As hunters, catch dogs are contrasted with bay dogs who corner prey animals and alert their handler by howling, or baying. Catch dogs are typically outfitted with chest armor to prevent being speared by the boar's tusk, and neck armor to prevent neck injury.
As livestock dogs, catch dogs use their weight and teeth to immobilize live animals so that they can be captured, or literally hogtied, by the dog's handlers, who may be stockmen, hunters, butchers, or farmers.
According to the 2009 edition of Webster's Dictionary of American English, the term "catch dog" is a noun phrase referring to a dog used or bred for working livestock. The entry identifies the term as being American, and dating to circa 1857, although the practice is known to date at least back to the ancient Romans.
Boar hunting dogs
Catch dogs physically take hold of the boar, typically seizing the base of the boar's ear. Once the catch dogs have physical control of the boar, they will hold it down by the head indefinitely until the hunter arrives. The hunter then comes in from behind the boar, and dispatches the boar with a knife or spear.
It is not unusual for hunters to utilize both bay and catch dogs in the same hunt. Bay dogs are used to find the boar, initiate the chase, and pursue the quarry. Sometimes the boar will run from the bay dogs at first, but at some point during the chase either stop to fight or become cornered. At this point catch dogs are released to keep the boar stationary for the hunter.
Catch dog breeds
Most catch dogs are descended from the Old English Bulldog and Cordoba Fighting Dog bloodlines, and some are crossed with athletic Molosser-like dogs, such as the Cane Corso. The Dogo Argentino was specifically bred for hunting wild boar in Argentina, and Spanish dogos are commonly crossed with American Pit Bulls in the south United States, specifically for boar hunting, though occasionally hunters will use a purebred Pit. Other breeds used as catch dogs or used to breed catch dogs include:
- American Pit Bull Terrier
- American Bulldog 
- American Staghound
- Bandog 
- Boxer 
- Cane Corso 
- Catahoula Bulldog 
- Dogo Argentino 
- Dogue de Bordeaux
- English Bull Terrier
- English Mastiff
- Great Dane, also known as Boarhound
- Neapolitan Mastiff
- Perro de Presa Canario  (Dogo Canario)
- Staffordshire Bull Terrier
- Rodriguez, Greg. "Boar Guide". Archived from the original on 27 Feb 2009. Retrieved 14 Nov 2014.
- Ring, Danielle. "Hog Dog Fighting: Bloodsport Packaged as Family Entertainment". Archived from the original on 29 Mar 2009. Retrieved 14 Nov 2014.
-  Archived April 8, 2009, at the Wayback Machine.
- "The Official Southern Cross Cut Gear Product Line". Hogdogvests.com. Retrieved 2011-06-30.
- "El Perro de Presa Canario". ElPresa.com. Retrieved 2011-06-30.
- "Catch dog | Define Catch dog at Dictionary.com". Dictionary.reference.com. Retrieved 2011-06-30.
- "American Bulldog (History and Origins)". Bulldoginformation.com. Retrieved 2011-06-30.
- "Hunting Pigdogs of Australia – Australian Bandog". Huntingpigdog.com. Retrieved 2011-06-30.
- "Short History of the Boxer Breed". American Boxer Club. Retrieved 2012-07-29.
- "Cane Corso Breed Info". Stormywinnscanecorso.com. Retrieved 2011-06-30.
- "Catahoula Bulldog by Bulldog Information". Bulldoginformation.com. Retrieved 2011-06-30.
- "Pagina niet gevonden – Online". Home.wanadoo.nl. 2010-12-27. Retrieved 2011-06-30.
- "elitedogs.us". elitedogs.us. Retrieved 2012-07-29.