Cave paintings in India

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old heritage and virasat of maithil family

Almost all early painting in India survives in caves, as no buildings from ancient India survive, and though these were probably often painted, the work has been lost.[citation needed] The history of cave paintings in India or rock art range from drawings and paintings from prehistoric times, beginning in the caves of Central India, typified by those at the Bhimbetka rock shelters from around 10,000 BP, to elaborate frescoes at sites such as the rock-cut artificial caves at Ajanta and Ellora, extending as late as the 10th – 12th century BP.

Paleolithic art[edit]

Madhya Pradesh[edit]

Bhimbetka[edit]

Cave painting at Bhimbetka.

The Bhimbetka rock shelters are an archaeological site in the state of Madhya Pradesh in central India that spans several prehistoric periods.[1][2] It exhibits the earliest traces of human life on the Indian subcontinent and evidence of Stone Age habitation starting at the site in Acheulian times.[3][4][5] It is located in the Raisen District southeast of Bhopal. Bhimbetka is a UNESCO world heritage site that consists of seven hills and over 750 rock shelters distributed over 10 kilometres (6.2 mi).[2][6] At least some of the shelters were inhabited more than 100,000 years ago.[2][7]

Some of the Bhimbetka rock shelters feature prehistoric cave paintings of which the oldest date from 10,000 years BP, corresponding to the Indian Mesolithic.[8][9][10][11][12] The paintings show themes such as animals, and early evidence of dancing and hunting.[13][14] The Bhimbetka site has the oldest known rock art in the Indian subcontinent,[15] and is one of the largest prehistoric complexes.[16][17]

Tamil Nadu[edit]

In Tamil Nadu, ancient Paleolithic cave paintings are found in Padiyendhal, Alampadi, Kombaikadu, Kilvalai, Settavarai and Nehanurpatti. The paintings have not been dated, but they could be around 30,000 to 10,000 years old, as they use similar art form of Bhimbetka rock shelters in Bhopal.[citation needed]

In the Nilagiri Hills, they are also found in Kumittipathi, Mavadaippu and Karikkiyur. In Theni District they are found in the Andipatti Hills.

Karnataka[edit]

Cave paintings are found in Hiregudda which is near Badami.

Odisha[edit]

Odisha has the richest repository of rock art in Eastern India. The state has recorded more than a hundred rock shelters with rock paintings and engravings. Numerous geometric symbols, dots and lines are found along with animals, and human paintings and engravings dating from late Pleistocene onwards. Many of the geometric shape and patterns found in rock art of Odisha are enigmatic in nature. Painted figures have been found executed in monochrome, red and white or sometimes in combination with shades of yellow color.[18]

Gudahandi[edit]

Gudahandi Rock Art of Odisha

The rock shelter of Gudahandi is located on the summit of the hillock and situated about 20 km from Block headquarters Koksara in Kalahandi district.[19] The rock art shelter exhibits both monochrome and bi-chrome paintings of early historic period. It is the only reported rock art site of Kalahandi district.[20] The rock art panel preserves the specimen of paintings which include a stylized human figure in red, deer and a variety of geometric patterns of squares and rectangles either empty or in filled with straight and diagonal lines or with dots on the borders grid patterns, wheels with spokes, apsidal patterns, oval shapes with dots executed either in monochrome of red or in polychrome of red, blue and black.[21][22][23]

Yogimatha[edit]

Yogimath Rock Art of Odisha

The rock painting of the Yogimatha (10th Millennium BCE)[24] of Nuapada District of Odisha which was older script of the India. The script ‘Ga’, and ‘o’ (tha) was discovered from Yogimatha rock painting, this painting saw a person with four animals and write some alphabet. That painting created a word Like "Gaitha" (very popular Odia word at present ‘Gotha’ or ‘group’ in English). This art closely related to this alphabet. This alphabet has similarity to Dhauli and Jaugada Inscription’s script of Ashok. It was the ancient form of Indian script and it is the first glimpse of possible origin of the Odia language and script.[25][26]

Early medieval caves[edit]

There are known more than 10,000 locations around India containing murals from this period, mainly natural caves and rock-cut chambers.[27] The highest achievements of this time are the caves of Ajanta, Bagh, Sittanavasal, Armamalai Cave (Tamil Nadu), Ravan Chhaya rock shelter, Kailasanatha temple in Ellora Caves.

Ajanta frescoes[edit]

Mural of Padmapani in Ajanta Caves. India, 5th century

The Frescoes of Ajanta are paintings in the Ajanta Caves which are situated near Aurangabad in Maharashtra. The caves are carved out of large rocks. Inside many of the caves are frescoes.

Frescoes are paintings which are done on wet plaster in which colours become fixed as the plaster dries. The Ajanta Frescoes have a special importance of their own. They are found on the walls and ceilings at Ajanta. The paintings reflect different phases of Indian Culture from jain tirthankar mahaveer's birth to his nirvana[28] in the 8th Century AD.

The frescoes have degraded slightly, due to the effect of flash photography. Photography here is not banned. They depict themes of court life, feasting, processions, men and women at work, festivals, various natural scenes including animals, birds and flowers. The artists used shading to give a three-dimensional effect.

1500m away to the north of Ajanta, beautiful frescoes have been found. Though the themes in these paintings are both secular and religious, they do depict some aspect of Buddhist life and rituals. One of the most famous paintings show a procession of elephants. Another depicts a dancer and women musicians. These have been influenced by Ajanta style of paintings. These frescoes show a strong resemblance to the frescoes of Sigiriya in Sri Lanka.

Ellora[edit]

The Ellora Caves are located about 18 miles from the city of Aurangabad in the Chamadari Hills. Pre-historic paintings were engraved in five Ellora Caves. The Ellora paintings can be organized in two series. The first set of paintings depicts images of the goddess Lakshmi and Lord Vishnu and was developed while the caves were engraved. The second set of images focuses on images of Lord Shiva with his followers, Apsaras, etc and was developed centuries after the formation of the caves.

Bagh[edit]

Painting of a Bodhisattva in Bagh Cave 2.

The Bagh Caves are located in the Dhar District of Madhya Pradesh on the banks of the Baghani River. There were originally nine caves cut in the lofty hills, but four of them have been destroyed. The paintings in these caves were engraved in the time period of 500 to 700 CE.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Peter N. Peregrine; Melvin Ember (2003). Encyclopedia of Prehistory: Volume 8: South and Southwest Asia. Springer Science. pp. 315–317. ISBN 978-0-306-46262-7.
  2. ^ a b c Javid, Ali and Javeed, Tabassum (2008), World Heritage Monuments and Related Edifices in India, Algora Publishing, 2008, pages 15–19
  3. ^ Agrawal, D.P.; Krishnamurthy, R.V.; Kusumgar, Sheela; Pant, R.K. (1978). "Chronology of Indian prehistory from the Mesolithic period to the Iron Age". Journal of Human Evolution. 7: 37–44. doi:10.1016/S0047-2484(78)80034-7. The microlithic occupation there is the last one, as the Stone Age started there with Acheulian times. These rock shelters have been used to light fires even up to recent times by the tribals. This is re-fleeted in the scatter of 14C dates from Bhimbetka
  4. ^ Kerr, Gordon (2017-05-25). A Short History of India: From the Earliest Civilisations to Today's Economic Powerhouse. Oldcastle Books Ltd. p. 17. ISBN 9781843449232.
  5. ^ Neda Hosse in Tehrani; Shahida Ansari; Kamyar Abdi (2016). "Anthropogenic Processes in Caves/Rock Shelters in Izeh Plain (Iran) and Bhimbetka Region (India)". Bulletin of the Deccan College Research Institute. 76: 237–248. JSTOR 26264790. the rock shelter site of Bhimbetka in Madhya Pradesh exhibits the earliest traces of human life
  6. ^ Rock Shelters of Bhimbetka: Advisory Body Evaluation, UNESCO, pages 43–44
  7. ^ Rock Shelters of Bhimbetka: Advisory Body Evaluation, UNESCO, pages 14–15
  8. ^ Mathpal, Yashodhar (1984). Prehistoric Painting Of Bhimbetka. Abhinav Publications. p. 220. ISBN 9788170171935.
  9. ^ Tiwari, Shiv Kumar (2000). Riddles of Indian Rockshelter Paintings. Sarup & Sons. p. 189. ISBN 9788176250863.
  10. ^ Rock Shelters of Bhimbetka (PDF). UNESCO. 2003. p. 16.
  11. ^ Mithen, Steven (2011). After the Ice: A Global Human History, 20,000 - 5000 BC. Orion. p. 524. ISBN 9781780222592.
  12. ^ Javid, Ali; Jāvīd, ʻAlī; Javeed, Tabassum (2008). World Heritage Monuments and Related Edifices in India. Algora Publishing. p. 19. ISBN 9780875864846.
  13. ^ Yashodhar Mathpal, 1984, Prehistoric Painting Of Bhimbetka, Page 214.
  14. ^ M. L. Varad Pande, Manohar Laxman Varadpande, 1987, History of Indian Theatre, Volume 1, Page 57.
  15. ^ Deborah M. Pearsall (2008). Encyclopedia of archaeology. Elsevier Academic Press. pp. 1949–1951. ISBN 978-0-12-373643-7.
  16. ^ Bhimbetka rock shelters, Encyclopaedia Britannica
  17. ^ Jo McDonald; Peter Veth (2012). A Companion to Rock Art. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 291–293. ISBN 978-1-118-25392-2.
  18. ^ Padhan, Tosabanta. Glimpses of the Rock Paintings and Rock Engravings in Odisha. New Delhi: New Bharatiya Book Corporation. p. 321.
  19. ^ "Rock Art Shelter of Gudahandi" (PDF). INDIRA GANDHI NATIONAL CENTRE FOR THE ARTS.
  20. ^ "Districts Gazetteers(Kalahandi)" (PDF). Government of Odisha.
  21. ^ Prusty, Subrat Kumar (2010). BHASA O JATIYATA (1 ed.). Bidyadharpur, Jajpur: with finical assistance by Dept. of Culture, Govt. of Odisha. p. 22.
  22. ^ Debi Prasanna Pattanayak; Subrat Kumar Prusty (2013). A Report on classical status of Odia Language (1st ed.). Bhubaneswar, Odisha: Department of Culture, Govt. Of Odisha. p. 90.
  23. ^ Debi Prasanna Pattanayak; Subrat Kumar Prusty (2013). CLASSICAL ODIA (1st ed.). D-82, Maitri Vihar, Chandrasekharpur, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, 755001: KIIS Foundation, New Delhi. p. 33. ISBN 978-81-925616-3-9.CS1 maint: location (link)
  24. ^ Senapati, Nilamani, I.C.S (1971). "History". Orissa District Gezetteers. Bhubaneswar: Government of Orissa: 35.
  25. ^ CLASSICL ODIA IN HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE. Sanskruti Bhawan, Bhubaneswar-14, Odisha: Odisha Sahitya Akademi. 2015. p. 38. ISBN 978-81-7586-198-5.CS1 maint: location (link)
  26. ^ "Rock Art Shelter of Jogimath" (PDF). INDIRA GANDHI NATIONAL CENTRE FOR THE ARTS.
  27. ^ "Ancient and medieval Indian cave paintings - Internet encyclopedia". Wondermondo. 10 June 2010. Retrieved 10 June 2010.
  28. ^ (Mahaparinirvana was the time of Gautama Buddha's death. His disciples scattered his remains in many places, where Stupas were erected.)

References[edit]

  • Total History and Civics. a history Textbook. Published by Morning Star Publishers. ICSE Std IX.

Further reading[edit]