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|Nickname(s): "Leather City of the world"; "Manchester of the East"|
|District||Kanpur Nagar District
Kanpur Dehat District
|• Mayor||Shri Jagat Vir Singh Drona|
|• Deputy Mayor||Shri Haji Suhail Ahmed|
|• Metropolis||403.70 km2 (155.87 sq mi)|
|Elevation||126 m (413 ft)|
|Time zone||IST (UTC+5:30)|
• 209 2xx
• 209 3xx
• 209 4xx
|Coastline||0 kilometres (0 mi)|
|Sex ratio||0.855 ♂/♀|
Kanpur (// pronunciation (help·info); formerly Cawnpore; is the 12th most populous city in India. It is the administrative headquarters of Kanpur Nagar district and Kanpur division. It is the second largest industrial town in north India, following Delhi.
The name is believed to have derived from Karnapur (meaning "town of Karna", one of the heroes of the Mahabharata). Another theory is that it came from the nearby town of Makanpur, earlier known as Khairabad, where the Sufi saint of the Madariya Sufi order, Badiuddin Zinda Shah Madar, settled.
In the 19th century, Kanpur was an important British garrison with barracks for 7,000 soldiers. During the Indian Rebellion of 1857, 900 British men, women and children were besieged in the fortifications for 22 days by rebels under Nana Sahib Peshwa. They surrendered on the agreement that they would get safe passage to the nearby Satti Chaura Ghat whereupon they would board barges and be allowed to go by river to Allahabad.
Though controversy surrounds what exactly happened at the Satti Chaura Ghat, and who fired the first shot, it is known that, soon afterwards, the departing British were shot at by the rebel sepoys and were either killed or captured. Some of the British officers later claimed that the rebels had, on purpose, placed the boats as high in the mud as possible, to cause delay. They also claimed that Nana Sahib's camp had previously arranged for the rebels to fire upon and kill all the English. Although the East India Company later accused Nana Sahib of betrayal and murder of innocent people, no evidence has ever been found to prove that Nana Sahib had pre-planned or ordered the massacre. Some historians believe that the Satti Chaura Ghat massacre was the result of confusion, and not of any plan implemented by Nana Sahib and his associates. Lieutenant Mowbray Thomson, one of the four male survivors of the massacre, believed that the rank-and-file sepoys who spoke to him did not know of the killing to come.
Many were killed and the remaining 200 British women and children were brought back to shore and sent to a building called the Bibighar (the ladies' home). After some time, the commanders of the rebels decided to kill their hostages. The rebel soldiers refused to carry out orders and butchers from the nearby town were brought in to kill the hostages three days before the British entered the city on 18 July. The dismembered bodies were thrown into a deep well nearby. The British under General Neill retook the city and committed a series of retaliations against the rebel Sepoys and those civilians caught in the area, including women, children and old men. The Kanpur Massacre, as well as similar events elsewhere, were seen by the British as justification for unrestrained vengeance.
1858 picture of Sati Chaura Ghat where a massacre of the British took place
|Climate data for Kanpur|
|Record high °C (°F)||31.1
|Average high °C (°F)||23.1
|Average low °C (°F)||7.9
|Record low °C (°F)||1.6
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||18.7
|Average rainy days||1.9||1.5||1.0||0.8||1.2||4.6||13.7||10.7||6.8||2.1||0.4||0.7||45.5|
|Source: India Meteorological Department (record high and low up to 2010)|
||GT Amusement Park Town (GTAPT)||Gangotri Township||Shuklaganj|
|New Kanpur City||Kanpur Cantonment|
|Rawatpur, shivrajpur , bilhaur , kannuj||Fazalganj||Govind Nagar|
Lucknow =100 km
|Kanpur City officials|
Shri Kaushal Raj Sharma
Captain Jagatveer Singh Dron
|Chief Metropolitan Magistrate||
Pradeep Kumar Jayant
As per 2011 census Kanpur city has a population of 2,701,324.The total population of the district is 4,524,324 out of which males were 24,59,806 and females were 21,21,462. The literacy rate was 70.76 per cent.
The majority of Kanpur's population comprises people from Central and Western Uttar Pradesh. However, Punjabis and Anglo-Indians have also settled in large numbers in areas of Swaroop Nagar, Tilak Nagar, Azad Nagar and Civil Lines. While the majority of the population is Hindu, there is a significant Muslim minority population. There are also small groups of Sikhs, Jains, Christians and Buddhists. As per 2011 census literacy rate of Kanpur is 82.42% (http://www.census2011.co.in/census/city/131-kanpur.html).
In Kanpur, the banking services were availed by only 61 percent of the households (Census 2001). About 8 percent of the households did not possess basic assets such as vehicles (bicycles, scooter, moped, car, jeep, etc.), televisions and radios. Katiyabaaz (Powerless), a 2014 Indian documentary film deals with the issue of power theft in the city of Kanpur.
The metropolitan region defined under JNNURM by Kanpur Nagar Nigam, includes the Kanpur Nagar Nigam area, 8 kilometre around KNN boundary and newly included 47 villages of Unnao district on the north-eastern side, it extends to Murtaza Nagar, in the west its limit is up to Akbarpur, Kanpur Dehat Nagar Panchayat limit, in the eastern side the limit has been expanded on the road leading to Fatehpur and in extended up to. The metropolitan region area includes the area of Shuklaganj Municipal Committee (Nagar Palika), Unnao Municipal Committee (Nagar Palika), Akbarpur Village Authority (Nagar Panchayat) and Bithoor Village Authority (Nagar Panchayat) area. In 1997-98, total metropolitan region area has increased to 89131.15 hectare out of which 4,743.9 hectare (5.31%) was non-defined (prohibited area) and rest 29,683 hectare and 54,704 hectare (61.39%) was urban and rural area respectively.
The city has had chronic problems with maintaining local roads. There are several important National Highways that pass through Kanpur.
|NH No||Route||Total Length|
|NH 2||Delhi » Mathura » Agra » Kanpur » Allahabad » Varanasi » Mohania » Barhi » Palsit » Dankuni (near Kolkata)||2542|
|NH 25||Lucknow » Kanpur » Jhansi||352|
|NH 86||Kanpur » Hamirpur » Mahoba » Chhatarpur » Sagar » Bhopal » Indore||674|
|NH 91||Ghaziabad » Aligarh » Etah » Kannauj » Kanpur||405|
|NH 157 (Proposed)||Kanpur » Raebareli » Sultanpur » Shahganj » Azamgarh » Gaura Barhaj » Siwan » Muzaffarpur||581|
The Inter State Bus Station (ISBT) of Kanpur officially named as the "Shaheed Major Salman Khan Bus Station". It is locally known as the "Jhakarkati Bus Station" enquiry number: 0512 2328381. It provides buses to important cities of India. The other bus stations are:
The National Highways Authority of India (NHAI) is all set to develop a four-lane outer ring road along the periphery of Kanpur with an aim to prevent traffic congestion in the industrial city caused by long-distance heavy vehicles. The new road, which will help the heavy vehicles to bypass the city, will be developed on a "Built, Operate and Transfer" (BOT) basis under the phase-VII of National Highways Development Programme (NHDP).
- Kanpur Dehat (Lok Sabha constituency)
- Ethnic communities in Kanpur
- Kanpur Nagar (Lok Sabha constituency)
- List of cities in Uttar Pradesh
- List of engineering colleges in Kanpur
- Renamed places in Kanpur
- List of twin towns and sister cities in India
- Second Battle of Cawnpore
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- "Ever recorded Maximum and minimum temperatures up to 2010". India Meteorological Department. Archived from the original on 21 May 2013. Retrieved April 11, 2015.
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- Potholed roads, eight to ten hours long power cut, overflowing drains and contaminated drinking water tell the tale of the Industrial town, which is fast turning into a big slum. Siddiqui, Faiz Rahman (29 April 2014). "'Outsider' Joshi takes on 'local' Jaiswal". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 21 July 2014.
- "UPSRTC". UPSRTC. Retrieved 2012-12-19.
- "Kanpur to get outer ring road to bypass traffic blues". Indianepress.com. Retrieved 2011-01-20.
- Singh, Harihar (1972). Kanpur: a study in urban geography. Indrasini Devi.
- Free Trade Unions, International Confederation for (1989). "7. Kanpur - The Experience in Textile Industry". Employment and structural change in Indian industries: a trade union viewpoint, Vol. 1. International Labour Organization. ISBN 92-2-106709-2.
- Singh, Surendra Nath (1990). Planning & development of an industrial town: a study of Kanpur. Mittal Publications. ISBN 81-7099-241-9.
- Silas, Sandeep (2005). "44. Manchester of the East: Kanpur". Discover India by Rail. Sterling Publishers. ISBN 81-207-2939-0.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Kanpur.|
|Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Cawnpore.|