Cava (Spanish wine)
Cava (Catalan pronunciation: [ˈkaβə], plural caves) is a sparkling wine of Denominación de Origen (DO) status from Catalonia. It may be white (blanc) or rosé (rosat). The Macabeu, Parellada and Xarel·lo are the most popular and traditional grape varieties for producing cava. Only wines produced in the traditional method may be labelled "cava"; those produced by other processes may only be called "sparkling wines" (vins escumosos). About 95% of all cava is produced in the Penedès area in Catalonia, with the village of Sant Sadurní d'Anoia being home to many of Catalonia's largest production houses.:144–145 The two major producers are Codorníu and Freixenet. Cava is also produced in other villages in Aragon, Castile and León, Extremadura, La Rioja, Basque Country, Navarre and Valencia.
In the past, cava was referred to as "Spanish champagne", which is no longer permitted under European Union law, since Champagne has Protected Geographical Status (PGS) and Spain entered the EU in 1986. Colloquially it is still called champán or champaña in Spanish or xampany in Catalan. Today it is defined by law as a "quality sparkling wine produced in a designated region" (Vino Espumoso de Calidad Producido en una Región Determinada, VECPRD). 
The Catalan word cava (feminine, plural caves, although Cava the wine is masculine) means "cave" or "cellar". Caves were used in the early days of cava production for the preservation or aging of wine.:143–144 Catalan winemakers officially adopted the term in 1970 to distinguish their product from French champagne.
Catalan sparkling wine was first made as early as 1851, although the roots of the cava industry can be traced back to Josep Raventós's travels through Europe in the 1860s, where he was promoting the still wines of the Codorníu Winery. His visits to Champagne sparked an interest in the potential of a Spanish wine made using the same traditional method. He created his first sparkler in 1872, after the vineyards of Penedès were devastated by the phylloxera plague, and the predominantly red vines were being replaced by large numbers of vines producing white grapes.
Catalan cava producers pioneered a significant technological development in sparkling wine production with the invention of the gyropallet, a large mechanized device that replaced hand riddling, in which the lees are consolidated in the neck of the bottle prior to disgorgement and corking.
According to Spanish law, cava may be produced in Catalonia. The Penedès is located in Catalonia. Cava is also produced in other villages in Aragon, Castile and León, Extremadura, La Rioja, Basque Country, Navarre and Valencia.
To make rosé cava, blending is not allowed. The wine must be made via Saignée method using Garnacha, Pinot noir, Trepat or Monastrell. Besides Macabeu, Parellada, and Xarello, Cava may also contain Chardonnay, Pinot noir and Subirat grapes.:144–145 The first cava to use chardonnay was produced in 1981. Like any other quality sparkling wine, cava is produced in varying levels of sweetness, ranging from the dryest, brut nature, through brut, brut reserve, sec (seco), semisec (semiseco), to dolç (dulce), the sweetest.
- MacNeil, Karen (2001), The Wine Bible, Workman Publishing, pp. 454–460, ISBN 1-56305-434-5
- Robinson, Jancis, ed. (2006), The Oxford Companion to Wine (3rd ed.), Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-860990-6
- "RELACIÓN EMPRESAS ELABORADORAS DE CAVA - 2015" (PDF) (in Spanish). DO Cava. Retrieved 2015-12-30.
- "PLIEGO DE CONDICIONES DENOMINACIÓN DE ORIGEN PROTEGIDA "CAVA" - 2011" (PDF) (in Spanish). Consejo Regulador Cava. Retrieved 2017-06-29.
- Stevenson, Tom (2005), The Sotheby's Wine Encyclopedia (4th ed.), Dorling Kindersley, p. 318, ISBN 0-7566-1324-8
- Johnson, Hugh; Robinson, Jancis (2001), The World Atlas of Wine (5th ed.), Mitchell Beazley Publishing, pp. 196–198, ISBN 1-84000-332-4