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During the twentieth century Soviet breeders selected some of these varieties among Caucasian dogs and created the Caucasian Shepherd Dog breed. Caucasian shepherds were first described by the famous Russian Cynologist Aleksandr Mazover, noting that the center of distribution of the breed, both in terms of numbers and quality, were Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia and Dagestan. While the dogs from different areas of the region shared the general features today present in Caucasian shepherds, Caucasian Shepherds from Georgia were considered to be the best examples of the breed due to their size, powerful musculoskeletal structure, and attractive long hair. For this reason, Georgian SSR became a principal region of cultivation of Caucasian Shepherd Dogs in the Soviet Union.
The Caucasian Ovcharka is a large dog. The preferred height at the withers is in the range 67–70 cm for females, and 72–75 cm for males. The minimum heights and weights for registration are 64 cm and 40 kg for females, and 68 cm and 50 kg for males.