As hunters, catch dogs are contrasted with bay dogs who corner prey animals and alert their handler by howling, or baying. Catch dogs are typically outfitted with chest armor to prevent being speared by the boar's tusk, and neck armor to prevent neck injury.
As livestock dogs, catch dogs use their weight and teeth to immobilize live animals so that they can be captured, or literally hogtied, by the dog's handlers, who may be stockmen, hunters, butchers, or farmers.
According to the 2009 edition of Webster's Dictionary of American English, the term "catch dog" is a noun phrase referring to a dog used or bred for working livestock. The entry identifies the term as being American, and dating to circa 1857, although the practice is known to date at least back to the ancient Romans.
Boar hunting dogs
Catch dogs physically take hold of the boar, typically seizing the base of the boar's ear. Once the catch dogs have physical control of the boar, they will hold it down by the head indefinitely until the hunter arrives. The hunter then comes in from behind the boar, and dispatches the boar with a knife or spear.
It is not unusual for hunters to utilize both bay and catch dogs in the same hunt. Bay dogs are used to find the boar, initiate the chase, and pursue the quarry. Sometimes the boar will run from the bay dogs at first, but at some point during the chase either stop to fight or become cornered. At this point catch dogs are released to keep the boar stationary for the hunter.
Catch dog breeds
The term "catch dog" corresponds in Portuguese to Cão de Fila and spanish to Perro de presa. Most catch dogs are descended from the Old English Bulldog or Alaunt and other Molosser-type dogs. The Dogo Argentino is a great example of catch dog and was specifically bred for hunting wild boar in Argentina. The Dogo Argentino are commonly crossed with American Pit Bulls in the southern United States, specifically for boar hunting, though occasionally hunters will use a purebred Pit. Other breeds used as catch dogs or used to breed catch dogs include:
- Alano Español
- American Pit Bull Terrier
- American Bulldog
- American Bully
- American Staffordshire Terrier
- American Staghound
- Cane Corso
- Catahoula Bulldog 
- Dogo Argentino 
- Dogue de Bordeaux
- English Bull Terrier
- English Mastiff
- Fila Brasileiro
- Great Dane, also known as Boarhound
- Neapolitan Mastiff
- Perro de Presa Canario (Dogo Canario)
- Staffordshire Bull Terrier
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