Cavendish Laboratory

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Cavendish Laboratory
CavendishLab.jpg
Southern aspect of the laboratory at its current site, viewed from across 'Payne's Pond'
Established 1874
Affiliation University of Cambridge
Head of Department Andy Parker[1]
Location Cambridge, United Kingdom
Coordinates: 52°12′33.35″N 0°05′31.24″E / 52.2092639°N 0.0920111°E / 52.2092639; 0.0920111
Cavendish Professor of Physics Richard Friend
Website www.phy.cam.ac.uk

The Cavendish Laboratory is the Department of Physics at the University of Cambridge, and is part of the School of Physical Sciences. As of 2015 the laboratory is headed by Andy Parker[1] and the Cavendish Professor of Physics is Sir Richard Friend.[2] As of 2011, 29 Cavendish researchers have won Nobel Prizes.[3] The laboratory was opened in 1874 on the New Museums Site, and moved to its present site in West Cambridge in 1974.

Cavendish Groups[edit]

Cavendish plaque at original New Museums Site

Areas in which the Laboratory has been very influential include:-

Cavendish staff and alumni[edit]

Senior academic staff[edit]

As of 2015[15] senior academic staff (Professors or Readers) include:

  1. Paul Alexander,[16] Professor of Astrophysics, Head of Astrophysics and Fellow of Jesus College, Cambridge
  2. Bill Allison,[17] University Reader
  3. Emilio Artacho,[18] Professor of Theoretical Mineral Physics and Fellow of Clare Hall, Cambridge
  4. Mete Atature,[19] University Reader
  5. Crispin Barnes,[20] Professor of Quantum Physics and Head of Thin-Film Magnetism and Fellow of Girton College, Cambridge
  6. Jeremy Baumberg,[21] Professor of Nanophotonics, Director of the Nanophotonics Centre
  7. Pietro Cicuta,[22] Reader in Biophysics and Head of Biological and Soft Systems
  8. Nigel Cooper,[23] Professor of Theoretical Physics
  9. Russell Cowburn[24] FRS, Professor and Director of Research
  10. Athene Donald FRS, Professor of Experimental Physics, Master of Churchill College, Cambridge
  11. Peter Duffett-Smith,[25] University Reader in Experimental Radio Physics
  12. Erika Eiser,[26] Reader in Soft Matter Physics
  13. John Ellis,[27] University Reader
  14. Chris Ford,[28] University Reader in Quantum Electronics
  15. Sir Richard Friend[2] FRS, FREng, Cavendish Professor of Physics and Fellow of St John's College, Cambridge
  16. Valerie Gibson[29][30] Professor in High Energy Physics
  17. Neil Greenham,[31][32] Professor
  18. Malte Grosche,[33] University Reader
  19. Jochen Guck,[34] Principal Research Associate
  20. Stephen Gull, University Professor of Physics
  21. Zoran Hadzibabic,[35] Professor of Physics
  22. Chris Haniff,[36] Professorial Fellow of Downing College, Cambridge
  23. Mike Hobson,[37] University Professor
  24. Howard Hughes,[38] University Reader
  25. Geb Jones,[39] University Reader
  26. Ulrich Keyser,[40] Reader in Experimental Physics
  27. David Khmelnitskii,[41] Professor of The Theory of Condensed Matter
  28. Austen Lamacraft,[42] University Reader
  29. Anthony Lasenby,[43] Professor of Astrophysics and Cosmology
  30. Gilbert Lonzarich,[5] Professor of Theoretical Physics
  31. Roberto Maiolino,[44] Professor of Experimental Astrophysics
  32. Richard Needs,[45] Professor of Theoretical Physics
  33. Andy Parker,[1] Professor of High Energy Physics
  34. Mike Payne,[46] Professor of Computational Physics
  35. Sir Michael Pepper FRS, Kt, Honorary Professor of Pharmaceutical Science in the University of Otago, New Zealand
  36. Richard Phillips,[47] Professor of Physics
  37. Didier Queloz, Professor at the Battcock Centre for Experimental Astrophysics
  38. John Richer,[48] University Reader
  39. David Ritchie,[49] Professor of Experimental Physics
  40. James Floyd Scott[50] FRS, Professor and Director of Research
  41. Ben Simons, Herchel Smith Professor of Physics
  42. Henning Sirringhaus, FRS, Hitachi Professor of Electron Device Physics and Head of Microelectronics and Optoelectronics Group
  43. Charles Smith,[51] Professor of Semiconductor Physics and Professorial Fellow of Clare Hall, Cambridge
  44. Sarah Teichmann, Principal Research Associate[52] and Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge
  45. Eugene Terentjev,[53] Professor of Polymer Physics
  46. Mark Thomson,[54] Professor of Experimental Particle Physics
  47. David Ward,[55] Professor of Particle Physics
  48. Mark Warner,[56] FRS Professor of Theoretical Physics[57]
  49. Stafford Withington,[58] University Professor in Analytical Physics and Professorial Fellow of Downing College, Cambridge

Emeritus Professors[edit]

The Cavendish is home to a number of Emeritus Scientists, pursuing their research interests in the Laboratory after their formal retirement.

  1. Mick Brown FRS, Emeritus Professor
  2. Janet Carter,[59] Emeritus Professor of High Energy Physics
  3. M. Munawar Chaudhri,[60] Emeritus Reader and Head of the Materials Group
  4. John Cooper,[61] Emeritus Professor of Quantum Matter
  5. John Edwin Field,[62] FRS Emeritus Professor of Applied Physics
  6. Volker Heine,[63][64] FRS Emeritus Professor
  7. Brian Josephson, FRS, Emeritus Professor
  8. Archibald Howie, FRS, Emeritus Professor
  9. Malcolm Longair, CBE, FRS, FRSE, Emeritus Jacksonian Professor of Natural Philosophy
  10. Bryan Webber,[65] FRS Emeritus Professor of Theoretical High Energy Physics and Professorial Fellow at Emmanuel College, Cambridge

Nobel Laureates at the Cavendish[edit]

  1. John William Strutt, 3rd Baron Rayleigh[66] (Physics, 1904)
  2. Sir J. J. Thomson[67] (Physics, 1906)
  3. Ernest Rutherford[68] (Chemistry, 1908)
  4. Sir William Lawrence Bragg[69] (Physics, 1915)
  5. Charles Glover Barkla[70] (Physics, 1917)
  6. Francis William Aston[71] (Chemistry, 1922)
  7. Charles Thomson Rees Wilson[72] (Physics, 1927)
  8. Arthur Compton[73] (Physics, 1927)
  9. Sir Owen Willans Richardson[74] (Physics, 1928)
  10. Sir James Chadwick[75] (Physics, 1935)
  11. Sir George Paget Thomson[76] (Physics, 1937)
  12. Sir Edward Victor Appleton[77] (Physics, 1947)
  13. Patrick Blackett, Baron Blackett[78] (Physics, 1948)
  14. Sir John Cockcroft[79] (Physics, 1951)
  15. Ernest Walton[80] (Physics, 1951)
  16. Francis Crick[81] (Physiology or Medicine, 1962)
  17. James Watson (Physiology or Medicine, 1962)
  18. Max Perutz[82][83] (Chemistry, 1962)
  19. Sir John Kendrew[84] (Chemistry, 1962)
  20. Dorothy Hodgkin[85] (Chemistry, 1964)
  21. Brian Josephson (Physics, 1973)
  22. Sir Martin Ryle[9] (Physics, 1974)
  23. Antony Hewish (Physics, 1974)
  24. Sir Nevill Francis Mott[86] (Physics, 1977)
  25. Philip Warren Anderson (Physics, 1977)
  26. Pyotr Kapitsa[87] (Physics, 1978)
  27. Allan McLeod Cormack (Physiology or Medicine, 1979)
  28. Abdus Salam[88] (Physics, 1979)
  29. Sir Aaron Klug[89] (Chemistry, 1982)

Cavendish professors of physics[edit]

The Cavendish Professors were the Heads of the Department up to Professor Pippard, when the roles were made separate.

  1. James Clerk Maxwell 1871–1879
  2. John William Strutt, 3rd Baron Rayleigh[66] 1879–1884
  3. J. J. Thomson 1884–1919
  4. Ernest Rutherford 1919–1937
  5. William Lawrence Bragg 1938–1953
  6. Nevill Francis Mott 1954–1971
  7. Brian Pippard[6] 1971–1984
  8. Sam Edwards 1984–1995
  9. Richard Friend[2] 1995–present

Alumni[edit]

Besides the Nobel Laureates, the cavendish has many distinguished alumni including:

History[edit]

The Cavendish Laboratory was initially located on the New Museums Site, Free School Lane, in the centre of Cambridge. After perennial space problems, it moved to its present site in West Cambridge in the early 1970s.[90] The oak door of the new Cavendish Laboratory is known for its inscription from the Book of Psalms in the Bible: "The works of the Lord are great, sought out of all them that have pleasure therein."[91]

The Department is named to commemorate British chemist and physicist Henry Cavendish[92][93] for contributions to science[94] and his relative William Cavendish, 7th Duke of Devonshire, who served as Chancellor of the University and donated money for the construction of the laboratory.[95] Professor James Clerk Maxwell, the developer of electromagnetic theory, was a founder of the lab and became the first Cavendish Professor of Physics.[96]

The Duke of Devonshire had given to Maxwell, as Head of the Laboratory, the manuscripts of Henry Cavendish's unpublished Electrical Works. The editing and publishing of these was Maxwell's main scientific work while he was at the laboratory. Cavendish's work aroused Maxwell's intense admiration and he decided to call the Laboratory (formerly known as the Devonshire Laboratory) the Cavendish Laboratory and thus to commemorate both the Duke and Henry Cavendish.[97][98]

Physical Chemistry (originally the department of Colloid Science led by Eric Rideal) had left the old Cavendish site, subsequently locating as the Department of Physical Chemistry (under RG Norrish) in the then new chemistry building with the Department of Chemistry (led by Lord Todd) in Lensfield Road: both chemistry departments merged in the 1980s.

Nuclear physics[edit]

In World War II the laboratory carried out research for the MAUD Committee, part of the British Tube Alloys project of research into the atomic bomb. Researchers included Nicholas Kemmer, Alan Nunn May, Anthony French, Samuel Curran and the French scientists including Lew Kowarski and Hans von Halban. Several transferred to Canada in 1943; the Montreal Laboratory and some later to the Chalk River Laboratories.

The production of plutonium and neptunium by bombarding uranium-238 with neutrons was predicted in 1940 by two teams working independently: Egon Bretscher and Norman Feather at the Cavendish and Edwin M. McMillan and Philip Abelson at Berkeley Radiation Laboratory at the University of California, Berkeley.

Biology[edit]

Entrance at the original Cavendish Laboratory site on Free School Lane

The Cavendish Laboratory has had an important influence on biology, mainly through the application of X-ray crystallography to the study of structures of biological molecules. Francis Crick already worked in the Medical Research Council Unit, headed by Max Perutz[82] and housed in the Cavendish Laboratory, when James Watson came from the United States and they made a breakthrough in discovering the structure of DNA. For their work while in the Cavendish Laboratory, they were jointly awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1962, together with Maurice Wilkins of King's College London, himself a graduate of St. John's College, Cambridge.

The discovery was made on 28 February 1953; the first Watson/Crick paper appeared in Nature on 25 April 1953. Sir Lawrence Bragg, the director of the Cavendish Laboratory, where Watson and Crick worked, gave a talk at Guy's Hospital Medical School in London on Thursday 14 May 1953 which resulted in an article by Ritchie Calder in the News Chronicle of London, on Friday 15 May 1953, entitled "Why You Are You. Nearer Secret of Life." The news reached readers of The New York Times the next day; Victor K. McElheny, in researching his biography, Watson and DNA: Making a Scientific Revolution, found a clipping of a six-paragraph New York Times article written from London and dated 16 May 1953 with the headline "Form of `Life Unit' in Cell Is Scanned." The article ran in an early edition and was then pulled to make space for news deemed more important. (The New York Times subsequently ran a longer article on 12 June 1953). The Cambridge University undergraduate newspaper Varsity also ran its own short article on the discovery on Saturday 30 May 1953. Bragg's original announcement of the discovery at a Solvay Conference on proteins in Belgium on 8 April 1953 went unreported by the British press.

Sydney Brenner, Jack Dunitz, Dorothy Hodgkin, Leslie Orgel, and Beryl M. Oughton, were some of the first people in April 1953 to see the model of the structure of DNA, constructed by Crick and Watson; at the time they were working at the University of Oxford's Chemistry Department. All were impressed by the new DNA model, especially Brenner who subsequently worked with Crick at Cambridge in the Cavendish Laboratory and the new Laboratory of Molecular Biology. According to the late Dr. Beryl Oughton, later Rimmer, they all travelled together in two cars once Dorothy Hodgkin announced to them that they were off to Cambridge to see the model of the structure of DNA.[99] Orgel also later worked with Crick at the Salk Institute for Biological Studies.

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