Originally established in 1919 and refounded in 2016, the team is named after the not far off Ceahlău mountain. Nemțenii play their home matches in black and orange kits at the 18,000-seater Stadionul Ceahlăul.
CS Ceahlăul Piatra Neamț was founded on 20 October 1919 by a group of students and professors.
Ceahlăul promoted for the very first time in history to the Liga I in 1993 and played there until 2004, when it relegated to the Liga II with head coach Viorel Hizo and his assistant Toader Șteț, for the first time since its promotion.
They promoted back to the Liga I the very next season. They were supposed to play in the Liga II for the 2007/08 season after finishing 15th out of 18 teams, but Liga II team Delta Tulcea could not obtain the license for the 2007/08 season of Liga I, so Ceahlăul played in its place. But it was a short lived joy, because it relegated once again, only to promote immediately after.
The objective for the 2009/10 season of the Liga I was to avoid relegation, but once again the club relegated, for the third time in the last 6 years.
Ceahlăul started strong the 2010–11 Liga II season and dominated the series until the end, promoting once again in Liga I.
After 4 years in the Liga I, Ceahlăul relegated at the end of the 2014–15 season to Liga II. With large financial problems, Ceahlăul withdrew from the championship with a few rounds before the end of the season and was relegated to county leagues.
The financial problems could not be managed so the club entered in dissolution, but in the summer of the same year Ceahlăul was refounded as CSM Ceahlăul Piatra Neamț.