2015 Catalan regional election

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

2015 Catalan regional election

← 2012 27 September 2015 2017 →

All 135 seats in the Parliament of Catalonia
68 seats needed for a majority
Opinion polls
Registered5,510,853 Green Arrow Up Darker.svg1.8%
Turnout4,130,196 (75.0%)
Green Arrow Up Darker.svg7.2 pp
  First party Second party Third party
  Artur Mas 2015 (cropped).jpg Inés Arrimadas 2017b (cropped).jpg Miquel Iceta 2015a (cropped).jpg
Leader Artur Mas Inés Arrimadas Miquel Iceta
Party JxSí C's PSC–PSOE
Leader since 15 July 2015 3 July 2015 19 July 2014
Leader's seat Barcelona Barcelona Barcelona
Last election 71 seats, 44.4%[a] 9 seats, 7.6% 20 seats, 14.4%
Seats won 62 25 16
Seat change Red Arrow Down.svg9 Green Arrow Up Darker.svg16 Red Arrow Down.svg4
Popular vote 1,628,714 736,364 523,283
Percentage 39.6% 17.9% 12.7%
Swing Red Arrow Down.svg4.8 pp Green Arrow Up Darker.svg10.3 pp Red Arrow Down.svg1.7 pp

  Fourth party Fifth party Sixth party
  Lluís Rabell 2015d (cropped).jpg Xavier García Albiol 2015b (cropped).jpg Antonio Baños 2015 (cropped).jpg
Leader Lluís Rabell Xavier García Albiol Antonio Baños
Party CatSíqueesPot PP CUP
Leader since 23 July 2015 28 July 2015 30 July 2015
Leader's seat Barcelona Barcelona Barcelona
Last election 13 seats, 9.9%[b] 19 seats, 13.0% 3 seats, 3.5%
Seats won 11 11 10
Seat change Red Arrow Down.svg2 Red Arrow Down.svg8 Green Arrow Up Darker.svg7
Popular vote 367,613 349,193 337,794
Percentage 8.9% 8.5% 8.2%
Swing Red Arrow Down.svg1.0 pp Red Arrow Down.svg4.5 pp Green Arrow Up Darker.svg4.7 pp

CataloniaProvinceMapParliament2015.png
Constituency results map for the Parliament of Catalonia

President before election

Artur Mas
CDC

Elected President

Carles Puigdemont
CDC (JxSí)

The 2015 Catalan regional election was held on Sunday, 27 September 2015, electing the 11th Parliament of the Autonomous Community of Catalonia. All 135 seats in the Parliament were up for election. This was the third regional Catalan election in only five years, after the 2010 and 2012 elections and the first one in over 37 years in which Democratic Convergence of Catalonia (CDC) and Democratic Union of Catalonia (UDC) ran separately, after the dissolution of Convergence and Union (CiU) in June 2015 over disagreements on the coalition's separatist turn.

The plan to hold a snap election in 2015 was announced on 14 January by President Artur Mas. After the non-binding 2014 independence referendum, Mas declared that the election was to be turned into an alternative vote on independence, with pro-independence parties including the independence goal in their election manifestos.[1] As part of the process, CDC, along with Republican Left of Catalonia (ERC), Democrats of Catalonia (DC) and Left Movement (MES) would run together under the Junts pel Sí (JxSí) platform, with support from members of the pro-independence Catalan National Assembly (ANC), Òmnium and the Municipalities' Association for Independence (AMI). The alliance, however, failed to achieve its self-stated goal to attain an absolute majority on its own.

Newly formed Podemos (Spanish for "We can"), Initiative for Catalonia Greens (ICV), United and Alternative Left (EUiA) and Equo stood together under the Catalunya Sí que es Pot (CatSíqueesPot) label, a second novel electoral grouping formed for this election. The alliance was modeled after the Barcelona en Comú platform that won the 2015 Barcelona election, but it failed to garner the decisive support of the city's popular mayor Ada Colau and achieved a poor performance. Citizens (C's) benefited from its anti-independence stance and climbed to second place ahead of a declining Socialists' Party of Catalonia (PSC), which scored a new historical low for the third election in a row. The People's Party of Catalonia (PPC) suffered from its national counterpart decline and scored its worst result since 1992, whereas the left-wing Popular Unity Candidacy saw a strong performance which allowed it to hold the key to government formation with JxSí.

Overview[edit]

Electoral system[edit]

The Parliament of Catalonia was the devolved, unicameral legislature of the autonomous community of Catalonia, having legislative power in regional matters as defined by the Spanish Constitution and the Catalan Statute of Autonomy, as well as the ability to vote confidence in or withdraw it from a President of the Government.[2][3] Voting for the Parliament was on the basis of universal suffrage, which comprised all nationals over eighteen, registered in Catalonia and in full enjoyment of their political rights. Additionally, Catalans abroad were required to apply for voting before being permitted to vote, a system known as "begged" or expat vote (Spanish: Voto rogado).[4]

The 135 members of the Parliament of Catalonia were elected using the D'Hondt method and a closed list proportional representation, with a threshold of 3 percent of valid votes—which included blank ballots—being applied in each constituency. Parties not reaching the threshold were not taken into consideration for seat distribution. Additionally, the use of the D'Hondt method might result in an effective threshold over three percent, depending on the district magnitude.[5] Seats were allocated to constituencies, corresponding to the provinces of Barcelona, Girona, Lleida and Tarragona. Each constituency was allocated a fixed number of seats: 85 for Barcelona, 17 for Girona, 15 for Lleida and 18 for Tarragona.[2][3][6]

The electoral law provided that parties, federations, coalitions and groupings of electors were allowed to present lists of candidates. However, parties, federations or coalitions that had not obtained a mandate in the Parliament at the preceding election were required to secure the signature of at least 0.1 percent of the electors registered in the constituency for which they sought election, whereas groupings of electors were required to secure the signature of 1 percent of electors. Electors were barred from signing for more than one list of candidates. Concurrently, parties and federations intending to enter in coalition to take part jointly at an election were required to inform the relevant Electoral Commission within ten days of the election being called.[7][8]

Election date[edit]

The term of the Parliament of Catalonia expired four years after the date of its previous election, unless it was dissolved earlier. The President of the Government was required to call an election fifteen days prior to the date of expiry of parliament, with election day taking place within from forty to sixty days after the call. The previous election was held on 25 November 2012, which meant that the legislature's term would have expired on 25 November 2016. The election was required to be called no later than 10 November 2016, with it taking place up to the sixtieth day from the call, setting the latest possible election date for the Parliament on Monday, 9 January 2017.[2][3]

The President of the Government had the prerogative to dissolve the Parliament of Catalonia and call a snap election, provided that no motion of no confidence was in process and that dissolution did not occur before one year had elapsed since a previous one under this procedure. In the event of an investiture process failing to elect a regional President within a two-month period from the first ballot, the Parliament was to be automatically dissolved and a fresh election called.[2][3]

Background[edit]

Secessionist process[edit]

After the 2012 regional election resulted in Convergence and Union (CiU) unexpectedly losing seats, President Mas was placed in a difficult political position, as he fell 18 seats short of the absolute majority. He was forced to sign an agreement with Republican Left of Catalonia (ERC), in which the latter pledged to support the government, albeit without entering a formal coalition, in return for a faster process to obtain the independence of Catalonia.

President of Catalonia Artur Mas and Oriol Junqueras, signing the government agreement on 19 December 2012.

On 23 January 2013, the Parliament of Catalonia adopted the Declaration of Sovereignty and of the Right to Decide of the Catalan People, which stated that "The people of Catalonia have—by reason of democratic legitimacy—the character of a sovereign political and legal entity." This declaration was provisionally suspended by the Constitutional Court of Spain on 8 May 2013, and on 25 March 2014 the same court declared that it was void and unconstitutional[9] due to the fact that the Spanish Constitution of 1978 makes the Spanish people as a whole the only subject of sovereignty. At the same time, opinion polls began to show ERC topping the voters' preferences for the first time since the 1932 Catalan election, with the CiU vote declining as a result of the 2012 election backlash, but also because of Mas' management of the economic crisis and the involvement of several CiU leading figures in several corruption scandals. Among those involved was party founder Jordi Pujol, charged in a tax fraud scandal related to an undeclared inheritance in Andorra, accompanied by allegations of bribery, embezzlement, breach of trust, influence peddling, forgery of documents and money laundering crimes allegedly committed during his time as President of Catalonia.[10]

On 12 December 2013, the Government of Catalonia announced that a non-binding referendum on the independence issue would be held on 9 November 2014, for the purpose of giving independence leaders a political mandate to negotiate with the Spanish Government.[11] Mariano Rajoy's government stated shortly after its intention to block such a referendum, which it considered unconstitutional and not within the competences of the Autonomous Community.[12]

In spite of this, a not legally sanctioned referendum was held as scheduled, with over 80% voting for independence, albeit on a low turnout of around 40%. Independence parties considered the result a success. Artur Mas explained in a public act on 25 November his plan to reach independence, proposing calling an extraordinary regional election—turned into an alternative vote on independence—at some point during 2015, on the condition that ERC agreed to join a common list with his party to stand together at the polls. ERC leader Oriol Junqueras agreed with most of the plan but initially refused such a joint list, threatening to break its government pact with CiU in order to force an election in early 2015.[13][14] After weeks of calibrated brinkmanship from both sides, with CDC pushing for a joint candidature to cover for its forecasted loss of support and ERC refusing to run with Artur Mas as presidential candidate, both parties finally reached an agreement, and on 14 January 2015, Mas announced that a snap regional election would be held on 27 September that same year, with the intention to turn in into the true plebiscite on independence.[1]

Aside from the pact to hold an extraordinary election, the agreement also included to complete state structures as a basic element to culminate the process of "national transition" as well as negotiation of budgets.[15][16] Mas and Junqueras also apologized for the rarefied political climate between the pro-independence parties in the negotiations that had taken place during the weeks prior to the announcement.[17]

The Spanish Government, in response to the election announcement eight months ahead of the scheduled date, accused Mas of having "no interest in attending the Catalans' problems, nor it has any capacity to solve them".[18] PP, PSOE and UPyD also criticized the announcement.[19]

CiU breakup[edit]

Tension within both parties forming the CiU federation had reached an all-time high in June 2015 due to differences between the positions the Democratic Union of Catalonia (UDC) leadership and Democratic Convergence of Catalonia (CDC) leader Artur Mas took over the sovereignty process. CDC was in favour of outright independence even if it meant breaking the established Spanish legality, while UDC was against doing it without a successful negotiation with the Spanish Government. As a result, a vote was held on 14 June 2015 between UDC members, asking whether the party should commit itself to continue with the process but establishing several conditions—including not violating the legality in force through unilateral independence declarations—or starting the constituent processes at the margin of legal norms.[20][21] The first option, supported by UDC leaders and contrary to the signed agreements between CDC, ERC and sovereignty entities, was approved by UDC members with a narrow 50.9% to 46.1% choosing to stand at the side of CDC.[22] After this, CDC issued an ultimatum to UDC for the latter to decide within "two or three days" whether it committed itself to the independence plan.[23] On 17 June, after a meeting of the UDC leadership, it was announced that the party was withdrawing all three of its members from the Government of the Generalitat of Catalonia, although they agreed to maintain parliamentary stability until the end of the legislature.[24] That same day at night, the CDC National Executive Committee met and in a press conference the next day confirmed that UDC and CDC would not stand together in the 2015 regional election, and that the political project of the CiU federation was over, spelling the end of 37 years of cooperation between both parties as Convergence and Union,[25][26] a coalition which had dominated Catalan politics since the 1980s.

Run up to election[edit]

On 3 August 2015, President of the Government of Catalonia, Artur Mas, signed the election call decree 9 pm at the Palau de la Generalitat and later made an appearance before the cameras of the Catalan Corporation of Media highlighting the extraordinariness of the proposal's background, which nonetheless did not mention the word plebiscite. The President justified the extraordinary meaning of the election after having unsuccessfully tried to negotiate a legal and agreed-to referendum with the Government of Spain. Mas, however, did not mention how much support did he considered necessary for proceeding with the independence process.[27][28] Only pro-independence parties recognized the plebiscitary character of the election, with other parties arguing that—acknowledging the election's importance—it still was an election to the Parliament of Catalonia as many others had been held in the past. The PPC, PSC and C's, however, hinted on the possibility of a post-election pact to curb the independence process.[29] The Spanish Government said it would keep a close watch closely the legality of the whole election process while demanding neutrality from Mas.[30] Mariano Rajoy stated: "There won't be a plebiscitary election, as there wasn't a referendum", in relation to the 9 November 2014 vote.[31] Several parties and media questioned the legality of holding the Free Way demonstration on 11 September, as it coincided with the start date of the election campaign.

Parties and coalitions[edit]

Below is a list of the main parties and coalitions which contested the election:

Parties and coalitions[32] Ideology Candidate Seats
before[33][34]
Together for Yes (JxSí)
Democratic Convergence of Catalonia (CDC)
Republican Left of Catalonia (ERC)
Democrats of Catalonia (DC)
Left Movement (MES)
Civil society independents
Catalan independence
Big tent
Artur Mas 34 (CDC)
21 (ERC)
6 (DC)
1 (MES)
Socialists' Party of Catalonia (PSC–PSOE) Social democracy Miquel Iceta 19
People's Party (PP) Conservatism
Christian democracy
Xavier García Albiol 19
Catalonia Yes We Can (CatSíqueesPot)
We Can (Podem)
Initiative for Catalonia Greens (ICV)
United and Alternative Left (EUiA)
Equo (eQuo)
Left-wing populism
Eco-socialism
Lluís Rabell 10 (ICV)
3 (EUiA)
Democratic Union of Catalonia (unio.cat) Regionalism
Christian democracy
Ramon Espadaler 10
Citizens–Party of the Citizenry (C's) Liberalism Inés Arrimadas 9
Popular Unity Candidacy (CUP) Catalan independence
Socialism
Antonio Baños 3

Democratic Convergence of Catalonia (CDC), Republican Left of Catalonia (ERC), Democrats of Catalonia (DC) and Left Movement (MES) agreed by mid-July 2015 to run together under the Junts pel Sí (English: Together for Yes) joint separatist list, with support from the pro-independence Catalan National Assembly (ANC), Òmnium and the also separatist Municipalities' Association for Independence (AMI).[35] Artur Mas was named as the agreed presidential candidate, even though, as a result of balance of power negotiations between ERC and CDC, he was placed 4th in the electoral ticket.[36] Instead, the list was to be headed by three independent figures: Raül Romeva, former European MP for ICV who had left the party for not supporting independence; Carme Forcadell, former ANC president and Muriel Casals, Òmnium chairwoman. Oriol Junqueras would follow in 5th place.[37][38]

The coalition was thus scheduled to comprise the ruling centre-right CDC; its supporting centre-left partner in Parliament, ERC; Democrats of Catalonia and Left Movement, pro-independence splits from UDC and PSC, respectively; as well as members from separatist sectors of the civil society.[39] The Popular Unity Candidacy (CUP), which had also participated in the negotiations to form the unitary list, eventually refused on the grounds that "it was formed by politicians"—in reference to CDC and ERC's strong presence in the coalition's lists—and decided to run separately.[40]

After the success of Ada Colau's Barcelona en Comú platform in the 2015 Barcelona municipal election, its member parties Podemos, Initiative for Catalonia Greens (ICV) and United and Alternative Left (EUiA) entered talks for coalescing into a similar, regional-wide coalition for the September election to run as an alternative to Mas' independence plan.[41][42] By 15 July 2015, negotiations between the parties were already close to success, and it was agreed that they would stand together in the Catalunya Sí que es Pot electoral platform (English: Catalonia Yes We Can).[43][44] On 23 July, Lluís Rabell was presented as the platform's candidate for the regional premiership,[45] while ecologist party Equo announced its intention to join the coalition on 29 July.[46]

Campaign[edit]

Slogans[edit]

Parties and coalitions Catalan Spanish English translation Refs
Together for Yes El vot de la teva vida El voto de tu vida "The vote of your life" [47][48][49]
Socialists' Party of Catalonia Per una Catalunya millor en una Espanya diferent Por una Cataluña mejor en una España diferente "For a better Catalonia in a different Spain" [49][50][51]
People's Party Units guanyem. Plantem cara Unidos ganamos. Plantemos cara "United we win. Stand up!" [49][52]
Catalonia Yes We Can La Catalunya de la gent La Catalunya de la gente "The Catalonia of the people" [49][53]
Democratic Union of Catalonia La força del seny La fuerza del sentido común "The force of common sense" [49][54]
Citizens–Party of the Citizenry Una nova Catalunya per a tothom Una nueva Cataluña para todos "A new Catalonia for everyone" [49][55]
Popular Unity Candidacy Governem-nos Gobernémonos "Let's govern ourselves" [49][56]

Party stances[edit]

Source: historiaelectoral.com[32]
Stance on
independence
Parties and coalitions Referendum Constitutional
reform
☑Y Yes Together for Yes ☑Y Question?
Popular Unity Candidacy ☑Y Question?
☒N No Socialists' Party of Catalonia ☒N ☑Y
People's Party ☒N ☒N
Citizens–Party of the Citizenry ☒N ☒N
Question? Neutral Catalonia Yes We Can ☑Y ☑Y
Democratic Union of Catalonia ☑Y ☑Y

Leaders' debates[edit]

2015 Catalan regional election debates
Date Organisers Moderator(s)     P  Present    S  Surrogate    NI  Non-invitee   A  Absent invitee 
JxSí PSC PP CSQP unio.cat C's CUP Refs
17 September 8tv
(El debat de '8 al dia')
Josep Cuní P
Romeva
P
Iceta
P
Albiol
P
Rabell
P
Espadaler
P
Arrimadas
S
Gabriel
[57]
17 September RTVE
(El Debat de La 1)
Maria Casado S
Comín
S
Granados
S
Levy
S
Coscubiela
S
Montañola
S
Carrizosa
P
Baños
[58]
19 September TV3
(El Debat Electoral)
Mònica Terribas P
Romeva
P
Iceta
P
Albiol
P
Rabell
P
Espadaler
P
Arrimadas
P
Baños
[59]
20 September laSexta
(El Debat)
Ana Pastor P
Romeva
P
Iceta
P
Albiol
P
Rabell
P
Espadaler
P
Arrimadas
P
Baños
[60]
23 September 8tv
(Cara a cara)
Josep Cuní P
Junqueras
NI P
Margallo
NI NI NI NI [61]

Opinion polls[edit]

The table below lists voting intention estimates in reverse chronological order, showing the most recent first and using the dates when the survey fieldwork was done, as opposed to the date of publication. Where the fieldwork dates are unknown, the date of publication is given instead. The highest percentage figure in each polling survey is displayed with its background shaded in the leading party's colour. If a tie ensues, this is applied to the figures with the highest percentages. The "Lead" column on the right shows the percentage-point difference between the parties with the highest percentages in a given poll. When available, seat projections are also displayed below the voting estimates in a smaller font. 68 seats were required for an absolute majority in the Parliament of Catalonia.

Color key:

  Poll conducted after legal ban on opinion polls   Exit poll

Results[edit]

Overall[edit]

Summary of the 27 September 2015 Parliament of Catalonia election results
CataloniaParliamentDiagram2015.svg
Parties and coalitions Popular vote Seats
Votes % ±pp Total +/−
Together for Yes (JxSí)1 1,628,714 39.59 –4.82 62 –9
Citizens–Party of the Citizenry (C's) 736,364 17.90 +10.33 25 +16
Socialists' Party of Catalonia (PSC–PSOE) 523,283 12.72 –1.67 16 –4
Catalonia Yes We Can (CatSíqueesPot)2 367,613 8.94 –0.96 11 –2
People's Party (PP) 349,193 8.49 –4.49 11 –8
Popular Unity Candidacy (CUP) 337,794 8.21 +4.73 10 +7
Democratic Union of Catalonia (unio.cat) 103,293 2.51 New 0 ±0
Animalist Party Against Mistreatment of Animals (PACMA) 30,157 0.73 +0.16 0 ±0
Zero CutsThe Greens (Recortes Cero–EV) 14,444 0.35 New 0 ±0
Let's Win Catalonia (Ganemos) 1,167 0.03 New 0 ±0
Pirates of Catalonia–To Decide Everything (Pirata.cat/XDT) 327 0.01 –0.49 0 ±0
Blank ballots 21,895 0.53 –0.93
Total 4,114,244 135 ±0
Valid votes 4,114,244 99.61 +0.51
Invalid votes 15,952 0.39 –0.51
Votes cast / turnout 4,130,196 74.95 +7.19
Abstentions 1,380,657 25.05 –7.19
Registered voters 5,510,853
Sources[62][63][32]
Popular vote
JxSí
39.59%
C's
17.90%
PSC–PSOE
12.72%
CatSíqueesPot
8.94%
PP
8.49%
CUP
8.21%
unio.cat
2.51%
Others
1.12%
Blank ballots
0.53%
Seats
JxSí
45.93%
C's
18.52%
PSC–PSOE
11.85%
CatSíqueesPot
8.15%
PP
8.15%
CUP
7.41%

Distribution by constituency[edit]

Constituency JxSí C's PSC CSQP PP CUP
% S % S % S % S % S % S
Barcelona 36.1 32 18.8 17 13.7 12 10.1 9 8.8 8 8.3 7
Girona 56.1 11 12.5 2 8.7 1 4.8 1 5.9 1 8.6 1
Lleida 55.2 10 11.6 2 8.4 1 4.3 7.3 1 8.2 1
Tarragona 41.6 9 19.4 4 11.8 2 6.5 1 8.9 1 7.4 1
Total 39.6 62 17.9 25 12.7 16 8.9 11 8.5 11 8.2 10
Sources[63][32]

Aftermath[edit]

Government formation[edit]

Investiture
Artur Mas (CDC)
Ballot → 10 November 2015 12 November 2015
Required majority → 68 out of 135 ☒N Simple ☒N
62 / 135
62 / 135
73 / 135
73 / 135
Abstentions
0 / 135
0 / 135
Absentees
0 / 135
0 / 135
Sources[32]

Following the failure to choose a leader in January 2016 in which 1,515 CUP members voted for Mas and the same number voted against him,[64] the assembly was due to be dissolved on 10 January and a new election called in March.[65] Rajoy supported the new election on the grounds that it could "quash" calls for independence.[66]

Investiture
Carles Puigdemont (CDC)
Ballot → 10 January 2016
Required majority → 68 out of 135 ☑Y
70 / 135
63 / 135
2 / 135
Absentees
0 / 135
Sources[32]

A last minute deal was struck between Junts pel Sí and Popular Unity Candidacy to ensure a separatist government, although without Mas as President.[67] As a result, Carles Puigdemont i Casamajó assumed office on 12 January 2016 as President of the Government after his investiture was approved by the Parliament on 10 January.[68][69]

2016 motion of confidence[edit]

Motion of confidence
Carles Puigdemont (PDeCAT)
Ballot → 29 September 2016
Required majority → Simple ☑Y
72 / 135
63 / 135
Abstentions
0 / 135
Absentees
0 / 135
Sources[32]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Aggregated data for CiU and ERC in the 2012 election.
  2. ^ Data for ICV–EUiA in the 2012 election.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr Within JxSí.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn Within CatSíqueesPot.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj Within CiU.
  6. ^ Catalunya en Comú and Llista del President (CDC+independents from civil society hypothesis.
  7. ^ Undecided and/or abstentionists excluded.
  8. ^ CiU, Republican Left of Catalonia and Popular Unity Candidacy+independents from civil society hypothesis.

References[edit]

Opinion poll sources
  1. ^ "CATALUÑA, Septiembre 2015. Sondeo a pie de urna TNS Demoscopia". Electograph (in Spanish). September 27, 2015.
  2. ^ "Junts pel Sí (67/71), a tocar de la majoria absoluta". Directe.cat (in Catalan). September 26, 2015. Archived from the original on December 8, 2015. Retrieved July 5, 2017.
  3. ^ "Les forces independentistes aconseguirien la majoria absoluta el 27S". El Periòdic d'Andorra (in Catalan). September 25, 2015.
  4. ^ "Elecciones Autonómicas en Cataluña 2015". GAD3 (in Spanish). September 27, 2015.
  5. ^ "ENQUESTA EXCLUSIVA '8 AL DIA': l'independentisme aconseguiria majoria absoluta el 27-S". 8TV (in Catalan). September 21, 2015.
  6. ^ "CATALUÑA, Septiembre 2015. Sondeo Técnicas Demoscópicas". Electograph (in Spanish). September 21, 2015.
  7. ^ a b c "Tracking electoral autonómico. Mes de septiembre de 2015" (PDF). Celeste-Tel (in Spanish). September 27, 2015.
  8. ^ "El sondeo electoral definitivo del 27-S". Encuestamos (in Spanish). September 21, 2015. Archived from the original on September 25, 2015.
  9. ^ "La candidatura de Juntos por el Sí toca techo". La Razón (in Spanish). September 21, 2015.
  10. ^ "Radiografía del voto. Encuesta septiembre 2015" (PDF). La Razón (in Spanish). September 21, 2015.
  11. ^ "Junts pel Sí crece en campaña a costa de la CUP y confirma la clara mayoría absoluta independentista en escaños". Público (in Spanish). September 18, 2015.
  12. ^ "Los partidos independentistas rozan la mayoría absoluta a una semana del 27S". Público (in Spanish). September 20, 2015.
  13. ^ "Barómetro electoral autonómico. Mes de septiembre de 2015" (PDF). Celeste-Tel (in Spanish). September 20, 2015.
  14. ^ "Los independentistas no llegan a la mitad de los votos a una semana del 27-S". ABC (in Spanish). September 20, 2015.
  15. ^ "Junts pel Sí sigue creciendo y lograría la mayoría absoluta con el apoyo de la CUP". laSexta (in Spanish). September 21, 2015.
  16. ^ "Freno a la subida de la lista unitaria". La Razón (in Spanish). September 20, 2015.
  17. ^ "Intención de voto elecciones catalanas". El Mundo (in Spanish). September 20, 2015.
  18. ^ "Junts pel Sí avanza hasta situarse a tres escaños de la mayoría absoluta". La Vanguardia (in Spanish). September 20, 2015.
  19. ^ ""Los mensajes en positivo podrían cambiar el voto"". Cadena SER (in Spanish). September 21, 2015.
  20. ^ "El ObSERvatorio de la Cadena SER. Preelectoral Cataluña (21/9/2015)" (PDF). MyWord (in Spanish). September 21, 2015.
  21. ^ a b "PP y PSC arañan medio punto desde la Diada". La Razón (in Spanish). September 19, 2015.
  22. ^ "Septiembre de 2015. Intención de voto al Parlamento de Catalunya" (PDF). Infortécnica (in Spanish). September 16, 2015.
  23. ^ "El independentismo logra la mayoría en escaños y roza el 50% de los votos". El País (in Spanish). September 19, 2015.
  24. ^ "Intención de voto en Cataluña". El País (in Spanish). September 18, 2015.
  25. ^ "Cataluña: Los independentistas alcanzarían la mayoría absoluta en escaños". Metroscopia (in Spanish). September 19, 2015.
  26. ^ "Mas y la CUP logran la mayoría absoluta por escaños y rozarían ya el 50% de los votos". El Confidencial (in Spanish). September 18, 2015.
  27. ^ "Mas y Junqueras lograrían 62 diputados, según el sondeo de Economía Digital". Economía Digital (in Spanish). September 17, 2015.
  28. ^ "Los independentistas de Junts pel si, al borde de la mayoría absoluta". Telecinco (in Spanish). September 17, 2015.
  29. ^ "Una Cataluña dividida en manos de Podemos". La Razón (in Spanish). September 17, 2015.
  30. ^ "Radiografía del voto. Encuesta septiembre 2015" (PDF). La Razón (in Spanish). September 17, 2015.
  31. ^ "El CIS 'cocinó' su encuesta para reducir en más de cuatro puntos el voto a las filas independentistas". Público (in Spanish). September 12, 2015.
  32. ^ "Anàlisi electoral. Fusió de dues enquestes de treball (12 de setembre de 2015)" (PDF). El Món (in Catalan). September 12, 2015. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 28, 2015.
  33. ^ "CATALUÑA, Septiembre 2015. Sondeo interno Junts pel Sí". Electograph (in Spanish). September 13, 2015.
  34. ^ "El 62% de los catalanes, en contra de la independencia sin una mayoría de votos". laSexta (in Spanish). September 11, 2015.
  35. ^ "Los secesionistas conseguirían la mayoría de escaños, pero no la de votos". Última Hora (in Spanish). September 13, 2015.
  36. ^ "El independentismo catalán aventaja en número de diputados pero no en el de votos". Última Hora (in Spanish). September 13, 2015.
  37. ^ "La lista independentista ganaría las elecciones catalanas". Encuestamos (in Spanish). September 7, 2015. Archived from the original on September 11, 2015.
  38. ^ "Preelectoral de Cataluña. Elecciones autonómicas 2015. (Estudio nº 3108. Agosto-Septiembre 2015)" (PDF). CIS (in Spanish). September 10, 2015.
  39. ^ "El día D". La Vanguardia (in Spanish). September 11, 2015.
  40. ^ "Las listas independentistas obtendrán una holgada mayoría absoluta en el Parlament y un 48,8% de los votos". Público (in Spanish). September 3, 2015.
  41. ^ "Junts pel Sí voreja l'absoluta". El Punt Avui (in Catalan). September 5, 2015.
  42. ^ "CATALUÑA, Septiembre 2015. Sondeo GAPS". Electograph (in Spanish). September 4, 2015.
  43. ^ "Un 46% de los catalanes, en contra de la independencia". El Mundo (in Spanish). September 7, 2015.
  44. ^ "El independentismo obtendría una ajustada mayoría absoluta el 27-S". El Periódico de Catalunya (in Spanish). September 6, 2015.
  45. ^ "El independentismo obtendría una ajustada mayoría absoluta el 27-S". El Periódico de Catalunya (in Spanish). September 6, 2015.
  46. ^ "La lista independentista, lejos de la mayoría absoluta". La Razón (in Spanish). August 27, 2015.
  47. ^ "Radiografía del voto. Encuesta agosto 2015" (PDF). La Razón (in Spanish). August 27, 2015.
  48. ^ "Mas y Junqueras pierden 11 escaños tras anunciar su "lista unitaria"". La Razón (in Spanish). July 27, 2015.
  49. ^ "La mayoría inexistente de los soberanistas catalanes" (PDF). La Razón (in Spanish). July 27, 2015.
  50. ^ "Las listas independentistas sumarán mayoría absoluta por la mínima en el Parlament de Catalunya tras el 27-S". Público (in Spanish). July 21, 2015.
  51. ^ "CDC, ERC y la CUP no sumarían mayoría absoluta por separado". La Vanguardia (in Spanish). July 12, 2015.
  52. ^ "Enquesta sobre la proposta de la "Llista per la independència" el 27S". Òmnium (in Catalan). July 5, 2015.
  53. ^ "Una candidatura sobiranista sense polítics fregaria el 50% dels vots". Ara (in Catalan). July 5, 2015.
  54. ^ "Una 'Catalunya en Comú' disputaría la victoria a la 'llista del president'". El Periódico de Catalunya (in Spanish). June 25, 2015.
  55. ^ "Una 'Catalunya en Comú' disputaría la victoria a la 'llista del president'". El Periódico de Catalunya (in Spanish). June 25, 2015.
  56. ^ "Solo un tercio de votantes de CiU quería mantener viva la federación". El Periódico de Catalunya (in Spanish). June 25, 2015.
  57. ^ "CiU y ERC quedan lejos de la mayoría y Ciutadans roza la segunda posición". La Vanguardia (in Spanish). May 3, 2015.
  58. ^ "Baròmetre d'Opinió Política 34. 1a onada 2015" (PDF). CEO (in Catalan). March 13, 2015.
  59. ^ "El 'impasse' soberanista erosiona a CiU y ERC y espolea a Ciutadans". El Periódico de Catalunya (in Spanish). March 4, 2015.
  60. ^ "El 'impasse' soberanista erosiona a CiU y ERC y espolea a Ciutadans". El Periódico de Catalunya (in Spanish). March 4, 2015.
  61. ^ "Una encuesta secreta de Convergència le da a Mas una cómoda victoria sobre ERC". El Confidencial (in Spanish). January 26, 2015.
  62. ^ "CATALUÑA, Enero 2015. Sondeo interno CiU". Electograph (in Spanish). January 26, 2015.
  63. ^ "El bloque soberanista de Mas retrocede cuatro escaños". La Razón (in Spanish). January 19, 2015.
  64. ^ "Radiografía del voto en Cataluña" (PDF). La Razón (in Spanish). January 19, 2015.
  65. ^ "Un sondeig d'ERC fa de les llistes paraigua l'opció que més suma". Ara (in Catalan). December 29, 2014.
  66. ^ "CATALUÑA, Diciembre 2014. Sondeo Tàstic". Electograph (in Spanish). January 11, 2015.
  67. ^ "Enquesta sobre context polític a Catalunya. 2014" (PDF). CEO (in Catalan). December 19, 2014.
  68. ^ "CiU y ERC no suman mayoría ni con una lista única ni por separado". La Vanguardia (in Spanish). December 7, 2014.
  69. ^ "La situación catalana". El Mundo (in Spanish). November 24, 2014.
  70. ^ a b c "Informe eleccions autonòmiques Catalunya. Desembre 2014" (PDF). Jaime Miquel (in Catalan). December 2014. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 22, 2017. Retrieved July 5, 2017.
  71. ^ "El 9-N devuelve a CiU el liderazgo y Podemos ya es la tercera fuerza". El Periódico de Catalunya (in Spanish). November 21, 2014.
  72. ^ "El 9-N devuelve a CiU el liderazgo y Podemos ya es la tercera fuerza". El Periódico de Catalunya (in Spanish). November 21, 2014.
  73. ^ "CDC y ERC suman menos escaños en lista conjunta que por separado". El Periódico de Catalunya (in Spanish). November 24, 2014.
  74. ^ "CiU adelanta a ERC tras el 9-N pero sigue con 16 escaños menos que en 2012". La Razón (in Spanish). November 16, 2014.
  75. ^ "Estimación JM 11/14 (Elecciones autonómicas)". Jaime Miquel (in Spanish). November 7, 2014.
  76. ^ "Baròmetre d'Opinió Política 33. 2a onada 2014" (PDF). CEO (in Catalan). October 31, 2014.
  77. ^ "Radiografía del voto en Cataluña" (PDF). La Razón (in Spanish). October 19, 2014.
  78. ^ "CiU obtendría los peores resultados de su historia por el efecto del "caso Pujol"". La Razón (in Spanish). September 8, 2014.
  79. ^ "Radiografía del voto en Cataluña" (PDF). La Razón (in Spanish). September 8, 2014.
  80. ^ "Descalabro de CiU, ERC primera fuerza e irrupción de Podemos". El Mundo (in Spanish). June 25, 2014.
  81. ^ "CATALUÑA / CATALUNYA, Agosto 2014. Sigma Dos / El Mundo". Electograph (in Spanish). September 1, 2014.
  82. ^ "La recta final del 9-N precipita la caída de CiU". La Razón (in Spanish). July 27, 2014.
  83. ^ "Radiografía del voto" (PDF). La Razón (in Spanish). July 27, 2014.
  84. ^ "ERC saca más ventaja que nunca a CiU y Podemos logra 10 escaños". El Periódico de Catalunya (in Spanish). June 25, 2014.
  85. ^ "Voto estimado a partir del sondeo" (PDF). El Periódico de Catalunya (in Spanish). June 25, 2014.
  86. ^ "CDC conseguiría casi los mismos escaños yendo sola que con Unió". El Periódico de Catalunya (in Spanish). June 26, 2014.
  87. ^ "Cómo quedaría el Parlament si Convergència i Unió se dividiera" (PDF). El Periódico de Catalunya (in Spanish). June 26, 2014.
  88. ^ "Proyección del resultado de las europeas en los parlamentos autonómicos". El País (in Spanish). May 31, 2014.
  89. ^ "CiU mantiene una leve ventaja sobre ERC en un escenario muy fraccionado". La Vanguardia (in Spanish). May 12, 2014.
  90. ^ "Baròmetre d'Opinió Política 32. 1a onada 2014" (PDF). CEO (in Catalan). April 30, 2014.
  91. ^ "Una Cataluña ingobernable". La Razón (in Spanish). April 21, 2014.
  92. ^ "Radiografía del voto" (PDF). La Razón (in Spanish). April 21, 2014.
  93. ^ "CATALUÑA / CATALUNYA, Marzo 2014. Proyección Ara". Electograph (in Spanish). March 15, 2014. Archived from the original on March 6, 2015.
  94. ^ "CiU coge aire y recupera el liderato ante una Esquerra que pierde fuelle". El Periódico de Catalunya (in Spanish). March 9, 2014.
  95. ^ "Voto estimado a partir del sondeo" (PDF). El Periódico de Catalunya (in Spanish). March 9, 2014.
  96. ^ "Sondeo elaborado por Sondeos R.A. España para Cataluña: Empate técnico entre ERC y CiU". Electomanía (in Spanish). February 16, 2014.
  97. ^ "El independentismo se desinfla". La Razón (in Spanish). February 4, 2014. Archived from the original on February 4, 2014.
  98. ^ "CiU y ERC libran una estrecha pugna por la primera plaza". La Vanguardia (in Spanish). December 22, 2013.
  99. ^ "Radiografía del voto" (PDF). La Razón (in Spanish). December 15, 2013.
  100. ^ "CiU adelanta otra vez a ERC por el protagonismo de Mas". El Mundo (in Catalan). December 16, 2013.
  101. ^ "Baròmetre d'Opinió Política 31. 3a onada 2013" (PDF). CEO (in Catalan). November 22, 2013.
  102. ^ "ERC confirma el 'sorpasso' a CiU". El País (in Spanish). November 2, 2013.
  103. ^ "Intención de voto y valoración de los políticos". El País (in Spanish). November 1, 2013.
  104. ^ "Si hubiera elecciones autonómicas en Cataluña: estimación electoral". Metroscopia (in Spanish). November 5, 2013.
  105. ^ "La tensión soberanista afianza a Esquerra y catapulta a Ciutadans". El Periódico de Catalunya (in Spanish). October 28, 2013.
  106. ^ "Voto estimado a partir del sondeo" (PDF). El Periódico de Catalunya (in Spanish). October 28, 2013.
  107. ^ "El mapa electoral catalán de la transición se hace pedazos". El Periódico de Catalunya (in Spanish). October 6, 2013.
  108. ^ "El ObSERvatorio de la Cadena SER. Especial Cataluña (11/09/2013)" (PDF). MyWord (in Spanish). September 11, 2013.
  109. ^ "Baròmetre d'Opinió Política 30. 2a onada 2013" (PDF). CEO (in Catalan). June 20, 2013.
  110. ^ "ERC se pone en cabeza". El Periódico de Catalunya (in Spanish). June 7, 2013.
  111. ^ "Voto estimado a partir del sondeo" (PDF). El Periódico de Catalunya (in Spanish). June 7, 2013.
  112. ^ "Radiografía del voto" (PDF). La Razón (in Spanish). March 25, 2013.
  113. ^ "Baròmetre d'Opinió Política 29. 1a onada 2013" (PDF). CEO (in Catalan). February 21, 2013.
  114. ^ "ERC le come terreno a CiU". El Periódico de Catalunya (in Spanish). January 20, 2013.
  115. ^ "El pacto con ERC le cuesta a CiU dos escaños". La Razón (in Spanish). January 2, 2013.
Other
  1. ^ a b "Mas announces an agreement with ERC and will call a snap election for 27 September 2015". El País (in Spanish). January 14, 2015.
  2. ^ a b c d "Statute of Autonomy of Catalonia of 2006". Organic Law No. 6 of 19 July 2006. Official State Gazette (in Spanish). Retrieved March 14, 2017.
  3. ^ a b c d "Organic Act 6/2006 of the 19th July, on the Reform of the Statute of Autonomy of Catalonia" (PDF). parlament.cat. Parliament of Catalonia. Retrieved August 8, 2017.
  4. ^ Reig Pellicer, Naiara (December 16, 2015). "Spanish elections: Begging for the right to vote". cafebabel.co.uk. Retrieved July 17, 2017.
  5. ^ Gallagher, Michael (July 30, 2012). "Effective threshold in electoral systems". Trinity College, Dublin. Archived from the original on July 30, 2017. Retrieved July 22, 2017.
  6. ^ "Statute of Autonomy of Catalonia of 1979". Organic Law No. 4 of 18 December 1979. Official State Gazette (in Spanish). Retrieved March 14, 2017.
  7. ^ "General Electoral System Organic Law of 1985". Organic Law No. 5 of 19 June 1985. Official State Gazette (in Spanish). Retrieved December 28, 2016.
  8. ^ "Representation of the people Institutional Act". juntaelectoralcentral.es. Central Electoral Commission. Retrieved June 16, 2017.
  9. ^ "The Constitutional Court declares void Mas' sovereignty declaration" (in Spanish). ABC. Retrieved March 25, 2014.
  10. ^ "The judge charges Jordi Pujol for the Andorra money" (in Spanish). El Periódico de Catalunya. December 16, 2014.
  11. ^ Catalan President Mas: "The country's good sense has made it possible to come to a consensus and agree on an inclusive, clear question, which enjoys broad support", Government of Catalonia
  12. ^ Spain to block Catalonia independence referendum, BBC World.
  13. ^ "Junqueras refuses a joint list but proposes a common programme". El País (in Spanish). November 12, 2014.
  14. ^ "Mas looks for independents in order to dilute CiU's acronym from the electoral list". El País (in Spanish). November 24, 2014.
  15. ^ "Culmination of state structures, another part of the agreement" (in Catalan). TV3. January 14, 2015.
  16. ^ "Negotiation of budgets, part of the agreement between Mas and Junqueras" (in Catalan). TV3. January 14, 2015.
  17. ^ "Mas apologizes for the political climate from previous weeks" (in Catalan). TV3. January 14, 2015.
  18. ^ "The Spanish Government says Mas has "no interest nor ability" to solve the problems of the Catalans" (in Catalan). VilaWeb. January 14, 2015.
  19. ^ ""Fraud tragedy ... lack of seriousness": Madrid reacts to the election announcement in Catalonia" (in Catalan). Ara. January 15, 2015.
  20. ^ "Union will consult its members in order to define itself on the sovereignty process". El País (in Spanish). February 21, 2015.
  21. ^ "Union will put to vote its commitment to the sovereignty plan". El País (in Spanish). June 14, 2015.
  22. ^ "Duran obtains an adjusted support to condition Mas' plan". El País (in Spanish). June 14, 2015.
  23. ^ "Mas gives Duran three days to decide if he supports the independence". El País (in Spanish). June 15, 2015.
  24. ^ "Union leaves Mas' government as rejection to his independence plan". El País (in Spanish). June 17, 2015.
  25. ^ "CiU disintegrates: "The political project of the federation is over"". El Mundo (in Spanish). June 18, 2015.
  26. ^ "Convergence announces the end of CiU: "The common project is over"". El País (in Spanish). June 18, 2015.
  27. ^ "Artur Mas signs the election call decree for 27-S". La Vanguardia (in Spanish). August 3, 2015.
  28. ^ "Mas calls the 27-S without explaining how much support is needed for independence". El País (in Spanish). August 3, 2015.
  29. ^ "Catalan constitutionalists also face the 27-S with a plebiscite-directed strategy" (in Spanish). Noticias de Gipuzkoa. August 6, 2015.
  30. ^ "Government demands neutrality from Mas while it attacks his candidacy". El País (in Spanish). August 3, 2015.
  31. ^ "Rajoy warns Mas: "There won't be a plebiscitary election, as there wasn't a referendum"" (in Spanish). Europa Press. July 31, 2015.
  32. ^ a b c d e f g "Parliament of Catalonia elections since 1980". historiaelectoral.com (in Spanish). Electoral History. Retrieved September 24, 2017.
  33. ^ "Parliament of Catalonia: parliamentary groups since 1980". historiaelectoral.com (in Spanish). Electoral History. Retrieved December 24, 2017.
  34. ^ "Deputies of the Parliament of Catalonia since 1932". historiaelectoral.com (in Spanish). Electoral History. Retrieved December 24, 2017.
  35. ^ "Rull and Junqueras announce a Convergence-ERC agreement about the unitary list" (in Spanish). El Periódico de Catalunya. June 18, 2015.
  36. ^ "The Government and ERC overrule Romeva to shield Mas" (in Spanish). El Periódico. July 24, 2015.
  37. ^ "ERC National Council ratifies the unitary list with CDC by agreement". La Vanguardia (in Spanish). July 15, 2015.
  38. ^ "Raül Romeva, Forcadell and Casals will head Mas' list for the 27-S". El Mundo (in Spanish). July 15, 2015.
  39. ^ "Mas imposes himself on ERC and will lead the 27-S pro-independence list". El Mundo (in Spanish). July 15, 2015.
  40. ^ "David Fernández: "The latest proposal made any agreement impossible" for the unitary list". La Vanguardia (in Spanish). July 14, 2015.
  41. ^ "Podemos and ICV ready up a common list as an alternative to Mas for the 27-S". El País (in Spanish). June 25, 2015.
  42. ^ "The parties of the "Yes We Can" will form an unitary list". elsingular.cat (in Catalan). June 25, 2015. Archived from the original on July 16, 2015. Retrieved July 15, 2015.
  43. ^ "Podemos, ICV–EUiA and Procés will imminently close a pre-agreement for the 27-S Catalan election". Público (in Spanish). July 15, 2015.
  44. ^ "Catalunya Sí que es Pot, the name of the left-wing confluence for the 27-S" (in Catalan). Ara. July 15, 2015.
  45. ^ "Activist leader Lluís Rabell will be Catalunya Sí que es Pot candidate". El País (in Spanish). July 23, 2015.
  46. ^ "Equo integrates itself within the left-wing coalition Catalunya Sí que es Pot" (in Spanish). El Periódico. July 29, 2015.
  47. ^ Masreal, Fidel (September 8, 2015). "'El vot de la teva vida', lema de Junts pel Sí". El Periódico de Catalunya (in Catalan). Barcelona. Retrieved July 5, 2017.
  48. ^ Masreal, Fidel (September 8, 2015). ""El voto de tu vida", lema de Junts pel Sí". El Periódico de Catalunya (in Spanish). Barcelona. Retrieved July 5, 2017.
  49. ^ a b c d e f g "Arranca la campaña para el 27S: las elecciones catalanas más decisivas". El Economista (in Spanish). September 11, 2015. Retrieved July 5, 2017.
  50. ^ "'Per una Catalunya millor en una Espanya diferent. Tenim solucions', lema del PSC cap al 27-S". El Punt Avui (in Catalan). Barcelona. August 25, 2015. Retrieved July 5, 2017.
  51. ^ Romero, Juanma (September 13, 2015). "El PSC afronta el 27-S atacando a Podemos por su "ambigüedad" e igualando PP y C's". El Confidencial (in Spanish). Retrieved July 5, 2017.
  52. ^ Julve, Rafa (September 7, 2015). "'Units guanyem. Plantem cara', eslògan del PP per al 27-S". El Periódico de Catalunya (in Catalan). Barcelona. Retrieved July 5, 2017.
  53. ^ Font, Marc (September 10, 2015). ""La Catalunya de la gente", cartel de campaña de Catalunya Sí Que es Pot". Público (in Spanish). Barcelona. Retrieved July 5, 2017.
  54. ^ Hinojosa, Silvia (September 11, 2015). "Unió ofrece 'seny' para reconstruir el antiguo espacio moderado de CiU". La Vanguardia (in Spanish). Retrieved July 5, 2017.
  55. ^ ""Una nova Catalunya per a tothom", l'eslògan de campanya de C's pel 27-S". Nació Digital (in Catalan). August 24, 2015. Retrieved July 5, 2017.
  56. ^ Terrassa, Rodrigo (September 28, 2015). "Seis momentos para saber qué es la CUP". El Mundo (in Catalan). Madrid. Retrieved July 5, 2017.
  57. ^ "Debate vibrante con la UE como motivo de discordia". La Vanguardia.
  58. ^ "Especial eleccions a Catalunya 2015 - Debat Electoral". RTVE.
  59. ^ "El Debat Electoral". TV3.
  60. ^ "'El Debat' de laSexta calienta la última semana de campaña electoral en Cataluña". laSexta.
  61. ^ "El debate Margallo-Junqueras, un duelo de altura por Europa". La Vanguardia.
  62. ^ "Election Results. Parliament of Catalonia Election 2015". gencat.cat (in Catalan). Generalitat of Catalonia. Retrieved September 24, 2017.
  63. ^ a b "Parliament of Catalonia election results, 27 September 2015" (PDF). juntaelectoralcentral.es (in Spanish). Central Electoral Commission. November 6, 2015. Retrieved September 25, 2017.
  64. ^ http://news.webindia123.com/news/articles/World/20151228/2756534.html
  65. ^ https://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-35217593
  66. ^ http://www.commodityonline.com/videos/details.php?video_id=NzI5MzU3fHwxMDQwfHx8fHx8MTZ8fA==&video_tile=Spain%27s+PP+hopes+new+Catalan+poll+will+quash+independence+hopes
  67. ^ "Artur Mas Steps Down And Announces 11th-Hour Separatist Deal In Catalonia". The Spain Report. The Spain Report Ltd. January 9, 2016. Retrieved January 9, 2016.
  68. ^ "Junts pel Sí i la CUP tanquen un acord per a dur endavant la legislatura". VilaWeb.cat (in Catalan). January 9, 2016. Retrieved January 9, 2016.
  69. ^ "Acord entre Junts pel Sí i la CUP amb Carles Puigdemont de president i sense Mas". 324.cat (in Catalan). January 9, 2016. Retrieved January 9, 2016.

External links[edit]