|Sub-discipline||Preference theory, erotic capital|
|Institutions||Institute for the Study of Civil Society, Centre for Policy Studies, London School of Economics (1993–2011), ESRC Data Archive, Department of Employment|
Catherine Hakim (born 30 May 1948) (Arabic: كاترين حكيم) is a British sociologist who specialises in women's employment and women's issues. She is known for developing the preference theory, for her work on erotic capital and more recently for a sex-deficit theory. She is currently a Professorial Research Fellow at the Institute for the Study of Civil Society (Civitas), and has formerly worked in British central government and been a senior research fellow at the London School of Economics and the Centre for Policy Studies. She has also been a Visiting Professor at the Social Science Research Center Berlin.
Born in Beirut, Hakim grew up in the Middle East and moved to the United Kingdom for boarding school at age 16, around 1964. She earned a B.A. at the University of Sussex in 1969 and a Ph.D. in sociology at the University of Essex in 1974. She worked in Caracas, Venezuela 1969–1972 and as a research officer with the Tavistock Institute in London 1972–1974. She was a senior research officer with the British Office of Population Censuses and Surveys (now the Office of National Statistics) 1974–1978, and a principal research officer with the Department of Employment 1978–1989. She was professor of sociology at the University of Essex and director of the ESRC Data Archive 1989–1990. She was affiliated with the London School of Economics between 1993 and 2011; she became a Morris Ginsberg fellow in 1993 and was employed as a senior research fellow in the sociology department until 2003. From 2003 to 2011 she was affiliated with the LSE in a visiting capacity; she maintained an office at the institution and was listed as a senior research fellow in the sociology department at the LSE website until 2011, when the arrangement came to an end amid public discussion of her book Honey Money. Since 2011 she has been a Professorial Research Fellow at the Centre for Policy Studies and the Institute for the Study of Civil Society (Civitas), and a Visiting Professor at the Social Science Research Center Berlin.
Career and work
Hakim has published extensively on labour market topics, women's employment, sex discrimination, social and family policy, as well as social statistics and research design. She has published over 100 articles in academic journals and edited collections, and over a dozen textbooks and research monographs. She is best known for developing preference theory and her criticism of many feminist assumptions about women's employment. Her most recent books develop a theory of "erotic capital". and its power in all social interaction, in the workplace, politics and in public life generally as well as in the invisible negotiations of private relationships.
The idea of erotic capital
Catherine Hakim's perspective
Catherine Hakim states that erotic capital is an asset in many social and economic settings such as media and politics. This theory added erotic as an additional form of capital to Pierre Bourdieu's concept of society being run by four main types of capita - cultural, social, symbolic, and economic. Hakim defined erotic capital as the concept that an individual's beauty, sexual attractiveness, enhanced social interaction, liveliness, social presentation, sexuality, and fertility can provide opportunities to advance in life. According to Hakim, the most important and most controversial of these seven components would be sexual attractiveness, as her studies indicated that family men tend to crave sex more than women, a phenomenon she named the male sex deficit. She encouraged young women to use this asset to earn a more respectable position in society. Hakim believes that erotic capital has gone unacknowledged for far too long and that the patriarchal society and moral constraints of conservative communities have caused the idea of beauty and attractiveness to stress the importance of personality, not giving enough credit to physique. She doesn't encourage a society based on solely erotic capital but rather states that it plays a subconscious role in daily life decisions, such as career offerings, enrichment opportunities, and social networking. For example, she places current dating apps and social media on the spotlight, stating that the internet has created somewhat of a digitized version of dating and that these markets will gain traction as time goes on. She strongly believes that these sites and the decision of marriage are driven by a woman's erotic capital and a man's economic capital.
Many groups such as feminists have actively rejected the idea of erotic capital by stating that the sex positive movement highlights the rights of women in only a manner that highlights advantages and ignores contradictory research that has shown that attractive women are less likely to receive a promotion. Many sociologists assert that Bourdieu had already stated this phenomenon is not a capital but a mere search for recognition and a drive of socialized desire from fellow peers, family, and friends. Bourdieu's followers have also asserted that he had developed the idea of 'body capital' long ago but refused to include in his general capita because it was too intertwined with economic capital. For example, if a woman from a high socioeconomic status could buy beauty products and afford body shaping surgeries, she would be able to change her body capital.
In 2017, Hakim was accused of misogyny after publishing an article which critics claim suggested women are to blame for sexual assault. The article bases its argument on a research paper published in 2015 which evaluated 30 sex surveys globally and claimed that, since the 1960s sexual revolution, women's sexual motivation and interest has decreased, causing what Hakim calls a "male sexual deficit". This, it is argued, can help explain why sexual harassment, sexual violence, rape, rising demand for commercial sexual services and other behaviours are almost exclusively male. She has argued that the sex deficit also derives from men naturally having a higher sex drive than women.
- Secondary analysis in social research, London : Allen & Unwin, 1982, ISBN 0-04-312015-6, ISBN 0-04-312016-4
- Social Change and Innovation in the Labour Market: Evidence from the Census SARs on Occupational Segregation and Labour Mobility, Part-Time Work and Student Jobs, Homework and Self-Employment (Oxford University Press, 1998). ISBN 0-19-829381-X
- Work-Lifestyle Choices in the 21st Century: Preference Theory (Oxford University Press, 2000). With a Preface by Anthony Giddens. ISBN 0-19-924210-0
- Research Design: Successful Designs for Social and Economic Research (Routledge, 2000). ISBN 978-0-415-22312-6
- Models of the Family in Modern Societies: Ideals and Realities (Ashgate, 2003). ISBN 0-7546-4406-5
- Key Issues in Women's Work (Glasshouse Press, 1996, 2004). ISBN 1-904385-16-8
- Modelos de Familia en las Sociedades Modernas: Ideales y Realidades (Centro de Investigaciones Sociológicas, 2005). ISBN 978-84-7476-378-2
- Little Britons: Financing Childcare Choice (Policy Exchange, 2008), with Karen Bradley, Emily Price and Louisa Mitchell. ISBN 978-1-906097-21-9
- Honey money: why attractiveness is the key to success. London: Penguin. 2012. ISBN 9780241952214.
- Hakim, Catherine (March 1998). "Developing a sociology for the twenty-first century: Preference Theory". British Journal of Sociology. 49 (1): 137–143. doi:10.2307/591267. JSTOR 591267.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Hakim, Catherine (2004). "A new approach to explaining fertility patterns: Preference Theory". Population and Development Review. 29 (3): 349–374. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.467.811. doi:10.1111/j.1728-4457.2003.00349.x. Archived from the original on 6 March 2012.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Hakim, Catherine (August 2006). "Women, careers, and work-life preferences". British Journal of Guidance and Counselling. 34 (3): 279–294. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.463.726. doi:10.1080/03069880600769118. S2CID 13388770.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link) Pdf.
- Hakim, Catherine (September 2003). "Public morality versus personal choice: the failure of social attitude surveys". British Journal of Sociology. 54 (3): 339–345. doi:10.1111/j.1468-4446.2003.00339.x. PMID 14514462.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Hakim, Catherine (November 2002). "Lifestyle preferences as determinants of women's differentiated labor market careers". Work and Occupations. 29 (4): 428–459. doi:10.1177/0730888402029004003. S2CID 153914313.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Hakim, Catherine (2007). "The politics of female diversity in the 21st century". In Browne, Jude (ed.). The future of gender. Cambridge, UK New York: Cambridge University Press. pp. 191–227. ISBN 9780511619205.
- Hakim, Catherine (2005). "Sex differences in work-life balance goals". In Houston, Diane (ed.). Work-life balance in the 21st century. Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire New York: Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 55–79. ISBN 9781403920621.
- Hakim, Catherine (2004). "Lifestyle preferences versus patriarchal values: causal and non-causal attitudes". In Zollinger Giele, Janet; Holst, Elke (eds.). Changing life patterns in Western industrial societies. Amsterdam Boston: Elsevier/JAI. pp. 69–91. ISBN 9780762310203.
- Hakim, Catherine (October 2010). "Erotic capital". European Sociological Review. 26 (5): 499–518. doi:10.1093/esr/jcq014.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Hakim, Catherine (2011). "Women's lifestyle preferences in the 21st century: Implications for family policy". In Beets, Gijs; Schippers, Joop; te Velde, Egbert R. (eds.). The future of motherhood in western societies: late fertility and its consequences. Dordrecht, Netherlands New York: Springer. pp. 177–196. ISBN 9789048189694.
- "Sociolog: Smukke kvinder undertrykkes i Skandinavien". Berlingske Tidende. 8 October 2014.
- Spicer, Kate (17 April 2010). "Catherine Hakim: She's counting up erotic capital". The Times. Retrieved 2 January 2011.
- Arndt, Bettina (7 February 2003). "Hakim works on fertile ground". The Age. Melbourne, Australia. Retrieved 2 January 2011.
- "Catherine Hakim: Erotisches Kapital (book review)". Perlentaucher.
- "Dr Catherine Hakim". London School of Economics. Archived from the original on 15 October 2002. Retrieved 1 January 2020.
- "Who's who". London School of Economics. Archived from the original on 25 September 2009.
- "Profiles – Directors of the UK Data Archive". UK Data Archive. Retrieved 2 January 2011.
- Grove, Jack (22 September 2011). "Honey Money not to LSE's Taste". Times Higher Education. Retrieved 22 September 2011.
- "CPPI Research Cluster with Dr Catherine Hakim: Is the Beauty Bias Unfair? The Social, Political and Economic Value of Erotic Capital". University of Manchester. Retrieved 1 January 2020.
- "Speakers". Why Workplace Flexibility Matters. Archived from the original on 7 July 2011. Retrieved 2 January 2011.
- Rabušic, Ladislav; Chromková Manea, Beatrice-Elena (2007). "Hakim's preference theory in the Czech context". Czech Demography. Czech Statistical Office. 2: 46–55.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link) Republished in 2008, volume 2, pdf.
- Walden, Celia (14 April 2010). "Erotic capital". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 2 January 2011.
- Hakim, Catherine (1 October 2010). "Erotic Capital". European Sociological Review. 26 (5): 499–518. doi:10.1093/esr/jcq014. ISSN 0266-7215.
- Warhurst, Chris (2012). "Review of Honey Money: The Power of Erotic Capital". Work, Employment & Society. 26 (6): 1036–1038. doi:10.1177/0950017012468303. JSTOR 43495562. S2CID 156854847.
- DLDconference (15 April 2013), DLDwomen 2010 - Erotic Capital (Catherine Hakim, Jacob Burda), retrieved 17 March 2018
- Hakim, Catherine (3 September 2011). "The Untapped Power of Erotic Capital". The Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved 24 March 2018.
- Hakim, Catherine (1 May 2017). "PL-32 Sexual Markets and Erotic Capital in the 21st Century: The Impact of the Internet". The Journal of Sexual Medicine. 14 (5): e220. doi:10.1016/j.jsxm.2017.04.103. ISSN 1743-6095.
- Catherine., Hakim (6 September 2011). Erotic capital : the power of attraction in the boardroom and the bedroom. New York. p. 499. ISBN 9780465027477. OCLC 701015484.
- Aarseth, Helene (February 2016). "Eros in the Field? Bourdieu's Double Account of Socialized Desire". The Sociological Review. 64: 93–109. doi:10.1111/1467-954X.12348. S2CID 147087963.
- Sarpila, O. (1 June 2014). "Attitudes Towards Performing and Developing Erotic Capital in Consumer Culture". European Sociological Review. 30 (3): 302–314. doi:10.1093/esr/jct037. ISSN 0266-7215.
- Bates, Laura (21 February 2017). "No, wives 'withholding sex' are not to blame for male violence". The Guardian. Retrieved 22 February 2017.
- Hakim, Catherine (May 2015). "The male sexual deficit: a social fact of the 21st century". International Sociology. 30 (3): 314–335. doi:10.1177/0268580915569090. S2CID 56471475.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link) Pdf.
- Daubney, Martin (10 August 2015). "Meet the academic who thinks prostitution should be legalised because men need more sex". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 25 July 2017.
- Official website
- The Laura Perrins Interview: Dr Catherine Hakim on radical feminism, #MeToo and the walk-on girls for The Conservative Woman February 2, 2018.
| Director of the ESRC Data Archive