote.[31] Several parties and media questioned the legality of holding the Free Way demonstration on 11 September, as it coincided with the start date of the election campaign.

Parties and leaders[edit]

Below is a list of the main parties and coalitions which contested the election:

Parties and coalitions Ideology Candidate
Together for Yes (JxSí) Big tent, Catalan independentism Artur Mas
Socialists' Party of Catalonia (PSC–PSOE) Social democracy, Federalism Miquel Iceta
People's Party (PP) Conservatism, Christian democracy Xavier García Albiol
Catalonia Yes We Can (CatSíqueesPot) Eco-socialism, Democratic socialism Lluís Rabell
Democratic Union of Catalonia (unio.cat) Christian democracy, Catalan regionalism Ramon Espadaler
Citizens–Party of the Citizenry (C's) Liberalism Inés Arrimadas
Popular Unity Candidacy (CUP) Anti-capitalism, Catalan independentism Antonio Baños

Democratic Convergence of Catalonia (CDC), Republican Left of Catalonia (ERC), Democrats of Catalonia (DC) and Left Movement (MES) agreed by mid-July 2015 to run together under the Junts pel Sí (English: Together for Yes) joint separatist list, with support from the pro-independence Catalan National Assembly (ANC), Òmnium and the also separatist Municipalities' Association for Independence (AMI).[32] Artur Mas was named as the agreed presidential candidate, even though, as a result of balance of power negotiations between ERC and CDC, he was placed 4th in the electoral ticket.[33] Instead, the list was to be headed by three independent figures: Raül Romeva, former European MP for ICV who had left the party for not supporting independence; Carme Forcadell, former ANC president and Muriel Casals, Òmnium chairwoman. Oriol Junqueras would follow in 5th place.[34][35]

The coalition was thus scheduled to comprise the ruling centre-right CDC; its supporting centre-left partner in Parliament, ERC; Democrats of Catalonia and Left Movement, pro-independence splits from UDC and PSC, respectively; as well as members from separatist sectors of the civil society.[36] The Popular Unity Candidacy (CUP), which had also participated in the negotiations to form the unitary list, eventually refused on the grounds that "it was formed by politicians"—in reference to CDC and ERC's strong presence in the coalition's lists—and decided to run separately.[37]

After the success of Ada Colau's Barcelona en Comú platform in the 2015 Barcelona municipal election, its member parties Podemos, Initiative for Catalonia Greens (ICV) and United and Alternative Left (EUiA) entered talks for coalescing into a similar, regional-wide coalition for the September election to run as an alternative to Mas' independence plan.[38][39] By 15 July 2015, negotiations between the parties were already close to success, and it was agreed that they would stand together in the Catalunya Sí que es Pot electoral platform (English: Catalonia Yes We Can).[40][41] On 23 July, Lluís Rabell was presented as the platform's candidate for the regional premiership,[42] while ecologist party Equo announced its intention to join the coalition on 29 July.[43]

Campaign[edit]

Slogans[edit]

Parties and coalitions Catalan Spanish English translation Refs
Together for Yes El vot de la teva vida El voto de tu vida "The vote of your life" [44][45][46]
Socialists' Party of Catalonia Per una Catalunya millor en una Espanya diferent Por una Cataluña mejor en una España diferente "For a better Catalonia in a different Spain" [46][47][48]
People's Party Units guanyem. Plantem cara Unidos ganamos. Plantemos cara "United we win. Stand up!" [46][49]
Catalonia Yes We Can La Catalunya de la gent La Catalunya de la gente "The Catalonia of the people" [46][50]
Democratic Union of Catalonia La força del seny La fuerza del sentido común "The force of common sense" [46][51]
Citizens–Party of the Citizenry Una nova Catalunya per a tothom Una nueva Cataluña para todos "A new Catalonia for everyone" [46][52]
Popular Unity Candidacy Governem-nos Gobernémonos "Let's govern ourselves" [46][53]

Party stances[edit]

Source: historiaelectoral.com[54]
Stance on
independence
Parties and coalitions Referendum Constitutional
reform
☑Y Yes Together for Yes ☑Y Question?
Popular Unity Candidacy ☑Y Question?
☒N No Socialists' Party of Catalonia ☒N ☑Y
People's Party ☒N ☒N
Citizens–Party of the Citizenry ☒N ☒N
Question? Neutral Catalonia Yes We Can ☑Y ☑Y
Democratic Union of Catalonia ☑Y ☑Y

Opinion polls[edit]

The table below lists voting intention estimates in reverse chronological order, showing the most recent first and using the dates when the survey fieldwork was done, as opposed to the date of publication. Where the fieldwork dates are unknown, the date of publication is given instead. The highest percentage figure in each polling survey is displayed with its background shaded in the leading party's colour. If a tie ensues, this is applied to the figures with the highest percentages. The "Lead" column on the right shows the percentage-point difference between the parties with the highest percentages in a given poll. When available, seat projections are also displayed below the voting estimates in a smaller font. 68 seats were required for an absolute majority in the Parliament of Catalonia.

Color key:

  Poll conducted after legal ban on opinion polls   Exit poll

Results[edit]

Overall[edit]

Summary of the 27 September 2015 Parliament of Catalonia election results
CataloniaParliamentDiagram2015.svg
Parties and coalitions Popular vote Seats
Votes % ±pp Total +/−
Together for Yes (JxSí)1 1,628,714 39.59 –4.82 62 –9
Citizens–Party of the Citizenry (C's) 736,364 17.90 +10.33 25 +16
Socialists' Party of Catalonia (PSC–PSOE) 523,283 12.72 –1.67 16 –4
Catalonia Yes We Can (CatSíqueesPot)2 367,613 8.94 –0.96 11 –2
People's Party (PP) 349,193 8.49 –4.49 11 –8
Popular Unity Candidacy (CUP) 337,794 8.21 +4.73 10 +7
Democratic Union of Catalonia (unio.cat) 103,293 2.51 New 0 ±0
Animalist Party Against Mistreatment of Animals (PACMA) 30,157 0.73 +0.16 0 ±0
Zero CutsThe Greens (Recortes Cero–EV) 14,444 0.35 New 0 ±0
Let's Win Catalonia (Ganemos) 1,167 0.03 New 0 ±0
Pirates of Catalonia–To Decide Everything (Pirata.cat/XDT) 327 0.01 –0.49 0 ±0
Blank ballots 21,895 0.53 –0.93
Total 4,114,244 135 ±0
Valid votes 4,114,244 99.61 +0.51
Invalid votes 15,952 0.39 –0.51
Votes cast / turnout 4,130,196 74.95 +7.19
Abstentions 1,380,657 25.05 –7.19
Registered voters 5,510,853
Sources[55][56][54]
Popular vote
JxSí
39.59%
C's
17.90%
PSC–PSOE
12.72%
CatSíqueesPot
8.94%
PP
8.49%
CUP
8.21%
unio.cat
2.51%
Others
1.12%
Blank ballots
0.53%
Seats
JxSí
45.93%
C's
18.52%
PSC–PSOE
11.85%
CatSíqueesPot
8.15%
PP
8.15%
CUP
7.41%

Distribution by constituency[edit]

Constituency JxSí C's PSC CSQP PP CUP
% S % S % S % S % S % S
Barcelona 36.1 32 18.8 17 13.7 12 10.1 9 8.8 8 8.3 7
Girona 56.1 11 12.5 2 8.7 1 4.8 1 5.9 1 8.6 1
Lleida 55.2 10 11.6 2 8.4 1 4.3 7.3 1 8.2 1
Tarragona 41.6 9 19.4 4 11.8 2 6.5 1 8.9 1 7.4 1
Total 39.6 62 17.9 25 12.7 16 8.9 11 8.5 11 8.2 10
Sources[56][54]

Aftermath[edit]

Government formation[edit]

Investiture
Artur Mas (CDC)
Ballot → 10 November 2015 12 November 2015
Required majority → 68 out of 135 ☒N Simple ☒N
62 / 135
62 / 135
73 / 135
73 / 135
Abstentions
0 / 135
0 / 135
Absentees
0 / 135
0 / 135
Sources[54]

Following the failure to choose a leader in January 2016 in which 1,515 CUP members voted for Mas and the same number voted against him,[57] the assembly was due to be dissolved on 10 January and a new election called in March.[58] Rajoy supported the new election on the grounds that it could "quash" calls for independence.[59]

Investiture
Carles Puigdemont (CDC)
Ballot → 10 January 2016
Required majority → 68 out of 135 ☑Y
70 / 135
63 / 135
2 / 135
Absentees
0 / 135
Sources[54]

A last minute deal was struck between Junts pel Sí and Popular Unity Candidacy to ensure a separatist government, although without Mas as President.[60] As a result, Carles Puigdemont i Casamajó assumed office on 12 January 2016 as President of the Government after his investiture was approved by the Parliament on 10 January.[61][62]

2016 motion of confidence[edit]

Motion of confidence
Carles Puigdemont (PDeCAT)
Ballot → 29 September 2016
Required majority → Simple ☑Y
72 / 135
63 / 135
Abstentions
0 / 135
Absentees
0 / 135
Sources[54]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Aggregated data for CiU and ERC in the 2012 election.
  2. ^ Data for ICV–EUiA in the 2012 election.

References[edit]

Opinion poll sources
  1. ^ "CATALUÑA, Septiembre 2015. Sondeo a pie de urna TNS Demoscopia". Electograph (in Spanish). 27 September 2015. 
  2. ^ "Junts pel Sí (67/71), a tocar de la majoria absoluta". Directe.cat (in Catalan). 26 September 2015. 
  3. ^ "Les forces independentistes aconseguirien la majoria absoluta el 27S". El Periòdic d'Andorra (in Catalan). 25 September 2015. 
  4. ^ "Elecciones Autonómicas en Cataluña 2015". GAD3 (in Spanish). 27 September 2015. 
  5. ^ "ENQUESTA EXCLUSIVA '8 AL DIA': l'independentisme aconseguiria majoria absoluta el 27-S". 8TV (in Catalan). 21 September 2015. 
  6. ^ "CATALUÑA, Septiembre 2015. Sondeo Técnicas Demoscópicas". Electograph (in Spanish). 21 September 2015. 
  7. ^ a b c "Tracking electoral autonómico. Mes de septiembre de 2015" (PDF). Celeste-Tel (in Spanish). 27 September 2015. 
  8. ^ "El sondeo electoral definitivo del 27-S". Encuestamos (in Spanish). 21 September 2015. 
  9. ^ "La candidatura de Juntos por el Sí toca techo". La Razón (in Spanish). 21 September 2015. 
  10. ^ "Radiografía del voto. Encuesta septiembre 2015" (PDF). La Razón (in Spanish). 21 September 2015. 
  11. ^ "Junts pel Sí crece en campaña a costa de la CUP y confirma la clara mayoría absoluta independentista en escaños". Público (in Spanish). 18 September 2015. 
  12. ^ "Los partidos independentistas rozan la mayoría absoluta a una semana del 27S". Público (in Spanish). 20 September 2015. 
  13. ^ "Barómetro electoral autonómico. Mes de septiembre de 2015" (PDF). Celeste-Tel (in Spanish). 20 September 2015. 
  14. ^ "Los independentistas no llegan a la mitad de los votos a una semana del 27-S". ABC (in Spanish). 20 September 2015. 
  15. ^ "Junts pel Sí sigue creciendo y lograría la mayoría absoluta con el apoyo de la CUP". laSexta (in Spanish). 21 September 2015. 
  16. ^ "Freno a la subida de la lista unitaria". La Razón (in Spanish). 20 September 2015. 
  17. ^ "Intención de voto elecciones catalanas". El Mundo (in Spanish). 20 September 2015. 
  18. ^ "Junts pel Sí avanza hasta situarse a tres escaños de la mayoría absoluta". La Vanguardia (in Spanish). 20 September 2015. 
  19. ^ ""Los mensajes en positivo podrían cambiar el voto"". Cadena SER (in Spanish). 21 September 2015. 
  20. ^ "El ObSERvatorio de la Cadena SER. Preelectoral Cataluña (21/9/2015)" (PDF). MyWord (in Spanish). 21 September 2015. 
  21. ^ a b "PP y PSC arañan medio punto desde la Diada". La Razón (in Spanish). 19 September 2015. 
  22. ^ "Septiembre de 2015. Intención de voto al Parlamento de Catalunya" (PDF). Infortécnica (in Spanish). 16 September 2015. 
  23. ^ "El independentismo logra la mayoría en escaños y roza el 50% de los votos". El País (in Spanish). 19 September 2015. 
  24. ^ "Intención de voto en Cataluña". El País (in Spanish). 18 September 2015. 
  25. ^ "Cataluña: Los independentistas alcanzarían la mayoría absoluta en escaños". Metroscopia (in Spanish). 19 September 2015. 
  26. ^ "Mas y la CUP logran la mayoría absoluta por escaños y rozarían ya el 50% de los votos". El Confidencial (in Spanish). 18 September 2015. 
  27. ^ "Mas y Junqueras lograrían 62 diputados, según el sondeo de Economía Digital". Economía Digital (in Spanish). 17 September 2015. 
  28. ^ "Los independentistas de Junts pel si, al borde de la mayoría absoluta". Telecinco (in Spanish). 17 September 2015. 
  29. ^ "Una Cataluña dividida en manos de Podemos". La Razón (in Spanish). 17 September 2015. 
  30. ^ "Radiografía del voto. Encuesta septiembre 2015" (PDF). La Razón (in Spanish). 17 September 2015. 
  31. ^ "El CIS 'cocinó' su encuesta para reducir en más de cuatro puntos el voto a las filas independentistas". Público (in Spanish). 12 September 2015. 
  32. ^ "Anàlisi electoral. Fusió de dues enquestes de treball (12 de setembre de 2015)" (PDF). El Món (in Catalan). 12 September 2015. 
  33. ^ "CATALUÑA, Septiembre 2015. Sondeo interno Junts pel Sí". Electograph (in Spanish). 13 September 2015. 
  34. ^ "El 62% de los catalanes, en contra de la independencia sin una mayoría de votos". laSexta (in Spanish). 11 September 2015. 
  35. ^ "Los secesionistas conseguirían la mayoría de escaños, pero no la de votos". Última Hora (in Spanish). 13 September 2015. 
  36. ^ "El independentismo catalán aventaja en número de diputados pero no en el de votos". Última Hora (in Spanish). 13 September 2015. 
  37. ^ "La lista independentista ganaría las elecciones catalanas". Encuestamos (in Spanish). 7 September 2015. 
  38. ^ "Preelectoral de Cataluña. Elecciones autonómicas 2015. (Estudio nº 3108. Agosto-Septiembre 2015)" (PDF). CIS (in Spanish). 10 September 2015. 
  39. ^ "El día D". La Vanguardia (in Spanish). 11 September 2015. 
  40. ^ "Las listas independentistas obtendrán una holgada mayoría absoluta en el Parlament y un 48,8% de los votos". Público (in Spanish). 3 September 2015. 
  41. ^ "Junts pel Sí voreja l'absoluta". El Punt Avui (in Catalan). 5 September 2015. 
  42. ^ "CATALUÑA, Septiembre 2015. Sondeo GAPS". Electograph (in Spanish). 4 September 2015. 
  43. ^ "Un 46% de los catalanes, en contra de la independencia". El Mundo (in Spanish). 7 September 2015. 
  44. ^ "El independentismo obtendría una ajustada mayoría absoluta el 27-S". El Periódico de Catalunya (in Spanish). 6 September 2015. 
  45. ^ "El independentismo obtendría una ajustada mayoría absoluta el 27-S". El Periódico de Catalunya (in Spanish). 6 September 2015. 
  46. ^ "La lista independentista, lejos de la mayoría absoluta". La Razón (in Spanish). 27 August 2015. 
  47. ^ "Radiografía del voto. Encuesta agosto 2015" (PDF). La Razón (in Spanish). 27 August 2015. 
  48. ^ "Mas y Junqueras pierden 11 escaños tras anunciar su "lista unitaria"". La Razón (in Spanish). 27 July 2015. 
  49. ^ "La mayoría inexistente de los soberanistas catalanes" (PDF). La Razón (in Spanish). 27 July 2015. 
  50. ^ "Las listas independentistas sumarán mayoría absoluta por la mínima en el Parlament de Catalunya tras el 27-S". Público (in Spanish). 21 July 2015. 
  51. ^ "CDC, ERC y la CUP no sumarían mayoría absoluta por separado". La Vanguardia (in Spanish). 12 July 2015. 
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External links[edit]