Catharanthus roseus

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Catharanthus roseus
Catharanthus roseus24 08 2012 (1).JPG
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Asterids
Order: Gentianales
Family: Apocynaceae
Genus: Catharanthus
Species:
C. roseus
Binomial name
Catharanthus roseus
Synonyms
  • Vinca rosea L.
  • Pervinca rosea (L.) Gaterau
  • Lochnera rosea (L.) Rchb. ex Spach
  • Ammocallis rosea (L.) Small

(See also Synonyms section)

A white C. roseus flower

Catharanthus roseus, commonly known as bright eyes, Cape periwinkle, graveyard plant, Madagascar periwinkle, old maid, pink periwinkle, rose periwinkle,[2] is a species of flowering plant in the family Apocynaceae. It is native and endemic to Madagascar, but grown elsewhere as an ornamental and medicinal plant. It is a source of the drugs vincristine and vinblastine, used to treat cancer.[3] It was formerly included in the genus Vinca as Vinca rosea.

Synonyms[edit]

Two varieties are recognized

  • Catharanthus roseus var. roseus
Synonymy for this variety
Catharanthus roseus var. angustus Steenis ex Bakhuizen f.[4]
Catharanthus roseus var. albus G.Don[5]
Catharanthus roseus var. occellatus G.Don[5]
Catharanthus roseus var. nanus Markgr.[6]
Lochnera rosea f. alba (G.Don) Woodson[7]
Lochnera rosea var. ocellata (G.Don) Woodson
  • Catharanthus roseus var. angustus (Steenis) Bakh. f.[8]
Synonymy for this variety
Catharanthus roseus var. nanus Markgr.[9]
Lochnera rosea var. angusta Steenis[10]

Description[edit]

Catharanthus roseus is an evergreen subshrub or herbaceous plant growing 1 m (39 in) tall. The leaves are oval to oblong, 2.5–9 cm (1.0–3.5 in) long and 1–3.5 cm (0.4–1.4 in) broad, glossy green, hairless, with a pale midrib and a short petiole 1–1.8 cm (0.4–0.7 in) long; they are arranged in opposite pairs. The flowers are white to dark pink with a darker red centre, with a basal tube 2.5–3 cm (1.0–1.2 in) long and a corolla 2–5 cm (0.8–2.0 in) diameter with five petal-like lobes. The fruit is a pair of follicles 2–4 cm (0.8–1.6 in) long and 3 mm (0.1 in) broad.[11][12][13][14]

Ecology[edit]

In the wild, C. roseus is an endangered plant; the main cause of decline is habitat destruction by slash and burn agriculture.[15] It is also, however, widely cultivated and is naturalized in subtropical and tropical areas of the world like Australia, Malaysia, India, Pakistan and Bangladesh.[11] It is so well adapted to growth in Australia that it is listed as a noxious weed in Western Australia and the Australian Capital Territory,[16] and also in parts of eastern Queensland.[17]

Pale Pink with Red Centre Cultivar

Cultivation[edit]

As an ornamental plant, it is appreciated for its hardiness in dry and nutritionally deficient conditions, popular in subtropical gardens where temperatures never fall below 5–7 °C (41–45 °F), and as a warm-season bedding plant in temperate gardens. It is noted for its long flowering period, throughout the year in tropical conditions, and from spring to late autumn, in warm temperate climates. Full sun and well-drained soil are preferred. Numerous cultivars have been selected, for variation in flower colour (white, mauve, peach, scarlet and reddish-orange), and also for tolerance of cooler growing conditions in temperate regions. Notable cultivars include 'Albus' (white flowers), 'Grape Cooler' (rose-pink; cool-tolerant), the Ocellatus Group (various colours), and 'Peppermint Cooler' (white with a red centre; cool-tolerant).[11] In the USA it often remains identified as "Vinca" although botanists have shifted its identification and it often can be seen growing along roadsides in the south.

In the UK it has gained the Royal Horticultural Society’s Award of Garden Merit[18] (confirmed 2017).[19]

Uses[edit]

Traditional[edit]

The species has long been cultivated for herbal medicine, as it can be traced back to 2600 B.C.E. Mesopotamia.[20] In Ayurveda (Indian traditional medicine) the extracts of its roots and shoots, though poisonous, are used against several diseases. In traditional Chinese medicine, extracts from it have been used against numerous diseases, including diabetes, malaria, and Hodgkin's lymphoma.[12] In the 1950s, vinca alkaloids, including vinblastine and vincristine, were isolated from Catharanthus roseus while screening for anti-diabetic drugs.[21] This chance discovery led to increased research into the chemotheraputic effects of vinblastine and vincristine. Conflict between historical indigenous use, and recent patents on C. roseus-derived drugs by western pharmaceutical companies, without compensation, has led to accusations of biopiracy.[22]

Medicinal[edit]

Vinblastine and vincristine , chemotherapy medications used to treat several types of cancers, are found in the plant[23][24][25][26] and are biosynthesised from the coupling of the alkaloids catharanthine and vindoline.[27] The newer semi-synthetic chemotherapeutic agent vinorelbine, used in the treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer,[25][28] can be prepared either from vindoline and catharanthine[25][29] or from the vinca alkaloid leurosine,[30] in both cases via anhydrovinblastine.[29] The insulin-stimulating vincoline has been isolated from the plant.[31][32]

A periwinkle shrub
Dark pink colour
Coming in different colours

Research[edit]

Despite the medical importance and wide use, the desire alkaloids (vinblastine and vincristine) are naturally produced at very low yields. Additionally, it is complex and costly to synthesize the desired products in a lab, resulting in difficulty satisfying the demand and a need for overproduction.[33] Treatment of the plant with phytohormones, such as salicylic acid[34] and methyl jasmonate,[35][36] have been shown to trigger defense mechanisms and overproduce downstream alkaloids. Studies utilizing this technique vary in growth conditions, choice of phytohormone, and location of treatment. Concurrently, there are various efforts to map the biosynthetic pathway producing the alkaloids to find a direct path to overproduction via genetic engineering.[37][38]

C. roseus is used in plant pathology as an experimental host for phytoplasmas.[39] This is because it is easy to infect with a large majority of phytoplasmas, and also often has very distinctive symptoms such as phyllody and significantly reduced leaf size.[40]

Biology[edit]

Rosinidin is the pink anthocyanidin pigment found in the flowers of C. roseus.[41] Lochnericine is a major alkaloid in roots.[42]

Toxicity[edit]

C. roseus can be extremely toxic if consumed orally by humans, and is cited (under its synonym Vinca rosea) in the Louisiana State Act 159. All parts of the plant are poisonous. On consumption, symptoms consist of mild stomach cramps, cardiac complications, hypotension, systematic paralysis eventually leading to death.[43]

Gallery[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Catharanthus roseus". World Checklist of Selected Plant Families (WCSP). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Retrieved 4 August 2019.
  2. ^ "Catharanthus roseus". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 4 August 2019.
  3. ^ Moudi, Maryam; Go, Rusea; Yien, Christina Yong Seok; Nazre, Mohd. (2013-11-04). "Vinca Alkaloids". International Journal of Preventive Medicine. 4 (11): 1231–1235. ISSN 2008-7802. PMC 3883245. PMID 24404355.
  4. ^ Steenis ex Bakhuizen f., Blumea 6: 384. 1950.
  5. ^ a b G.Don, Gen. Hist. 4(1): 95. 1837.
  6. ^ Markgr., Adansonia, ser. 2. 12: 222. 1972.
  7. ^ Woodson, N. Amer. Fl. 29: 124. 1938.
  8. ^ Bakh. f.Blumea 6 (2): 384. 1950.
  9. ^ Markgr. Adansonia, ser. 2. 12: 222. 1972.
  10. ^ Steenis Trop. Nat. 25: 18. 1936.
  11. ^ a b c Huxley, A., ed. (1992). New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. Macmillan ISBN 0-333-47494-5.
  12. ^ a b Flora of China: Catharanthus roseus
  13. ^ College of Micronesia: Catharanthus roseus
  14. ^ Jepson Flora: Catharanthus roseus
  15. ^ DrugDigest: Catharanthus roseus Archived 2007-09-27 at the Wayback Machine
  16. ^ "Catharanthus roseus". Orpheus Island Research Station – James Cook University. Retrieved 2 November 2015.[permanent dead link]
  17. ^ "Factsheet – Catharanthus roseus". Queensland Government. Retrieved 2 November 2015.
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  19. ^ "AGM Plants - Ornamental" (PDF). Royal Horticultural Society. July 2017. p. 16. Retrieved 24 January 2018.
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  30. ^ Hardouin, Christophe; Doris, Eric; Rousseau, Bernard; Mioskowski, Charles (2002). "Concise synthesis of anhydrovinblastine from leurosine". Organic Letters. 4 (7): 1151–1153. doi:10.1021/ol025560c. PMID 11922805.
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  32. ^ Yao, XG; Chen, F; Li, P; Quan, L; Chen, J; Yu, L; Ding, H; Li, C; Chen, L; Gao, Z; Wan, P; Hu, L; Jiang, H; Shen, X (2013). "Natural product vindoline stimulates insulin secretion and efficiently ameliorates glucose homeostasis in diabetic murine models". Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 150 (1): 285–97. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2013.08.043. PMID 24012527.
  33. ^ Pan, Qifang; Wang, Chenyi; Xiong, Zhiwei; Wang, Hang; Fu, Xueqing; Shen, Qian; Peng, Bowen; Ma, Yanan; Sun, Xiaofen; Tang, Kexuan (2019-07-18). "CrERF5, an AP2/ERF Transcription Factor, Positively Regulates the Biosynthesis of Bisindole Alkaloids and Their Precursors in Catharanthus roseus". Frontiers in Plant Science. 10: 931. doi:10.3389/fpls.2019.00931. ISSN 1664-462X. PMC 6657538. PMID 31379908.
  34. ^ ABABAF, M; OMIDI, H; BAKHSHANDEH, A M (2019). "Germination Indices and Antioxidant Activity Enzyme Responses of Madagascar Periwinkle (Catharanthus Roseus (L.) G. Don) Under Pretreatment by Salicylic Acid". Applied Ecology and Environmental Research. 17 (2): 3989–4005. doi:10.15666/aeer/1702_39894005. ISSN 1589-1623.
  35. ^ Khataee, Elham; Karimi, Farah; Razavi, Khadijeh (2021). "Different carbon sources and their concentrations change alkaloid production and gene expression in Catharanthus roseus shoots in vitro". Functional Plant Biology. 48 (1): 40–53. doi:10.1071/FP19254. ISSN 1445-4408. PMID 32690131.
  36. ^ Fraser, Valerie N.; Philmus, Benjamin; Megraw, Molly (September 2020). "Metabolomics analysis reveals both plant variety and choice of hormone treatment modulate vinca alkaloid production in Catharanthus roseus". Plant Direct. 4 (9): e00267. doi:10.1002/pld3.267. ISSN 2475-4455. PMC 7520646. PMID 33005857.
  37. ^ Singh, Sanjay Kumar; Patra, Barunava; Paul, Priyanka; Liu, Yongliang; Pattanaik, Sitakanta; Yuan, Ling (April 2020). "Revisiting the ORCA gene cluster that regulates terpenoid indole alkaloid biosynthesis in Catharanthus roseus". Plant Science. 293: 110408. doi:10.1016/j.plantsci.2020.110408. ISSN 0168-9452. PMID 32081258.
  38. ^ Mortensen, Samuel; Weaver, Jessica D.; Sathitloetsakun, Suphinya; Cole, Lauren F.; Rizvi, Noreen F.; Cram, Erin J.; Lee‐Parsons, Carolyn W. T. (December 2019). "The regulation of ZCT1 , a transcriptional repressor of monoterpenoid indole alkaloid biosynthetic genes in Catharanthus roseus". Plant Direct. 3 (12): e00193. doi:10.1002/pld3.193. ISSN 2475-4455. PMC 6937483. PMID 31909362.
  39. ^ Marcone, C.; Ragozzino, A.; Seemuller, E. (1997). "Dodder transmission of alder yellows phytoplasma to the experimental host Catharanthus roseus (periwinkle)". Forest Pathology. 27 (6): 347–350. doi:10.1111/j.1439-0329.1997.tb01449.x.
  40. ^ Chang, Chung-Jan (1998). "Pathogenicity of Aster Yellows Phytoplasma and Spiroplasma citri on Periwinkle". Phytopathology. 88 (12): 1347–1350. doi:10.1094/PHYTO.1998.88.12.1347. PMID 18944838.
  41. ^ Toki, Kenjiro; Saito, Norio; Irie, Yuki; Tatsuzawa, Fumi; Shigihara, Atsushi; Honda, Toshio (2008). "7-O-Methylated anthocyanidin glycosides from Catharanthus roseus". Phytochemistry. 69 (5): 1215–1219. doi:10.1016/j.phytochem.2007.11.005. PMID 18164044.
  42. ^ "American Society of Plant Biologists". August 2018.
  43. ^ "Is Periwinkle Plant Poisonous or Toxic?".

External links[edit]