It is located along the coast of the Camotes Sea, 57 km (35 mi) north of Cebu City. Bounded on the north by Sogod; on the south by Carmen; on the west by Tuburan; and on the east by Camotes Sea, Catmon's topography is generally mountainous and hilly but patches of flat lands can be found along the coastline and portion of the poblacion.
The municipality's climate is of Coronas climate type IV, where rainfall is evenly distributed throughout the year.
Mount Capayas (Kapayas) (also known as Tore Peak), Cebu's second highest peak, is located in Cambangkaya. Mount Capayas is one of the Key Biodiversity Areas (KBAs) of Cebu.
The municipality got its name from the presence of huge trees called katmon (dillenia philippinensis) that thrive in this area.
(Administratively independent from the province but grouped under Cebu by the Philippine Statistics Authority. Mandaue is grouped under the 6th legislative district of Cebu but still independent from the province.)