Architect José Augusto Bellucci was inspired by the Soviet sputnik satellites when he designed the cathedral's modernist, conical shape. The design was idealized by the archbishop Dom Jaime Luiz Coelho.
The word poustinik assigns a person dwelling in a poustinia, that is, someone who move away from the material world to be closer to God. The foundation stone, a piece of marble from St. Peter's Basilica in Rome blessed by Pope Pius XII, was laid on August 15, 1958. The church was built between July 1959 and May 10, 1972, the 25th anniversary of the city.