Cattleya

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Cattleya
Cattleya labiata Orchi 1013.jpg
Cattleya labiata
Scientific classification e
Domain: Eukaryota
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Monocots
Order: Asparagales
Family: Orchidaceae
Subfamily: Epidendroideae
Subtribe: Laeliinae
Genus: Cattleya
Lindl.
Type species
Cattleya labiata
Synonyms[1]
  • Sophronia Lindl.
  • Sophronitis Lindl.
  • Maelenia Dumort.
  • Lophoglotis Raf.
  • × Sophrocattleya Rolfe
  • Eunannos Porta & Brade
  • Hoffmannseggella H.G.Jones
  • Dungsia Chiron & V.P.Castro
  • × Hadrocattleya V.P.Castro & Chiron
  • × Hadrodungsia V.P.Castro & Chiron
  • Hadrolaelia (Schltr.) Chiron & V.P.Castro
  • × Microcattleya V.P.Castro & Chiron
  • Microlaelia (Schltr.) Chiron & V.P.Castro
  • Cattleyella Van den Berg & M.W.Chase
  • Schluckebieria Braem
  • × Brasicattleya Campacci
  • Brasilaelia Campacci
  • Chironiella Braem

Cattleya (/ˈkætliə/)[2] is a genus of orchids from Costa Rica south to Argentina.[1] The genus is abbreviated C in trade journals.[3]

Description[edit]

Epiphytic or terrestrial orchids with cylindrical rhizome from which the fleshy noodle-like roots grow. Pseudobulbs can be conical, spindle-shaped or cylindrical; with upright growth; one or two leaves growing from the top of them. The leaves can be oblong, lanceolate or elliptical, somewhat fleshy, with smooth margin. The inflorescence is a terminal raceme with few or several flowers. Flowers have sepals and petals free from each other; the lip or labellum (lowermost petal), usually has a different coloration and shape from the rest of the flower and covers in part the flower column forming a tube. There are four polliniums (bag-like organs that contain pollen). The fruit is a capsule with many small seeds.[4][5][6]

Taxonomy[edit]

The genus was named in 1824 by John Lindley after horticulturalist William Cattley. Cattley obtained a specimen of then unnamed Cattleya labiata from William Swainson who had discovered the new plant in Pernambuco, Brazil, in 1817. The plant successfully bloomed under the care of Cattley and it became the type specimen from which Lindley described C. labiata.[7]

Currently accepted species and subgeneric division within genus Cattleya are:[8][9][10][11][12][13]

Subgenus Cattleya[edit]

Section Cattleya[edit]

Image Name Distribution Elevation (m)
Cattleya dowiana var. aurea 'Maestranza' (Linden) B.S.Williams & T.Moore, Orchid Album 2 t. 84 (1883) (48470977042).jpg C. aurea S. Panama to Colombia 300 - 1000 meters
Cattleya dowiana (17344397479).jpg C. dowiana Costa Rica 250 - 1200 meters
A and B Larsen orchids - Cattleya gaskelliana 876-9.jpg C. gaskelliana Colombia to Trinidad 700 - 1000 meters
Cattleya iricolor Orchi 021.jpg C. iricolor Ecuador to Peru 400 - 1220 meters
Cattleya jenmanii Rolfe, Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1906 85 (1906) (49221659452) (cropped).jpg C. jenmanii Venezuela to Guyana 300 - 600 meters
Cattleya labiata Orchi 1013.jpg C. labiata Brazil 600 - 900 meters
Cattleya luteola ‘No2' Lindl., Gard. Chron. 1853 774 (1853) (41995788111).jpg C. luteola N. Brazil, Ecuador to Bolivia 100 - 1200 meters
Cattleya mendelii Orchi 2012-09-14 020.jpg C. mendelii NE. Colombia 1300 - 1800 meters
Cattleya mooreana (15346290357).jpg C. mooreana Peru around 990 meters
Caularthron bicornutum - fl.jpg C. mossiae N. Venezuela 900 - 1500 meters
Cattleya percivaliana 'Jabon' (Rchb.f.) O'Brien Gard. Chron., n.s., 20- 404 (1883) (38372342694).jpg C. percivaliana Colombia to W. Venezuela 1300 - 2000 meters
Cattleya quadricolor (38149175695).jpg C. quadricolor Colombia 600 - 1500 meters
C. rex Peru to N Bolivia around 1350 meters
Cattleya schroederae (34349388642).jpg C. schroederae NE. Colombia .
Cattleya trianae, the national flower of Columbia (10909657333).jpg C. trianae Colombia around 1200 meters
Cattleya warneri T.Moore ex R.Warner, Select Orchid. Pl. t. 8 (1862) (46699509212) (cropped).jpg C. warneri E. Brazil 400 - 900 meters
Cattleya warscewiczii fma. clara suave lunata 'Monos Nutibara' Rchb.f., Bonplandia (Hannover) 2- 112 (1854) (35156784005).jpg C. warscewiczii Colombia 500 - 1700 meters
Series Cattleyodes[edit]
Image Name Distribution Elevation (m)
Cattleya crispa Lindley.jpg C. crispa SE. Brazil 800 - 1500 meters
C. grandis Brazil - SE. Bahia to N. Espírito Santo .
Laelia lobata1.jpg C. lobata SE. Brazil.
Sop perrini.jpg C. perrinii SE. Brazil 700 - 900 meters
Cattleya purpurata fma. sanguinea ‘Mentz’ (Lindl. & Paxton) Rollisson ex Lindl., Gard. Chron. 1855 319 (1855) (42929804561).jpg C. purpurata SE. & S. Brazil
A and B Larsen orchids - Laelia tenebrosa 925-4.jpg C. tenebrosa Brazil - SE. Bahia to Espírito Santo .
C. virens SE. Brazil 1000 - 1500 meters
Cattleya xanthina (Espírito Santo, Brasil) (Lindl.) Van den Berg, Neodiversity 3- 12 (2008) (35756189832).jpg C. xanthina Brazil - Bahia to Espírito Santo .
Series Hadrolaelia[edit]
Image Name Distribution Elevation (m)
Cattleya alaorii (s-wild) (Brieger & Bicalho) Van den Berg, Neodiversity 3- 4 (2008) (32091365561).jpg C. alaorii Brazil - Bahia 200 - 600 meters
Cattleya bicalhoi fma. coerulea ‘Chojamaru’ Van den Berg, Neodiversity 3- 4 (2008) (26737176929).jpg C. bicalhoi Brazil - S. Minas Gerais to Rio de Janeiro 500 - 2000 meters
Cattleya jongheana (Rchb.f.) Van den Berg, Neodiversity 3 8 (2008) (26476434407).jpg C. jongheana Brazil - Minas Gerais 1300 - 1600 meters
Cattleya praestans (Rchb.f.) Van den Berg.jpg C. praestans SE. Brazil 300 - 500 meters
Hadrolaelia pumila Imperatriz.JPG C. pumila SE. & S. Brazil 600 - 1300 meters
Cattleya sincorana ‘Black Willow’ (Schltr.) Van den Berg, Neodiversity 3- 11 (2008) (34363216995).jpg C. sincorana Brazil - Bahia 1100 - 1500 meters
Series Microlaelia[edit]
Image Name Distribution Elevation (m)
Microlaelia lundii flower.jpg C. lundii Bolivia to Argentina 740 - 1000 meters
Series Parviflorae[edit]
Image Name Distribution Elevation (m)
C. alvarenguensis Brazil - Minas Gerais around 800 meters
Cattleya alvaroana (11763085833).jpg C. alvaroana Brazil - Rio de Janeiro
Cattleya angereri Orchi 003.jpg C. angereri Brazil - Minas Gerais 1000-1300 meters
Cattleya blumenscheinii (Pabst) Van den Berg, Neodiversity 3- 4 (2008). (39333106224).jpg C. blumenscheinii Brazil - Minas Gerais around 1200 meters
C. bradei Brazil - Minas Gerais 1100 - 1400 meters
C. briegeri Brazil - Minas Gerais around 1370 meter
C. campacii Brazil
Hoffmannseggella caulescens.jpg C. caulescens Brazil - Minas Gerais 600 - 1200 meters
Laelia cinnabarina 01.jpg C. cinnabarina Brazil - S. Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro 800 - 1500 meters
Cattleya colnagoi (11762787953).jpg C. colnagoi Brazil - Minas Gerais
C. conceicionensis Brazil - Minas Gerais 800 - 1200 meters
Cattleya crispata Orchi 168.jpg C. crispata Brazil - Minas Gerais 400 - 1200 meters
Cattleya endsfeldzii2a.jpg C. endsfeldzii Brazil - Minas Gerais 900 meters
Cattleya esalqueana Orchi 012.jpg C. esalqueana Brazil - Minas Gerais 1100 - 1300 meters
C. flavasulina Brazil - Minas Gerais 900 - 1440 meters
Cattleya fournieri Orchi 1015.jpg C. fournieri Brazil - Minas Gerais 1100 - 1800 meters
Cattleya ghillanyi fma. flamea '-1806' (Pabst) Van den Berg, Neodiversity 3 7 (2008) (40973783720).jpg C. ghillanyi Brazil - Minas Gerais
C. gloedeniana Brazil - São Paulo around 1600 meters
C. gracilis Brazil - Minas Gerais: Serra do Cipó
C. guanhanensis Brazil - Minas Gerais around 1100 meters
Cattleya harpophylla Orchi 016.jpg C. harpophylla Brazil - Minas Gerais to Espírito Santo 500 - 900 meters
C. hatae Brazil - Minas Gerais 1000 - 1100 meters
C. hegeriana Brazil - Rio de Janeiro 1000 - 1200 meters
C. hispidula Brazil - Minas Gerais around 1200 meters
Sop mixta.jpg C. hoehnei Brazil - Espírito Santo around 800 meters
C. itambana Brazil - Minas Gerais 1500 to 2200 meters
C. kautskyana Brazil - Espírito Santo 600 - 1000 meters
C. kettieana Brazil - Minas Gerais 1500 - 2000 meters
Cattleya kleberi 'Lemon Yellow' (F.E.L.Miranda) Van den Berg, Neodiversity 5 13 (2010) (48000446356).jpg C. kleberi Brazil - Minas Gerais around 1100 meters
C. liliputana Brazil - Minas Gerais: Serra do Ouro Branco 1200 - 1400 meters
C. locatellii Brazil - Minas Gerais
Sop longipes.jpg C. longipes SE. Brazil - Serra do Cipó 1300 - 2000 meters
Cattleya luetzelburgii Orchi 005.jpg C. luetzelburgii Brazil - Bahia 1100 - 1700 meters.
C. macrobulbosa Brazil - Espírito Santo around 1600 meters
Cattleya marcaliana Orchi 053.jpg C. marcaliana Brazil - Bahia 200 - 300 meters
C. milleri Brazil - Minas Gerais 800 - 1300 meters
Cattleya mirandae Orchi 032.jpg C. mirandae Brazil - Minas Gerais around 1300 meters
Cattleya munchowiana (F.E.L.Miranda) Van den Berg, Neodiversity 3 10 (2008) (42346340371).jpg C. munchowiana Brazil - Espírito Santo 1100 - 1300 meters
Cattleya neokautskyi Van den Berg, Neodiversity 3 10 (2008) (41114245832).jpg C. neokautskyi SE. Brazil 600 - 1000 meters.
Cattleya pabstii Orchi 027.jpg C. pabstii Brazil - Minas Gerais 1200 meters
C. pendula Brazil - Minas Gerais
Cattleya pfisteri Orchi 024.jpg C. pfisteri Brazil - Bahia around 1300 meters
C. presidentensis Brazil - Minas Gerais 1000 - 1300 meters
Cattleya sp. aff. reginae (36382505655).jpg C. reginae Brazil - Minas Gerais 1200 - 2000 meters
Cattleya rupestris (Lindl.) Van den Berg, Neodiversity 3 11 (2008) (26248496577).jpg C. rupestris Brazil - Minas Gerais
C. sanguiloba Brazil – Bahia
C. tereticaulis Brazil - Minas Gerais
C. vandenbergii Brazil - Minas Gerais
Cattleya vasconcelosiana (Campacci) Van den Berg, Phytotaxa 186 84 (2014) (30017905018).jpg C. vasconcelosiana Brazil - Minas Gerais around 1100 meters
C. verboonenii Brazil - Rio de Janeiro
C. viridiflora Brazil - Minas Gerais
Series Sophronitis[edit]
Image Name Distribution Elevation (m)
C. acuensis Brazil - Rio de Janeiro 1800 - 2100 meters
C. alagoensis Brazil - Alagoas 300 - 500 meters
Cattleya brevipedunculata (Brazil) (Cogn.) Van den Berg, Neodiversity 3- 5 (2008) (37604122515).jpg C. brevipedunculata Brazil - Minas Gerais 1220 - 2000 meters
Cattleya cernua (Lindl.) Van den Berg, Neodiversity 5 13 (2010) (44597776830).jpg C. cernua Brazil to NE. Argentina 2 - 100 meters
Cattleya coccinea '1980s' Lindl., Edwards's Bot. Reg. 22 t. 1919 (1836) (46224838001).jpg C. coccinea Brazil to NE. Argentina 650 - 1670 meters
C. dichroma Brazil - Rio de Janeiro 1200 - 1525 meters
Sophronitis mantiqueirae Orchi 068.jpg C. mantiqueirae SE. Brazil 1200 - 1890 meters
C. pygmaea Brazil - Espírito Santo 915 - 1067 meters
Cattleya wittigiana (Barb.Rodr.) Van den Berg, Neodiversity 3 12 (2008) (40011443525).jpg C. wittigiana Brazil - Espírito Santo 700 - 2000 meters

Section Lawrenceanae[edit]

Image Name Distribution Elevation (m)
Cattleya lawrenceana.jpg C. lawrenceana Venezuela, Guyana, N. Brazil 250 - 2400 meters
Cattleya lueddemanniana "tipo".JPG C. lueddemanniana N. Venezuela 0 - 500 meters
Cattleya eldorado Orchi 002.jpg C. wallisii N. Brazil

Subgenus Cattleyella[edit]

Image Name Distribution Elevation (m)
Cattleyella araguaiensis Orchi 033.jpg C. araguaiensis Brazil 395 - 610 meters

Subgenus Intermediae[edit]

Image Name Distribution Elevation (m)
A and B Larsen orchids - Cattleya aclandiae DSCN0548.JPG C. aclandiae Brazil 100 - 400 meters
Cattleya amethystoglossa Orchi 0011.jpg C. amethystoglossa Brazil around 600 meters
Cattleya bicolor Orchi 2012-09-21 074.jpg C. bicolor SE. Brazil
Cattleya dormaniana (Brazil) (Rchb.f.) Rchb.f., Gard. Chron., n.s., 17- 216 (1882) (37827599194).jpg C. dormaniana Brazil 600 - 100 meters
Cattleya elongata.jpg C. elongata Brazil 900 - 1500 meters
Cattleya forbesii ‘Prazer’ Lindl., Coll. Bot. t. 37 (1826) (43353536482).jpg C. forbesii Brazil around 200 meters
Cattleya granulosa Lindl. - Flickr - Alex Popovkin, Bahia, Brazil (14).jpg C. granulosa Brazil 600 - 900 meters
Cattleya guttata (Brazil) Lindl., Edwards's Bot. Reg. 17- t. 1406 (1831) (24491178747).jpg C. guttata Brazil .
A and B Larsen orchids - Cattleya harrisoniana 75-1.jpg C. harrisoniana SE. Brazil
Cattleya intermedia Orchi 039.jpg C. intermedia SE. & S. Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay
Cattleya kerrii.jpg C. kerrii Brazil
Cattleya loddigesii 2013-03-22 6361.jpg C. loddigesii SE. Brazil to NE. Argentina .
Cattleya nobilior.jpg C. nobilior WC. Brazil to Bolivia 170 - 700 meters
A and B Larsen orchids - Cattleya porphyroglossa DSCN3206.JPG C. porphyroglossa Brazil .
Cattleya schilleriana.jpg C. schilleriana Brazil 0 - 800 meters.
Cattleya schofieldiana Orchi 027.jpg C. schofieldiana Brazil around 900 meters
Cattleya tenuis 53.jpg C. tenuis NE. Brazil 1000 - 1200 meters.
Cattleya tigrina Orchi 017.jpg C. tigrina SE. & S. Brazil 0 - 100 meters.
Cattleya velutina Orchi 1070.jpg C. velutina Brazil
Cattleya violacea (Kunth) Lindl., Gard. Chron. 1842 472 (1842) (29029280518).jpg C. violacea lowland Amazon rainforest & Guyana 200 - 700 meters
Cattleya walkeriana tipo, 'Dona nega' x 'Cambará' (27501615169).jpg C. walkeriana WC. & SE. Brazil 0 - 2000 meters.

Subgenus Maximae[edit]

Image Name Distribution Elevation (m)
Cattleya maxima ‘La Negra’ Lindl., Gen. Sp. Orchid. Pl. 116 (1833) (43195894741).jpg C. maxima Venezuela to Peru 10 - 1500 meters

Natural hybrids[edit]

Currently accepted natural hybrids are:[13]

Nothogenera[edit]

This section is incomplete.

Hybrids of Cattleya and other genera are placed in the following nothogenera:

Cultivation[edit]

Cattleya mossiae fo. coerulea
  • Light
Cattleyas need light, but not direct sunlight; in case of intense sunlight, shade must be provided.[14]
  • Temperature
Day temperatures must be between 25-30 °C (77-86 °F) and night temperatures not lower than 10-12 °C (50-53.6 °F).[14]
  • Humidity
Must be between 40-70% with good ventilation; however plants must not be exposed to air currents.[15]
  • Watering
Water only if substrate is dry. It can be done once a week, but it all depends on the environmental conditions and the season.[15]
  • Fertilizing
Cattleyas can survive without fertilizing. However, it is advisable to use nitrogen-based fertilizers without urea; fertilizers must be applied during the growth season.[15] To avoid salt accumulation in the substrate, water thoroughly between fertilizer applications.[15]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant Families". Royal botanic Gardens Kew. Retrieved 21 February 2017.
  2. ^ Sunset Western Garden Book, 1995:606–607
  3. ^ "Alphabetical list of standard abbreviations of all generic names occurring in current use in orchid hybrid registration as at 31st December 2007" (PDF). Royal Horticultural Society.
  4. ^ Buzatto, Cristiano Roberto; Ferreira, Priscila Porto Alegre; Welker, Cassiano Aimberê Dorneles; Seger, Guilherme Dubal dos Santos; Hertzog, Anelise; Singer, Rodrigo B. (2010). "O gênero Cattleya Lindl. (Orchidaceae: Laeliinae) no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil". Revista Brasileira de Biociências (in Portuguese). 8 (4). ISSN 1980-4849.
  5. ^ Withner, C. (1988). The Cattleyas and Their Relatives. Volume 1: The Cattleyas. Timber Press. pp. 29–30. ISBN 9780881920994.
  6. ^ Schweinfurth, C., "Orchidaceae, Orchids of Peru", Fieldiana, Botany 30(3): 535
  7. ^ "Cattleya, Queen of the Orchids: The Showy Cattleya, Queen of the Orchids, BEGINNERS' HANDBOOK - XV". www.aos.org. Retrieved 29 June 2017.
  8. ^ Van den Berg, Cássio (2014). "Reaching a compromise between conflicting nuclear and plastid phylogenetic trees: a new classification for the genus Cattleya (Epidendreae; Epidendroideae; Orchidaceae)". Phytotaxa. 186 (2): 75. doi:10.11646/phytotaxa.186.2.2. ISSN 1179-3163.
  9. ^ "Laelia gracilis - IOSPE PHOTOS". www.orchidspecies.com. Retrieved 28 June 2017.
  10. ^ "Cattleya hispidula - IOSPE PHOTOS". www.orchidspecies.com. Retrieved 28 June 2017.
  11. ^ "Cattleya gracilis (Pabst) Van den Berg — The Plant List". www.theplantlist.org. Retrieved 28 June 2017.
  12. ^ van den Berg, Cássio (2016). "Nomenclatural notes on Laeliinae-VI. Further combinations in Cattleya (Orchidaceae)". Neodiversity. 9 (1): 4–5. doi:10.13102/neod.91.2.[permanent dead link]
  13. ^ a b "Cattleya - World Checklist of Selected Plant Families: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew". apps.kew.org. Archived from the original on 8 September 2009. Retrieved 1 July 2017.
  14. ^ a b Schoser, Gustav (1993). Orchid Growing Basics. Sterling Publishing Company, Inc. p. 64. ISBN 9780806903620.
  15. ^ a b c d "Cattleyas for the Beginner - Part 1". www.aos.org. Retrieved 3 July 2017.

External links[edit]