From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Clinical data
Routes of
ATC code
Legal status
Legal status
Pharmacokinetic data
Biological half-life 1.8-8.6 h[1]
CAS Number
PubChem CID
ECHA InfoCard 100.007.050
Chemical and physical data
Formula C9H13NO
Molar mass 151.206 g/mol
3D model (JSmol)
 NYesY (what is this?)  (verify)

Cathine, also known as d-norpseudoephedrine and (+)-norpseudoephedrine, is a psychoactive drug of the phenethylamine and amphetamine chemical classes which acts as a stimulant. Along with cathinone, it is found naturally in Catha edulis (khat), and contributes to its overall effects.[2] It has approximately 10-14% the potency of amphetamine.[2]


Like amphetamines, cathinone, and ephedrine, cathine acts as a norepinephrine releasing agent (NRA).[2] It also acts as a dopamine releasing agent (DRA) to a lesser extent.[2]


Cathine is one of the four stereoisomers of phenylpropanolamine (PPA).


The World Anti-Doping Agency's list of prohibited substances (used for the Olympic Games among other athletic events) bars cathine in concentrations of over 5 micrograms per milliliter in urine. Cathine is a Schedule III drug under the Convention on Psychotropic Substances.[3] In the United States, it is classified as a Schedule IV controlled substance.

In Australia, Cathine is officially a schedule 4 drug but is not yet available or approved for any use.

Cathine is found in shrub Catha edulis.

In Hong Kong, cathine is regulated under Schedule 1 of Hong Kong's Chapter 134 Dangerous Drugs Ordinance. Unlawful possession is punishable by severe fines and imprisonment.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Toennes SW, Harder S, Schramm M, Niess C, Kauert GF (2003). "Pharmacokinetics of cathinone, cathine and norephedrine after the chewing of khat leaves". Br J Clin Pharmacol. 56 (1): 125–130. PMC 1884326Freely accessible. PMID 12848785. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2125.2003.01834.x. 
  2. ^ a b c d Hoffman, R; Al'Absi, M (December 2010). "Khat use and neurobehavioral functions: suggestions for future studies." (PDF). Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 132 (3): 554–63. PMC 2976806Freely accessible. PMID 20553832. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2010.05.033. 
  3. ^ "List of psychotropic substances under international control" (PDF). International Narcotics Control Board. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-08-31.