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Hydrology (from Greek: Yδρoλoγια, Yδωρ+Λoγos, Hydrologia, the "study of water") is the study of the movement, distribution, and quality of water throughout the Earth, and thus addresses both the hydrologic cycle and water resources. A practitioner of hydrology is a hydrologist, working within the fields of either earth or environmental science, physical geography or civil engineering and environmental engineering.

Domains of hydrology include hydrometeorology, surface water hydrology, hydrogeology, drainage basin management and water quality, where water plays the central role.