(F. Hamilton, 1822)
Catla (Labeo catla), also known as the major (Indian) carp, is an economically important South Asian freshwater fish in the carp family Cyprinidae. It is native to rivers and lakes in northern India, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Nepal, and Pakistan, but has also been introduced elsewhere in South Asia and is commonly farmed.
In Nepal and in neighbouring Indian regions, it is called Bhakura.
Catla is a fish with large and broad head, a large protruding lower jaw, and upturned mouth. It has large, greyish scales on its dorsal side and whitish on its belly. It reaches up to 182 cm (6.0 ft) in length and 38.6 kg (85 lb) in weight.
Catla is a surface and midwater feeder. Adults feed on zooplankton using large gill rakers, but young ones on both zooplankton and phytoplankton. Catla attains sexual maturity at an average age of two years and an average weight of 2 kg.
The catla was formerly listed as the only species in the genus Catla, but this was a synonym of the genus Gibelion. More recently, Catalog of Fishes has moved this species to Labeo. This species has been frequently confused with the giant barb (Catlocarpio siamensis) of south-east Asia, and the two taxa do bear an extraordinary resemblance to each other, especially in their very large heads.
It is one of the most important aquacultured freshwater species in South Asia. It is grown in polyculture ponds with other carp-like fishes, particularly with the roho labeo (Labeo rohita) and mrigal carp. The reported production numbers have increased sharply during the 2000s, and were in 2012 about 2.8 million tonnes per year.
Catla is sold and consumed fresh, locally and regionally. It is transported on ice. Fish of 1–2 kg weight are preferred by the consumers.
- Tenzin, K. (2010). "Gibelion catla". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2010: e.T166425A6206451. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2010-4.RLTS.T166425A6206451.en. Retrieved 13 January 2018.
- Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2017). "Gibelion catla" in FishBase. September 2017 version.
- Eschmeyer W (2014) Cyprinus catla CAS Catalog of Fishes
- Food and Aquaculture Organization of the United Nations, Cultured Aquatic Species Information Programme: Catla catla (Hamilton, 1822) http://www.fao.org/fishery/culturedspecies/Catla_catla/en
- Development of freshwater fish farming and poverty alleviation - A case study from Bangladesh
- Catla catla (Hamilton, 1822) FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Department, Cultured Aquatic Species Information Programme
- Catla catla - http://en.bdfish.org/2010/02/catla-catla-catla-hamilton-1822/.BdFISH
- Menon, A.G.K. 1999 Check list - fresh water fishes of India. Rec. Zool. Surv. India, Misc. Publ., Occas. Pap. No. 175, 366 p.
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