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Cavitary pneumonia is a disease in which the normal lung architecture is replaced by a cavity. In a healthy lung, oxygen transport occurs at the level of the alveoli, each of which has an average size of 0.1 mm. These air spaces can become enlarged by a number of processes: bacterial infection (tuberculosis), fungal infection, vasculitis (granulomatosis with polyangiitis), collagen vascular disease (Sjögren's syndrome) or granulomatous disease (sarcoidosis).
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