Cayuga duck

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Cayuga Duck
Cayuga drake 2012-05-02 001.jpg
A Cayuga drake
Conservation status
Other names
  • Cayuga Black Duck
Country of originUnited States
Use
Traits
Weight
  • Male:
    3.0–3.6 kg (6.5–8 lb)[4]
  • Female:
    2.7–3.1 kg (6–7 lb)[4]
Egg colorvariable, black to pale green/blue
Classification
APAmedium[5]
EEyes[6]
PCGBheavy[7]
  • Anas platyrhynchos domesticus
Cayuga drake

The Cayuga is an American breed of domestic duck. It was introduced to the Finger Lakes region of New York State in about 1840, and is named for the Cayuga people of that area.[3] Until the last years of the nineteenth century it was the principal duck reared for meat in the United States.[8]:70 In the twenty-first century it is kept mainly for ornament.[4]

History[edit]

The origins of the Cayuga are obscure. A much-repeated theory that it descends not from the Mallard like almost all domestic ducks, but from Anas rubripes, the American Black Duck, remains unsubstantiated and unverified by any scientific evidence.[3][8]:70 Unlike Anas rubripes, the Cayuga is a true black in color; this color is the result of a genetic mutation fairly common in breeds derived from Anas platyrhynchos. The Cayuga has other characteristics compatible with derivation from the Mallard; in particular, it shows the typical curled "drake feather" in the tail, while Anas rubripes does not.[8]:70[9]:184

In about 1840, one John S. Clark obtained some ducks of this type in Orange County, New York, and took them to Cayuga County in the Finger Lakes region of New York State.[3][8]:70 The breed is named for the indigenous Cayuga people of the area.[3]

The Cayuga was included in the first edition of the American Standard of Perfection in 1874.[3] It was first exported to the United Kingdom in 1851;[10]:464 the first British standard was published in 1901.[11]:439[12]:411[13] In the second half of the nineteenth century it became the principal duck breed reared for meat in the United States,[8]:70 but from about 1890 was rapidly displaced by the American Pekin.[9]:184

Its conservation status world-wide was listed by the FAO in 2007 as "not at risk". In 2008 its status in the United States was listed as "threatened" by the American Livestock Breeds Conservancy (now The Livestock Conservancy);[2] in 2020 it was listed as "watch".[3]

Characteristics[edit]

The Cayuga is a medium to heavy duck; standard weights are 3.6 kg (8 lb) for adult drakes 3.2 kg (7 lb) for ducks.[11]:440[12]:412 The plumage is black with iridescent beetle-green lights; particularly in ducks, some feathers may fade or whiten as the bird ages, which can be a disqualifying fault for showing.[11]:440 The bill, legs and feet are black or as nearly so as possible; the eyes are dark brown.[8]:70[9]:184

Use[edit]

The Cayuga is a meat-type duck. In the second half of the nineteenth century it became the principal duck breed reared for meat in the United States.[8]:70 From about 1890 it began to be displaced by the American Pekin, which did not have the black pinfeathers of the Cayuga and so was easier to pluck and clean for sale.[9]:184

In the twenty-first century it may be reared for meat and eggs, but is most often kept for ornament or for showing.[8]:70 Ducks may lay some 100–150 large eggs per year;[14] at the beginning of the laying season the eggs are dark and may be almost black; they gradually lighten to the usual pale greenish blue or almost to white by the end of the season.[3][8]:70 If they are to be hatched, the incubation time for the eggs is 28 days.[4]

The feathers may be used in the tying of fishing flies.[10]:464

References[edit]

  1. ^ Barbara Rischkowsky, Dafydd Pilling (editors) (2007). List of breeds documented in the Global Databank for Animal Genetic Resources, annex to The State of the World's Animal Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture. Rome: Commission on Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. ISBN 9789251057629. Archived 23 June 2020.
  2. ^ a b Breed Information – ALBC Conservation Priority List. American Livestock Breeds Conservancy (now The Livestock Conservancy). Archived 11 May 2008.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h Plymouth Rock Chicken The Livestock Conservancy. Archived 10 October 2016.
  4. ^ a b c d [s.n.] (August 2010). The Cayuga Black Duck Today. Aviculture Europe. 6 (4), article 10, second part. Accessed December 2020.
  5. ^ APA Recognized Breeds and Varieties: As of January 1, 2012. American Poultry Association. Archived 4 November 2017.
  6. ^ Liste des races et variétés homologuée dans les pays EE (28.04.2013). Entente Européenne d’Aviculture et de Cuniculture. Archived 16 June 2013.
  7. ^ Breed Classification. Poultry Club of Great Britain. Archived 12 June 2018.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i Dave Holderread (2011). Storey's Guide to Raising Ducks, second edition. North Adams, Massachusetts: Storey Publishing. ISBN 9781603427456.
  9. ^ a b c d Carol Ekarius (2007). Storey's Illustrated Guide to Poultry Breeds. North Adams, Massachusetts: Storey Publishing. ISBN 9781580176675.
  10. ^ a b Janet Vorwald Dohner (2001). The Encyclopedia of Historic and Endangered Livestock and Poultry Breeds. New Haven, Connecticut; London: Yale University Press. ISBN 0300088809.
  11. ^ a b c J. Ian H. Allonby, Philippe B. Wilson (editors) (2018). British Poultry Standards: complete specifications and judging points of all standardized breeds and varieties of poultry as compiled by the specialist breed clubs and recognised by the Poultry Club of Great Britain, seventh edition. Chichester; Hoboken, New Jersey: Wiley Blackwell. ISBN 9781119509141.
  12. ^ a b Victoria Roberts (2008). British Poultry Standards: complete specifications and judging points of all standardized breeds and varieties of poultry as compiled by the specialist breed clubs and recognised by the Poultry Club of Great Britain, sixth edition. Oxford: Blackwell. ISBN 9781405156424.
  13. ^ Ducks. Poultry Club of Great Britain. Archived 9 November 2018.
  14. ^ Cayuga. Kenilworth, Warwickshire: Rare Breeds Survival Trust. Accessed December 2020.