Catalan regional election, 2017

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Catalan regional election, 2017

← 2015 21 December 2017 Next →

All 135 seats in the Parliament of Catalonia
68 seats needed for a majority
Opinion polls
Registered 5,554,455 Green Arrow Up Darker.svg0.8%
Turnout 4,392,891 (79.1%)
Green Arrow Up Darker.svg4.1 pp

  First party Second party Third party
  Inés Arrimadas 2017b (cropped).jpg Carles Puigdemont 2017 (cropped).jpg Oriol Junqueras 2016b (cropped).jpg
Leader Inés Arrimadas Carles Puigdemont[a] Oriol Junqueras[a]
Party Cs JuntsxCat ERC–CatSí
Leader since 3 July 2015 13 November 2017 17 September 2011
Leader's seat Barcelona Barcelona Barcelona
Last election 25 seats, 17.9% 31 seats (JxSí)[b] 26 seats (JxSí)[b]
Seats won 36 34 32
Seat change Green Arrow Up Darker.svg11 Green Arrow Up Darker.svg3 Green Arrow Up Darker.svg6
Popular vote 1,109,732 948,233 935,861
Percentage 25.4% 21.7% 21.4%
Swing Green Arrow Up Darker.svg7.5 pp n/a n/a

  Fourth party Fifth party Sixth party
  Miquel Iceta 2015a (cropped).jpg Xavier Domènech 2015b (cropped).jpg Carles Riera 2017 (cropped).jpg
Leader Miquel Iceta Xavier Domènech Carles Riera
Party PSC–PSOE CatComú–Podem CUP
Leader since 19 July 2014 8 April 2017 15 November 2017
Leader's seat Barcelona Barcelona Barcelona
Last election 16 seats, 12.7% 11 seats, 8.9%[c] 10 seats, 8.2%
Seats won 17 8 4
Seat change Green Arrow Up Darker.svg1 Red Arrow Down.svg3 Red Arrow Down.svg6
Popular vote 606,659 326,360 195,246
Percentage 13.9% 7.5% 4.5%
Swing Green Arrow Up Darker.svg1.2 pp Red Arrow Down.svg1.4 pp Red Arrow Down.svg3.7 pp

  Seventh party
  Xavier García Albiol 2017 (cropped).jpg
Leader Xavier García Albiol
Party PP
Leader since 28 July 2015
Leader's seat Barcelona
Last election 11 seats, 8.5%
Seats won 4
Seat change Red Arrow Down.svg7
Popular vote 185,670
Percentage 4.2%
Swing Red Arrow Down.svg4.3 pp

CataloniaProvinceMapParliament2017.png
Constituency results map for the Parliament of Catalonia

President before election

Office suspended
(previously Carles Puigdemont (PDeCAT))

Elected President

Quim Torra
Independent (JuntsxCat)

The 2017 Catalan regional election was held on Thursday, 21 December 2017 to elect the 12th Parliament of the Autonomous Community of Catalonia. All 135 seats in the Parliament were up for election. The election was called by Spanish Prime Minister Mariano Rajoy after the invocation of Article 155 of the 1978 Spanish Constitution and dismissal of the Catalan Government, led by former President Carles Puigdemont.[1] The three pro-Catalan independence parties won a slim majority of parliamentary seats, claiming 70 out of 135, but fell short of a majority in the popular vote by securing 47.5% of the share.

After the 2015 election, pro-Catalan independence parties maintained their majority in the Parliament, although President Artur Mas and his Junts pel Sí (JxSí) coalition—made up primarily by Democratic Convergence of Catalonia (CDC) and Republican Left of Catalonia (ERC)—required support from Popular Unity Candidacy (CUP) to govern. The CUP's decision to vote against his investiture forced Mas to withdraw his bid in order to prevent a snap election, with Carles Puigdemont, former Mayor of Girona, being elected as leader of the CDC–ERC coalition instead.[2] Shortly thereafter, CDC was re-founded as Catalan European Democratic Party (PDeCAT).[3]

On 27 October 2017, following the controversial referendum on 1 October, the pro-independence majority in the Catalan parliament voted in favour of a unilateral declaration of independence, just hours before the Spanish Senate voted to invoke Article 155 of the Spanish Constitution.[4][5] This allowed Prime Minister Mariano Rajoy to sack the Catalan government and dissolve the Catalan parliament, calling a regional election for 21 December.[6][1] With 36 seats, the main anti-independence party, Citizens (Cs), emerged as the largest in the Parliament.[7] The Socialists' Party of Catalonia (PSC) performed well below expectations and increased its seat count by one,[8] whereas Catalunya en Comú–Podem, a left-wing party in favor of self-governance for the region but not siding itself with either bloc, received 7.5% of the vote and 8 seats. Owing to the combined performance of Puigdemont's Junts per Catalunya (JuntsxCat) and ERC, parties in support of independence maintained their majority in the election,[9] meaning that it was mathematically possible for a pro-independence coalition government to return to power,[10] despite their overall majority having been reduced by two seats.[11]

The biggest election loser was Rajoy's People's Party (PP), whose electoral collapse—reduced to 4.2% of the share and 4 out of 135 seats—meant it would be unable to form a parliamentary group of its own in the Catalan parliament for the first time in history.[12] The scale of PP's downfall, coupled with the success of Cs, threatened to have a political impact beyond Catalonia, with PP leaders fearing it could spell the end of the party's hegemony over the centre-right vote in Spain.[13][14]

Overview[edit]

Background[edit]

Government formation

The 2015 election resulted in pro-Catalan independence Junts pel Sí (JxSí) (a coalition comprising the two main centre-right and centre-left Catalan parties at the time, Democratic Convergence of Catalonia (CDC) and Republican Left of Catalonia (ERC), together with several minor parties) and Popular Unity Candidacy (CUP) holding a slim majority of seats, despite not securing a majority of votes as was their objective. President Artur Mas' JxSí coalition also fell short of its goal to secure an absolute majority on its own, obtaining 62 seats against the combined 63 of the remaining opposition parties.[15] Thus, Mas found himself depending on CUP's support for securing his nomination to be re-elected to the office. The CUP, however, had difficulty in supporting Mas, whom they viewed as personally tainted by several corruption scandals involving his party, CDC. In the end, a last-minute deal was struck between JxSí and the CUP to ensure a pro-independence government, narrowly avoiding a new election being called, this deal resulted in Mas being replaced as President by Carles Puigdemont.[2]

2017 events

On 26 October 2017, it was expected that President of the Government of Catalonia Carles Puigdemont would call an election to prevent the enforcement of Article 155 of the Spanish Constitution, which was due to be approved by the Spanish Senate on the following day amid the 2017 Spanish constitutional crisis and which would have resulted in direct rule from the central government in Madrid being imposed over Catalonia.[16] This move sparked outcry within pro-independence ranks, including members within Puigdemont's coalition, who had aimed for a unilateral declaration of independence in response to the Spanish government's move to trigger Article 155.[17][18] Finally, President Puigdemont ruled out calling an election, allegedly because of the Spanish government's refusal to call off the invocation of the Article 155 procedure even were an election to be called by Catalan authorities.[19][20] After Puigdemont's refusal to call an election, a debate over a possible declaration of independence went ahead as planned in the Parliament of Catalonia later that day and into the next day,[4] simultaneous to the Spanish Senate debating the enforcement of direct rule in Catalonia.[6] At the end of the debate, the Catalan parliament voted a unilateral declaration of independence which was backed 70–10, two MPs casting a blank ballot and all MPs from Citizens, the Socialists' Party of Catalonia and the People's Party boycotting the vote.[5] Mariano Rajoy subsequently removed the entire Catalan government from office and declared the Parliament's dissolution, calling a regional election for 21 December 2017.[1]

Puigdemont and part of his dismissed cabinet fled to Belgium on 30 October in a move to avoid action from the Spanish judiciary,[21][22] as the Spanish Attorney General José Manuel Maza announced a criminal complaint against them for rebellion, sedition and embezzlement.[23][24] On 2 November, the Spanish National Court ordered that eight members of the deposed Catalan government—including former Vice President and ERC leader Oriol Junqueras—be remanded in custody without bail after being summoned to appear to respond to the criminal charges pressed against them, with a ninth—Santi Vila—being granted a €50,000 bail. European Arrest Warrants were issued for Puigdemont and his four other cabinet members in Belgium refusing to attend the hearing.[25][26]

Electoral system[edit]

The Parliament of Catalonia was the devolved, unicameral legislature of the autonomous community of Catalonia, having legislative power in regional matters as defined by the Spanish Constitution and the Catalan Statute of Autonomy, as well as the ability to vote confidence in or withdraw it from a President of the Government.[27][28] Voting for the Parliament was on the basis of universal suffrage, which comprised all nationals over eighteen, registered in Catalonia and in full enjoyment of their political rights. Additionally, Catalans abroad were required to apply for voting before being permitted to vote, a system known as "begged" or expat vote (Spanish: Voto rogado).[29]

The 135 members of the Parliament of Catalonia were elected using the D'Hondt method and a closed list proportional representation, with a threshold of 3 percent of valid votes—which included blank ballots—being applied in each constituency. Parties not reaching the threshold were not taken into consideration for seat distribution. Additionally, the use of the D'Hondt method might result in an effective threshold over three percent, depending on the district magnitude.[30] Seats were allocated to constituencies, corresponding to the provinces of Barcelona, Girona, Lleida and Tarragona. Each constituency was allocated a fixed number of seats: 85 for Barcelona, 17 for Girona, 15 for Lleida and 18 for Tarragona.[27][28][31]

The electoral law provided that parties, federations, coalitions and groupings of electors were allowed to present lists of candidates. However, parties, federations or coalitions that had not obtained a mandate in the Parliament at the preceding election were required to secure the signature of at least 0.1 percent of the electors registered in the constituency for which they sought election, whereas groupings of electors were required to secure the signature of 1 percent of electors. Electors were barred from signing for more than one list of candidates. Concurrently, parties and federations intending to enter in coalition to take part jointly at an election were required to inform the relevant Electoral Commission within ten days of the election being called.[32][33]

Election date[edit]

The term of the Parliament of Catalonia expired four years after the date of its previous election, unless it was dissolved earlier. The President of the Government was required to call an election fifteen days prior to the date of expiry of parliament, with election day taking place within from forty to sixty days after the call. The previous election was held on 27 September 2015, which meant that the legislature's term would have expired on 27 September 2019. The election was required to be called no later than 12 September 2019, with it taking place up to the sixtieth day from the call, setting the latest possible election date for the Parliament on Monday, 11 November 2019.[27][28]

The President of the Government had the prerogative to dissolve the Parliament of Catalonia and call a snap election, provided that no motion of no confidence was in process and that dissolution did not occur before one year had elapsed since a previous one under this procedure. In the event of an investiture process failing to elect a regional President within a two-month period from the first ballot, the Parliament was to be automatically dissolved and a fresh election called.[27][28]

Parties and leaders[edit]

Below is a list of the main parties and coalitions which contested the election:

Parties and coalitions Ideology Candidate
Together for Catalonia (JuntsxCat) Catalan independentism, Republicanism Carles Puigdemont
Republican Left–Catalonia Yes (ERC–CatSí) Left-wing nationalism, Catalan independentism Oriol Junqueras
Citizens–Party of the Citizenry (Cs) Liberalism Inés Arrimadas
Socialists' Party of Catalonia (PSC–PSOE) Social democracy, Federalism Miquel Iceta
Catalonia in Common–We Can (CatComú–Podem) Eco-socialism, Democratic socialism Xavier Domènech
People's Party (PP) Conservatism, Christian democracy Xavier García Albiol
Popular Unity Candidacy (CUP) Anti-capitalism, Catalan independentism Carles Riera

After independence was declared by the Parliament of Catalonia on 27 October and Prime Minister Mariano Rajoy announced the Parliament's dissolution and a regional election for 21 December, pro-independence parties debated whether they should contest the election–thus abiding by Spanish law, and acknowledging independence did not take place–or boycott it and thus risk remaining absent from the Parliament in the next legislature.[34][35][36]

On 5 November 2017, the Catalan European Democratic Party (PDeCAT) proposed Carles Puigdemont as their election candidate, who in the previous days had already showed interested in leading the PDeCAT into the 21 December election from Belgium.[37][38] PDeCAT members sought to contest the election into an unitary list formed by pro-independence parties for the right of self-determination and against the use of Article 155, calling for "amnesty of political prisoners".[39] On 13 November, the PDeCAT announced that it would run under the Junts per Catalunya platform, centered around Puigdemont and including non-party members such as Jordi Sànchez.[40][41]

Republican Left of Catalonia (ERC) rejected the idea of renewing the Junts pel Sí alliance, and made its participation in any prospective electoral coalition conditional on it including the Popular Unity Candidacy (CUP) and members from Catalunya Sí que es Pot–in reference to the Podemos branch in Catalonia (Podem), led by Albano Dante Fachin, who had increasingly distanced himself from the party's national leadership.[42][43] The CUP dubbed the election "illegitimate" and rejected contesting the election under their own brand, but did not rule out running under a different label or supporting a unitary pro-independence alliance.[44][45] However, after the CUP ruled out a coalition with other parties on 7 November, ERC rejected a joint candidacy of pro-independence parties and announced it would contest the election on its own.[46][47]

Catalunya en Comú, Ada Colau's party successor to the En Comú Podem electoral alliance which contested the 2015 and 2016 general elections in Catalonia, chose Xavier Domènech as its electoral candidate. Domènech proposed an alliance with Podem, which under Fachin had rejected merging into Colau's party earlier in 2017.[48] Podem's grassroots members voted in favour of an alliance with Catalunya en Comú, after Fachin had resigned as regional party leader over disputes with the national leadership.[49] Both parties announced they would contest the election under the Catalunya en Comú–Podem label.

On 7 November, the Socialists' Party of Catalonia (PSC) announced an agreement with Units per Avançar (English: United to Advance), the wing of the defunct party Democratic Union of Catalonia that rejected separatism in 2015, thereby aiming to integrate some of its members in its list and hopefully to add the almost 102,000 votes collected by that party at the previous election, which were not enough to gain representation by themselves. The agreement was refused the status of a proper coalition; hence, PSC ran under its own name only.[50]

Campaign[edit]

Slogans[edit]

Parties and coalitions Catalan Spanish English translation Refs
Together for Catalonia Puigdemont, el nostre president Puigdemont, nuestro presidente "Puigdemont, our president" [51]
Republican Left of Catalonia–Catalonia Yes La democràcia sempre guanya La democracia siempre gana "Democracy always wins" [52]
Citizens–Party of the Citizenry Ara sí votarem Ahora sí votaremos "Now we will vote" [53][54]
Socialists' Party of Catalonia Solucions. Ara, Iceta! Soluciones. ¡Ahora, Iceta! "Solutions. Now, Iceta!" [55]
Catalonia in Common–We Can Tenim molt en comú Tenemos mucho en común "We have a lot in common" [56]
People's Party Espanya és la solució España es la solución "Spain is the solution" [57][58]
Popular Unity Candidacy Dempeus! ¡De pie! "Stand up!" [59]

Party stances[edit]

Stance on
independence
Parties and coalitions Referendum Unilateralism Support of direct rule Refs
☑Y Yes Together for Catalonia ☑Y Question? ☒N [60]
Republican Left–Catalonia Yes ☑Y Question? ☒N [61]
Popular Unity Candidacy ☑Y ☑Y ☒N [62]
☒N No Citizens–Party of the Citizenry ☒N ☑Y [63]
Socialists' Party of Catalonia ☒N ☑Y [64]
People's Party ☒N ☑Y [65]
Question? Neutral Catalonia in Common–We Can ☑Y ☒N [66][67]

Leaders' debates[edit]

Catalan regional election debates, 2017
Date Organisers Moderator(s)     P  Present    S  Surrogate    NI  Non-invitee   A  Absent invitee 
JxCat ERC Cs PSC CeC–P PP CUP Refs
29 November RTVE
(El Debate de La 1)
Julio Somoano S
Dalmases
S
Torrent
S
Roldán
S
Granados
S
Ribas
S
Levy
S
Sànchez
[68]
3 December laSexta
(Salvados)
Jordi Évole NI P
Rovira
P
Arrimadas
NI NI NI NI [69]
7 December RTVE
(El Debat de La 1)
Quim Barnola S
Turull
S
Torrent
P
Arrimadas
P
Iceta
P
Domènech
P
Albiol
P
Riera
[70]
11 December TV3
(Més 324)
Xavier Graset S
Madaula
S
Mundó
S
Sierra
S
Granados
S
Alamany
S
García
S
Sirvent
[71]
12 December TV3
(Més 324)
Xavier Graset S
Campdepadrós
S
Peris
S
Roldán
S
Ibarra
S
López
S
Fernández
S
Milian
[72]
13 December TV3
(Més 324)
Xavier Graset S
Forné
S
Solé
S
Soler
S
Ordeig
S
Vilà
S
Xandri
S
Boya
[73]
14 December Cadena SER
(Hoy por Hoy)
Pepa Bueno S
Turull
S
Maragall
P
Arrimadas
P
Iceta
P
Domènech
P
Albiol
P
Riera
[74]
14 December TV3
(Més 324)
Xavier Graset S
Geis
S
Torrent
S
Castel
S
Bruguera
S
Planagumà
S
Olmedo
S
Sànchez
[73]
17 December laSexta
(17D. El Debat)
Ana Pastor S
Rull
S
Mundó
P
Arrimadas
P
Iceta
P
Domènech
P
Albiol
S
Aragonés
[75]
18 December TV3
(E17: El Debat)
Vicent Sanchis S
Turull
S
Rovira
P
Arrimadas
P
Iceta
P
Domènech
P
Albiol
P
Riera
[76]

Opinion polls[edit]

The table below lists voting intention estimates in reverse chronological order, showing the most recent first and using the dates when the survey fieldwork was done, as opposed to the date of publication. Where the fieldwork dates are unknown, the date of publication is given instead. The highest percentage figure in each polling survey is displayed with its background shaded in the leading party's colour. If a tie ensues, this is applied to the figures with the highest percentages. The "Lead" column on the right shows the percentage-point difference between the parties with the highest percentages in a given poll. When available, seat projections are also displayed below the voting estimates in a smaller font. 68 seats were required for an absolute majority in the Parliament of Catalonia.

Color key:

  Poll conducted after legal ban on opinion polls

Results[edit]

Overall[edit]

Summary of the 21 December 2017 Parliament of Catalonia election results →
CataloniaParliamentDiagram2017.svg
Parties and coalitions Popular vote Seats
Votes % ±pp Total +/−
Citizens–Party of the Citizenry (Cs) 1,109,732 25.35 +7.44 36 +11
Together for Catalonia (JuntsxCat)1 948,233 21.66 n/a 34 +3
Republican Left–Catalonia Yes (ERC–CatSí)1 935,861 21.38 n/a 32 +6
Socialists' Party of Catalonia (PSC–PSOE) 606,659 13.86 +1.14 17 +1
Catalonia in Common–We Can (CatComú–Podem)2 326,360 7.46 –1.48 8 –3
Popular Unity Candidacy (CUP) 195,246 4.46 –3.75 4 –6
People's Party (PP) 185,670 4.24 –4.25 4 –7
Animalist Party Against Mistreatment of Animals (PACMA) 38,743 0.89 +0.16 0 ±0
Zero CutsGreen Group (Recortes Cero–GV) 10,287 0.24 –0.11 0 ±0
For a Fairer World (PUM+J) 577 0.01 New 0 ±0
Republican Dialogue (Diàleg) 0 0.00 New 0 ±0
Together for Yes independents (JxSí)1 n/a n/a n/a 0 –5
Blank ballots 19,431 0.44 –0.09
Total 4,376,799 135 ±0
Valid votes 4,376,799 99.63 +0.02
Invalid votes 16,092 0.37 –0.02
Votes cast / turnout 4,392,891 79.09 +4.14
Abstentions 1,161,564 20.91 –4.14
Registered voters 5,554,455
Sources[77]
Popular vote
Cs
25.35%
JuntsxCat
21.66%
ERC–CatSí
21.38%
PSC–PSOE
13.86%
CeC–P
7.46%
CUP
4.46%
PP
4.24%
Others
1.13%
Blank ballots
0.44%
Seats
Cs
26.67%
JuntsxCat
25.19%
ERC–CatSí
23.70%
PSC–PSOE
12.59%
CeC–P
5.93%
CUP
2.96%
PP
2.96%

Distribution by constituency[edit]

Constituency Cs JxCat ERC PSC CeC–P CUP PP
% S % S % S % S % S % S % S
Barcelona 26.4 24 19.0 17 20.6 18 15.1 13 8.4 7 4.4 3 4.3 3
Girona 19.5 4 36.7 7 21.7 4 8.6 1 4.0 5.3 1 2.9
Lleida 17.0 3 32.5 6 26.7 5 9.0 1 3.9 5.0 4.5
Tarragona 27.4 5 21.7 4 23.7 5 11.8 2 5.4 1 4.0 4.6 1
Total 25.4 36 21.7 34 21.4 32 13.9 17 7.5 8 4.5 4 4.2 4
Sources[77]

Aftermath[edit]

Initial reactions[edit]

The results were announced after polls in the region closed, with Citizens (Cs) becoming the largest party in the regional parliament, but pro-independence parties maintained a majority of seats.[78] Cs gained twelve seats in the election under the leadership of Inés Arrimadas, bringing its total to 36.[79] This meant that the largest party in the region was overtly and directly opposed to independence.[78] However, even this increase in the vote share left it 31 seats short of a majority in the parliament.[7]

Junts per Catalunya (JuntsxCat), the party of Carles Puigdemont, former President of the Government of Catalonia, also saw an increase in its seat total, emerging as the second-largest party in the region with 34 seats. This represented an increase of three seats for the party, which stood on a staunchly pro-independence platform, as dictated by its exiled leader. While the party lost its position as the largest in parliament, the improved performance of the Republican Left of Catalonia (ERC), a left-wing party also campaigning for independence from Spain, helped ensure that JuntsxCat would maintain its dominant role in regional politics.[80] ERC, under the stewardship of Oriol Junqueras, who served as Vice President of Catalonia under Puigdemont, secured 32 seats, leaving the pro-independence parties a mere two seats short of re-establishing a coalition and holding their majority. These seats were provided by the Popular Unity Candidacy (CUP), which, in spite of a severely diminished performance from the previous election, still held four seats, courtesy of a strong performance in Barcelona.[7] This ensured that pro-independence parties were able to maintain their majority in the parliament.[81] Five independent politicians, who were participants in the Junts pel Sí bloc but not party members, lost their seats. Consequently, despite both JuntsxCat and ERC increasing their number of seats, the majority in the parliament for independence was diminished by two seats, but nonetheless maintained.[11] The result was hailed by Puigdemont as a "slap in the face" for Madrid and for Mariano Rajoy.[82]

Government formation[edit]

As a result of pro-independence parties securing a parliamentary majority, Arrimadas announced she would not try to form a government on her own, instead waiting and see how negotiations between pro-independence parties evolved.[83] As the candidate of the most-voted party within the pro-independence bloc, Puigdemont intended to be re-elected as President, but this was hampered by the fact he risked being arrested by Spanish authorities upon returning from his self-imposed exile in Brussels, as he was a fugitive from Spain's justice. Further, pro-independence parties could only command 62 seats—six short of a majority—as in practice eight of their elected deputies were either in Brussels with Puigdemont or in preventive detention.[84]

One of these was ERC's leader Oriol Junqueras, who aimed at becoming President himself on the grounds that he could be granted prison permits that allowed him to attend parliamentary plenary sessions, whereas Puigdemont would have it near-impossible to be invested from Brussels—Parliament's regulations required for any candidate to the office to be physically present in the investiture—or to rule Catalonia from abroad.[85][86] Members of JuntsxCat insisted that they would only vote for Puigdemont as President, even if that meant forcing a new election, and claimed that they intended to pressure Mariano Rajoy into allowing Puigdemont's return.[87]

After the Catalan parliament elected Roger Torrent as new speaker, Puigdemont was proposed as candidate for re-election as President of the Government.[88] However, facing arrest on possible charges of rebellion, sedition and misuse of public funds, the Catalan parliament delayed Puigdemont's investiture after Constitutional Court ruled that he could not assume the presidency from abroad.[89][90][91] With other pro-independence leaders assuring the pro-independence movement should outlive Puigdemont in order to end the political deadlock,[92] the former Catalan president announced on 1 March he would step his claim aside in order to allow detained activist Jordi Sànchez, from his Junts per Catalunya alliance, to become President instead.[93] However, as Spain's Supreme Court did not allow Sànchez to be freed from jail to attend his investiture ceremony,[94][95] Sànchez ended up giving up his candidacy on 21 March in favour of former Catalan government spokesman Jordi Turull, who was also under investigation for his role in the referendum.[96][97]

Investiture
Jordi Turull (PDeCAT)
Ballot → 22 March 2018 24 March 2018
Required majority → 68 out of 135 ☒N Simple
64 / 135
Cancelled
(as a result of candidate
Jordi Turull being put
in preventive detention)
65 / 135
4 / 135
2 / 135
Sources[98][99]

Turull was defeated in the first ballot of a hastily convened investiture session held on 22 March, with only his Junts per Catalunya alliance and ERC voting for him and the Popular Unity Candidacy abstaining, resulting in a 64–65 defeat. The next day and less than 24 hours before he was due to attend the second ballot, the Supreme Court announced that thirteen senior Catalan leaders—including Turull—would be charged with rebellion over their roles in the 2017 unilateral referendum and subsequent declaration of independence. In anticipation of this ruling and in order to avoid appearing in court, Marta Rovira—ERC's general secretary and deputy leader to jailed Oriol Junqueras—fled the country to Switzerland in "self-exile". This prompted the Court to rule that Turull and several others would be remanded in custody without bail.[100][101] As a result, the Parliament speaker Roger Torrent cancelled Turull's second investiture ballot.[99] Turull's first ballot nonetheless started the clock towards automatic parliamentary dissolution, meaning a new regional election would be called for 15 July if no candidate was elected as President of the Government before 22 May.[102]

Concurrently, the European Arrest Warrant against Puigdemont was reactivated just as he was in a visit to Finland, but he left the country to Belgium before Finnish authorities could arrest him.[103] On his way to Belgium on 25 March he was caught and detained in Germany while crossing the border from Denmark.[104][105]

On 12 May, Quim Torra didn't earn the absolute majority support to be invested President, with 66 votes against 65 in the first round (the absolute majority was 68 votes, from 135 total votes).[106] On 14 May, Torra was elected next President of the Government[107] in the second round of vote, with the same results, when only a simple majority was necessary.

Investiture
Quim Torra (Independent)
Ballot → 12 May 2018 14 May 2018
Required majority → 68 out of 135 ☒N Simple ☑Y
66 / 135
66 / 135
65 / 135
65 / 135
4 / 135
4 / 135
Absentees
0 / 135
0 / 135
Sources[108][109]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b As a result of the exceptional circumstances amid which the election was held, at the time of the election's call Carles Puigdemont had self-exiled himself to Belgium in order to avoid action from the Spanish judiciary, whereas Oriol Junqueras had been put in preventive detention.
  2. ^ a b Within the Junts pel Sí alliance in the 2015 election. Totals for ERC–CatSí include DC and MES. Totals for both JuntsxCat and ERC–CatSí include aligned independents who in 2015 ran within the JxSí alliance.
  3. ^ Data for CatSíqueesPot in the 2015 election.

References[edit]

Opinion poll sources
  1. ^ "Encuesta final para La Vanguardia, a las 20:00h del 21D". GAD3 (in Spanish). 21 December 2017. 
  2. ^ "CATALUÑA. Sondeo GAD3. Autonómicas. Diciembre 2017 (4)". Electograph (in Spanish). 21 December 2017. 
  3. ^ a b c d e "Las encuestas otorgan la victoria a Ciudadanos y posibilidad de gobierno a los independentistas". eldiario.es (in Spanish). 21 December 2017. 
  4. ^ "Catalonia's pro-indy parties within touching distance of absolute majority according to our final world exclusive poll". The National. 20 December 2017. 
  5. ^ "ERC ganaría las elecciones en escaños y Ciutadans, en votos". El Periòdic d'Andorra (in Spanish). 20 December 2017. 
  6. ^ "Catalan unionist parties stall as voters look to elect pro-indy majority in new world exclusive poll". The National. 20 December 2017. 
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  9. ^ "Ciutadans ganaría las elecciones en votos y ERC, en escaños". El Periòdic d'Andorra (in Spanish). 18 December 2017. 
  10. ^ "Pro-indy Catalan parties both closing in on unionists and are set to win combined majority in latest world exclusive poll from Catalonia". The National. 18 December 2017. 
  11. ^ "ERC se resiente y Ciutadans y Puigdemont le recortan distancia". El Periòdic d'Andorra (in Spanish). 17 December 2017. 
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  19. ^ "ERC se despega y Puigdemont pierde fuelle". El Periódico de Catalunya (in Spanish). 14 December 2017. 
  20. ^ "La participación en las elecciones catalanas se estanca en el umbral del 80%". El Periódico de Catalunya (in Spanish). 14 December 2017. 
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  26. ^ "JuntsXCat guanya a Lleida i l'independentisme millora posicions al territori". El Nacional (in Catalan). 15 December 2017. 
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  28. ^ "ERC y Ciudadanos se disputan la victoria electoral en Cataluña". 20minutos (in Spanish). 15 December 2017. 
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  35. ^ "CATALUÑA. Sondeo Infortécnica. Autonómicas. Diciembre 2017 (2)". Electograph (in Spanish). 15 December 2017. 
  36. ^ "El bloque constitucionalista ganaría en votos, pero no en escaños". La Razón (in Spanish). 15 December 2017. 
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  38. ^ "El bloque de la Constitución roza el triunfo en Cataluña". El País (in Spanish). 14 December 2017. 
  39. ^ "Intención de voto y proyección de escaños en el Parlament". El País (in Spanish). 14 December 2017. 
  40. ^ "La victòria de Cs el 21-D amenaça la majoria absoluta independentista". El Nacional (in Catalan). 12 December 2017. 
  41. ^ "L'ímpetu de Cs ensorra el PP a Barcelona i guanya el pols a ERC a Tarragona". El Nacional (in Catalan). 13 December 2017. 
  42. ^ "La llista de Puigdemont passa al davant d'ERC, segons una enquesta de JxCat". RAC1 (in Catalan). 11 December 2017. 
  43. ^ "Ciutadans seria el partit més votat, segons una enquesta de JxCat". RAC1 (in Catalan). 11 December 2017. 
  44. ^ "Arrimadas lidera en intención de voto a costa del PP pero con mayoría separatista". El Español (in Spanish). 13 December 2017. 
  45. ^ "El voto útil catapulta a Arrimadas pero los separatistas siguen rozando la mayoría absoluta". El Español (in Spanish). 11 December 2017. 
  46. ^ "ERC aguanta l'embranzida d'un Puigdemont que disputa a Cs la segona plaça". El Nacional (in Catalan). 10 December 2017. 
  47. ^ "ERC guanya en 3 de les 4 demarcacions el doble duel amb Cs i JuntsXCAT". El Nacional (in Catalan). 10 December 2017. 
  48. ^ "Cs compite por el liderazgo con ERC mientras Puigdemont acorta distancias". El Español (in Spanish). 9 December 2017. 
  49. ^ "La mayoría soberanista se aleja, y Cs, ERC y JxCat se disputan la victoria". La Vanguardia (in Spanish). 9 December 2017. 
  50. ^ "La majoria independentista entra en zona de perill per al 21-D". El Nacional (in Catalan). 7 December 2017. 
  51. ^ "Esquerra guanyaria les eleccions a Lleida, amb empat tècnic entre JxCat i Ciutadans". Segre (in Catalan). 12 December 2017. 
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  55. ^ "L'independentisme manté la majoria absoluta amb ERC al capdavant". El Nacional (in Catalan). 5 December 2017. 
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