Categories of protected areas of Ukraine
Categories of Natural Environment Protected Areas of Ukraine were reestablished (redefined) by the national parliament of Ukraine (Verkhovna Rada) after the fall of the Soviet Union. On June 16, 1992 the President of Ukraine Leonid Kravchuk signed the law on the Nature-Preservation Fund of Ukraine. The law redefined already the established system of environment protection management for Ukraine as a fully sovereign and independent country. National Parks in Ukraine and other Protected Areas of Ukraine include Ramsar Sites in Ukraine, *Biosphere Preserves of Ukraine, National Nature Parks of Ukraine, Nature Preserves of Ukraine, Regional landscape parks of Ukraine, Nature monuments of Ukraine, Protected tracts of Ukraine and Habitat / Species Managed Areas of Ukraine.
Protected area systematization
The Law defines ten categories of protected areas. In general perspective the categories correspond to the internationally recognized IUCN protected area categories (see World Commission on Protected Areas).
The table below lists the protected area category, the management level and the proclaiming body. Note that categories are not necessarily hierarchal.
|IUCN Class||Protection category||Intent||Form of property||Type of creation|
|I||BIOSPHERE PRESERVE (SANCTUARY)||Conservation of typical nature complexes, ecological monitoring, and education||international / non-private||natural|
|NATURE PRESERVE (SANCTUARY)||Conservation of typical or unique nature complexes, education, scientific research for environment protection, ecological use and safety||national / non-private||natural|
|II||NATIONAL NATURE PARK||Conservation, restoration, and efficiency for historic-cultural, aesthetic, educational, and similar values||national / non-private||natural|
|V||REGIONAL LANDSCAPE PARK||Conservation of typical or unique nature complexes and implementation of organized recreation||regional / public||natural|
|VI / VII||NATURE RESERVE (ZAKAZNIK)||Conservation and restoration of nature complexes or their separate components||regional / public||natural|
|III||LANDMARK OF NATURE||Conservation of naturally intact (as special environmental, scientific, aesthetic, educational, and cultural meaning)||regional / public||natural|
|PROTECTED TRACT||Conservation of naturally intact (as important scientific, environmental, and aesthetic meaning)||regional / public||natural|
|IV||BOTANIC GARDEN||Conservation, botanic study, conducting scientific, instructional, and educational activities||regional / public*||artificial|
|DENDROLOGY PARK (ARBORETUM)||Conservation, dendrology study||regional / public*||artificial|
|ZOOLOGY PARK||Education, exposition, conservation, fauna study||regional / public*||artificial|
|LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE LANDMARK||Preservation and use of the most prominent and valuable examples of landscape architecture for aesthetic, educational, scientific, environmental, and recreational purposes||regional / public||artificial|
- Note: Botanical gardens, arboreta, and zoological parks created before June 16, 1992 are not subject to privatization.
Biosphere Preserves (colloquially biosphere zapovedniks) are environment-protected scientific-research institutions of international status that are created with the intent for conservation in a natural state the most typical natural complexes of biosphere, conducting background ecological monitoring, studying of the surrounding natural environment, its changes under the activity of anthropogenic factors.
Biosphere Preserves are created on the base of nature preserves, national nature parks including to their composition territories and objects of other categories of nature-preserving fund and other lands as well as including in the established order the World Network of Biosphere Reserves in the UNESCO framework "Man and the Biosphere Programme".
Nature Preserves (colloquially nature zapovedniks) are environment-protected, scientific-research institutions of statewide status that are created with the goal of conservation in natural state typical or unique for a given landscape zone nature complexes with the entire collection of their components, studying of natural processes and phenomena that occur in them, developing scientific foundation for protection of the surrounding natural environment, efficient use of natural resources as well as ecological safety.
The main objective of the nature preserves is conservation of nature complexes and objects on their territories, conducting scientific research and observations after the state of the surrounding natural environment, development on their basis environment protective recommendations, dissemination of environmental awareness, facilitation in preparation of scientific personnel and specialists in the field of protection of the surrounding natural environment and nature preservation.
The Nature Preserves are also responsible for coordination and carrying out scientific research on territories of nature reserves, nature monuments, protected tracts in a region.
National Nature Park
National Nature Parks are environment-protected, recreational, culture-educational, and scientific-researching institutions of a statewide status that are created with the goal of conservation, restoration, and effective use of natural complexes and objects that have special environment-protected, health-oriented, historic-cultural, educational, aesthetic value.
Plots of land and water area with all the natural resources and objects are withdrawn from commercial use and granted to the National Nature Parks in order established by the Law of Ukraine.
The composition of the territories of the National Nature Parks may include plots of land and water area of other landowners and land users.
The National Nature Parks are vested implementation of such fundamental tasks:
- conservation of valuable natural and historic-cultural complexes and objects;
- creating conditions for organized tourism, recreation, and other outdoor activities in natural conditions in compliance with the regime of protection of preserved natural complexes and objects;
- conducting scientific research of natural complexes and their changes under the conditions of recreational use, development scientific recommendations on the protection of the surrounding natural environment and effective use of natural resources;
- implementation of environmental education work.
Regional landscape park
Regional landscape parks are environment-protected recreational institutions of local or regional status that are created with the goal of conservation in natural state typical or unique natural complexes and objects as well as providing the conditions for organized recreation for the population.
Regional landscape parks are organized with withdrawal or without withdrawal of land plots, water, and other natural objects from their owners or users.
In the event when the withdrawal of land plots, water, and other natural objects is necessary for the needs of the regional landscape parks, it is conducted in order established by the legislation of Ukraine.
On regional landscape parks relies the implementation of such objectives:
- conservation of valuable natural and historical-cultural complexes and objects;
- creating conditions for effective tourism, recreation, and other types of outdoor activities in natural conditions in compliance with the regime of protection of preserved natural complexes and objects;
- promoting environmental education work.
Nature reserves (colloquially zakazniks) are declared natural territories (aquatic areas) with the goal of conservation and restoration of natural complexes or their separate components.
Declaration of reserves (zakazniks) is conducted without withdrawal of land plots, water, and other natural objects from their owners or users.
Types: zoological, botanical, wooded, landscape, hydrological, ornithological, geological, ecological, entomological, carst-speleological, ichthyological.
Landmark of Nature
Prominent nature attractions are declared with the goal of conservation them in natural state. Their declaration is conducted without the withdrawal of land plots, water, and other natural objects from their owners or users. There various types of nature attractions recognized in Ukraine. Types: botanical, complex, geological, hydrological, zoological. They are categorized into two groups:
- Nature monument
Nature monuments are separate unique natural creations that possess special environment-protected, scientific, aesthetic, educational, and cultural status.
- Protected tract
Protected tracts are forest, steppe, wetland, and other outdrawn coherent landscapes that possess important scientific, environment-protected, and aesthetic status.
Habitat / Species Managed Areas
Habitat / Species Managed Areas may have multiple categorizations such as part of "Ukrainian objects of cultural heritage" or as scientific-research (educational) institutions. Such areas also may be part of bigger national nature parks and/or biosphere preserves as component parts of them. Among the most prominent of them are the botanic garden and zoology park of Askania-Nova, Sofiyivka arboretum, Trostyanets arboretum, and many others.
- Botanic gardens
- Arboreta (Dendrology park)
- Zoos (Zoology park)
- Exclusive parks (Park architecture monument)
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