|katába nieyé wuininare|
|Native to||United States|
|Ethnicity||Ye Iswąˀ (Catawba)|
|Extinct||probably early 20th century; before 1960|
Catawba // (Catawba katába nieyé wuininare [kataːba nieyeː wuiniare]) is one of two Eastern Siouan languages of the eastern US, which together with the Western Siouan languages formed the Siouan language family.
The last native speaker of Catawba died before 1960. Red Thunder Cloud, apparently an impostor born Cromwell Ashbie Hawkins West, claimed to speak the language until he died in 1996 (Goddard 2000). The Catawba tribe is now working to revive the Catawba language.
There is also a /ɡ/ sound, which happens to be an allophone of /k/. /ʃ/ is seldom used.
Short vowel sounds /i, e, a, o~u/ can be unstressed, ranging to /ɪ, ə~ɛ, ɑ, o~ʊ/. Back vowel sounds can range from /o/ to /u/, and a short /a/ can range to a back vowel sound /ɑ/.
- Chief Sam Blue, who died in 1959, was raised by one of the last native speakers.
- Catawba at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
- Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank, Sebastian, eds. (2016). "Catawba". Glottolog 2.7. Jena: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
- Rudes, Costa, Blair, David (2003). Essays in Algonquian, Catawban, and Siouan Linguistics in Memory of Frank T. Siebert, Jr.
- Ives Goddard, 2000. "The Identity of Red Thunder Cloud", Smithsonian Institution, reprinted from Society for the Study of Indigenous Languages of the Americas Newsletter. (accessed 8 Apr 2010)
- Catawba Indian Language
- Hello Oklahoma! Catawba Language
- Grammatic Sketch of the Catawba Language
- Vocabulary of the Catawba language
- Catawba Texts
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