|7th Prime Minister of the Cape Colony|
17 July 1890 – 12 January 1896
|Governor||Sir Henry Loch|
Sir William Gordon Cameron
Sir Hercules Robinson
|Preceded by||John Gordon Sprigg|
|Succeeded by||John Gordon Sprigg|
Cecil John Rhodes
5 July 1853
Bishop's Stortford, Hertfordshire, England
|Died||26 March 1902 (aged 48)|
Muizenberg, Cape Colony
|Resting place||Malindidzimu, Matobo National Park, Zimbabwe|
|Relatives||Frank Rhodes (brother)|
|Alma mater||Oriel College, Oxford|
An ardent believer in British imperialism, Rhodes and his British South Africa Company founded the southern African territory of Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe and Zambia), which the company named after him in 1895. South Africa's Rhodes University is also named after him. He also devoted much effort to realising his vision of a Cape to Cairo Railway through British territory. Rhodes set up the provisions of the Rhodes Scholarship, which is funded by his estate. Widely acknowledged also as a white supremacist, Rhodes explicitly believed in the superiority of white English people over all others, especially sub-Saharan Africans. He infamously said "to be born English is to win first prize in the lottery of life". During his political career he successfully confiscated land from the African population of the Cape Colony, and falsely claimed southern African archeological sites such as Great Zimbabwe were built by European civilisations instead.
The son of a vicar, Rhodes was born at Netteswell House, Bishop's Stortford, Hertfordshire. A sickly child, he was sent to South Africa by his family when he was 17 years old in the hope that the climate might improve his health. He entered the diamond trade at Kimberley in 1871, when he was 18, and, thanks to funding from Rothschild & Co, began to systematically buy out and consolidate diamond mines. Over the next two decades he gained near-complete domination of the world diamond market, forming a massive monopoly. His diamond company De Beers, formed in 1888, retained its prominence into the 21st century.
Rhodes entered the Cape Parliament at the age of 27 in 1881, and in 1890, he became prime minister. During his time as prime minister, Rhodes used his political power to expropriate land from black Africans through the Glen Grey Act, while also tripling the wealth requirement for voting under the Franchise and Ballot Act, effectively barring black people from taking part in elections. After overseeing the formation of Rhodesia during the early 1890s, he was forced to resign in 1896 after the disastrous Jameson Raid, an unauthorised attack on Paul Kruger's South African Republic (or Transvaal). Rhodes's career never recovered; his heart was weak and after years of poor health he died in 1902. He was buried in what is now Zimbabwe; his grave has been a controversial site.
In his last will, he provided for the establishment of the prestigious international Rhodes Scholarship at Oxford University, the oldest graduate scholarship in the world. Every year it grants 102 full postgraduate scholarships. It has benefited prime ministers of Malta, Australia and Canada, United States President Bill Clinton, and many others. During the 21st century, with the rise of movements such as Rhodes Must Fall and Black Lives Matter, Rhodes' legacy has come under increasing scrutiny.
Rhodes was born in 1853 in Bishop's Stortford, Hertfordshire, England, the fifth son of the Reverend Francis William Rhodes (1807–1878) and his wife, Louisa Peacock. Francis was a Church of England clergyman who served as perpetual curate of Brentwood, Essex (1834–1843), and then as vicar of nearby Bishop's Stortford (1849–1876), where he was well known for never having preached a sermon longer than ten minutes.
Francis was the eldest son of William Rhodes (1774–1843), a brick manufacturer from Hackney, Middlesex. The earliest traceable direct ancestor of Cecil Rhodes is James Rhodes (fl. 1660) of Snape Green, Whitmore, Staffordshire. Cecil's siblings included Frank Rhodes, a British Army officer.
This section needs additional citations for verification. (December 2016)
England and Jersey
Rhodes attended the Bishop's Stortford Grammar School from the age of nine, but, as a sickly, asthmatic adolescent, he was taken out of grammar school in 1869 and, according to Basil Williams,[page needed] "continued his studies under his father's eye (...).
At age seven, he was recorded in the 1861 census as boarding with his aunt, Sophia Peacock, at a boarding house in Jersey, where the climate was perceived to provide a respite for those with conditions such as asthma. His health was weak and there were fears that he might be consumptive (have tuberculosis), a disease of which several of the family showed symptoms. His father decided to send him abroad for what were believed the good effects of a sea voyage and a better climate in South Africa.
When he arrived in Africa, Rhodes lived on money lent by his aunt Sophia. After a brief stay with the Surveyor-General of Natal, Dr. P.C. Sutherland, in Pietermaritzburg, Rhodes took an interest in agriculture. He joined his brother Herbert on his cotton farm in the Umkomazi valley in Natal. The land was unsuitable for cotton, and the venture failed.
In October 1871, 18-year-old Rhodes and his 26-year-old brother Herbert left the colony for the diamond fields of Kimberley in Northern Cape Province. Financed by N M Rothschild & Sons, Rhodes succeeded over the next 17 years in buying up all the smaller diamond mining operations in the Kimberley area.
His monopoly of the world's diamond supply was sealed in 1890 through a strategic partnership with the London-based Diamond Syndicate. They agreed to control world supply to maintain high prices.[page needed][page needed] Rhodes supervised the working of his brother's claim and speculated on his behalf. Among his associates in the early days were John X. Merriman and Charles Rudd, who later became his partner in the De Beers Mining Company and the Niger Oil Company.
During the 1880s, Cape vineyards had been devastated by a phylloxera epidemic. The diseased vineyards were dug up and replanted, and farmers were looking for alternatives to wine. In 1892, Rhodes financed The Pioneer Fruit Growing Company at Nooitgedacht, a venture created by Harry Pickstone, an Englishman who had experience with fruit-growing in California.[page needed] The shipping magnate Percy Molteno had just undertaken the first successful refrigerated export to Europe. In 1896, after consulting with Molteno, Rhodes began to pay more attention to export fruit farming and bought farms in Groot Drakenstein, Wellington and Stellenbosch. A year later, he bought Rhone and Boschendal and commissioned Sir Herbert Baker to build him a cottage there.[page needed][page needed] The successful operation soon expanded into Rhodes Fruit Farms, and formed a cornerstone of the modern-day Cape fruit industry.
In 1873, Rhodes left his farm field in the care of his business partner, Rudd, and sailed for England to study at university. He was admitted to Oriel College, Oxford, but stayed for only one term in 1874. He returned to South Africa and did not return for his second term at Oxford until 1876. He was greatly influenced by John Ruskin's inaugural lecture at Oxford, which reinforced his own attachment to the cause of British imperialism.
Among his Oxford associates were James Rochfort Maguire, later a fellow of All Souls College and a director of the British South Africa Company, and Charles Metcalfe. Due to his university career, Rhodes admired the Oxford "system". Eventually, he was inspired to develop his scholarship scheme: "Wherever you turn your eye—except in science—an Oxford man is at the top of the tree".
While attending Oriel College, Rhodes became a Freemason in the Apollo University Lodge. Although initially he did not approve of the organisation, he continued to be a South African Freemason until his death in 1902. The shortcomings of the Freemasons, in his opinion, later caused him to envisage his own secret society with the goal of bringing the entire world under British rule.[page needed]
Diamonds and the establishment of De Beers
During his years at Oxford, Rhodes continued to prosper in Kimberley. Before his departure for Oxford, he and C.D. Rudd had moved from the Kimberley Mine to invest in the more costly claims of what was known as old De Beers (Vooruitzicht). It was named after Johannes Nicolaas de Beer and his brother, Diederik Arnoldus, who occupied the farm.
After purchasing the land in 1839 from David Danser, a Koranna chief in the area, David Stephanus Fourie, forebearer for Claudine Fourie-Grosvenor, had allowed the de Beers and various other Afrikaner families to cultivate the land. The region extended from the Modder River via the Vet River up to the Vaal River.[page needed]
In 1874 and 1875, the diamond fields were in the grip of depression, but Rhodes and Rudd were among those who stayed to consolidate their interests. They believed that diamonds would be numerous in the hard blue ground that had been exposed after the softer, yellow layer near the surface had been worked out. During this time, the technical problem of clearing out the water that was flooding the mines became serious. Rhodes and Rudd obtained the contract for pumping water out of the three main mines. After Rhodes returned from his first term at Oxford, he lived with Robert Dundas Graham, who later became a mining partner with Rudd and Rhodes.
On 13 March 1888, Rhodes and Rudd launched De Beers Consolidated Mines after the amalgamation of a number of individual claims. With £200,000 of capital, the company, of which Rhodes was secretary, owned the largest interest in the mine (£200,000 in 1880 = £22.5m in 2020 = $28.5m USD). Rhodes was named the chairman of De Beers at the company's founding in 1888. De Beers was established with funding from N.M. Rothschild & Sons in 1887.[a]
Politics in South Africa
This section needs additional citations for verification. (September 2014)
In 1880, Rhodes prepared to enter public life at the Cape. With the earlier incorporation of Griqualand West into the Cape Colony under the Molteno Ministry in 1877, the area had obtained six seats in the Cape House of Assembly. Rhodes chose the rural and predominately Boer constituency of Barkly West, which would remain loyal to Rhodes until his death.
When Rhodes became a member of the Cape Parliament, the chief goal of the assembly was to help decide the future of Basutoland. The ministry of Sir Gordon Sprigg was trying to restore order after the 1880 rebellion known as the Gun War. The Sprigg ministry had precipitated the revolt by applying its policy of disarming all native Africans to those of the Basotho nation, who resisted.
In 1890, Rhodes became Prime Minister of the Cape Colony. He introduced various Acts of Parliament to push black people from their lands and make way for industrial development. Rhodes's view was that black people needed to be driven off their land to "stimulate them to labour" and to change their habits. "It must be brought home to them", Rhodes said, "that in future nine-tenths of them will have to spend their lives in manual labour, and the sooner that is brought home to them the better."
In 1892, Rhodes's Franchise and Ballot Act raised the property requirements from a relatively low £25 to a significantly higher £75 which had a disproportionate effect on the previously growing number of enfranchised black people in the Cape under the Cape Qualified Franchise that had been in force since 1853. By limiting the amount of land which black Africans were legally allowed to hold in the Glen Grey Act of 1894, Rhodes further disenfranchised the black population. To quote Richard Dowden, most would now "find it almost impossible to get back on the list because of the legal limit on the amount of land they could hold". In addition, Rhodes was an early architect of the Natives Land Act, 1913, which would limit the areas of the country where black Africans were allowed to settle to less than 10%. At the time, Rhodes would argue that "the native is to be treated as a child and denied the franchise. We must adopt a system of despotism, such as works in India, in our relations with the barbarism of South Africa."
Rhodes did not, however, have direct political power over the independent Boer Republic of the Transvaal. He often disagreed with the Transvaal government's policies, which he considered unsupportive of mine-owners' interests. In 1895, believing he could use his influence to overthrow the Boer government, Rhodes supported the Jameson Raid, an unsuccessful attempt to create an uprising in the Transvaal that had the tacit approval of Secretary of State for the Colonies Joseph Chamberlain. The raid was a catastrophic failure. It forced Cecil Rhodes to resign as Prime Minister of the Cape Colony, sent his oldest brother Col. Frank Rhodes to jail in Transvaal convicted of high treason and nearly sentenced to death, and contributed to the outbreak of the Second Boer War.
In 1899, Rhodes was sued by a man named Burrows for falsely representing the purpose of the raid and thereby convincing him to participate in the raid. Burrows was severely wounded and had to have his leg amputated. His suit for £3,000 in damages was successful.
Expanding the British Empire
Rhodes and the Imperial Factor
Rhodes used his wealth and that of his business partner Alfred Beit and other investors to pursue his dream of creating a British Empire in new territories to the north by obtaining mineral concessions from the most powerful indigenous chiefs. Rhodes' competitive advantage over other mineral prospecting companies was his combination of wealth and astute political instincts, also called the "imperial factor," as he often collaborated with the British Government. He befriended its local representatives, the British Commissioners, and through them organized British protectorates over the mineral concession areas via separate but related treaties. In this way he obtained both legality and security for mining operations. He could then attract more investors. Imperial expansion and capital investment went hand in hand.
The imperial factor was a double-edged sword: Rhodes did not want the bureaucrats of the Colonial Office in London to interfere in the Empire in Africa. He wanted British settlers and local politicians and governors to run it. This put him on a collision course with many in Britain, as well as with British missionaries, who favoured what they saw as the more ethical direct rule from London. Rhodes prevailed because he would pay the cost of administering the territories to the north of South Africa against his future mining profits. The Colonial Office did not have enough funding for this. Rhodes promoted his business interests as in the strategic interest of Britain: preventing the Portuguese, the Germans or the Boers from moving into south-central Africa. Rhodes's companies and agents cemented these advantages by obtaining many mining concessions, as exemplified by the Rudd and Lochner Concessions.
Treaties, concessions and charters
Rhodes had already tried and failed to get a mining concession from Lobengula, King of the Ndebele of Matabeleland. In 1888 he tried again. He sent John Moffat, son of the missionary Robert Moffat, who was trusted by Lobengula, to persuade the latter to sign a treaty of friendship with Britain, and to look favourably on Rhodes's proposals. His associate Charles Rudd, together with Francis Thompson and Rochfort Maguire, assured Lobengula that no more than ten white men would mine in Matabeleland. This limitation was left out of the document, known as the Rudd Concession, which Lobengula signed. Furthermore, it stated that the mining companies could do anything necessary to their operations. When Lobengula discovered later the true effects of the concession, he tried to renounce it, but the British Government ignored him.
During the company's early days, Rhodes and his associates set themselves up to make millions (hundreds of millions in current pounds) over the coming years through what has been described as a "suppressio veri ... which must be regarded as one of Rhodes's least creditable actions". Contrary to what the British government and the public had been allowed to think, the Rudd Concession was not vested in the British South Africa Company, but in a short-lived ancillary concern of Rhodes, Rudd and a few others called the Central Search Association, which was quietly formed in London in 1889. This entity renamed itself the United Concessions Company in 1890, and soon after sold the Rudd Concession to the Chartered Company for 1,000,000 shares. When Colonial Office functionaries discovered this chicanery in 1891, they advised Secretary of State for the Colonies Knutsford to consider revoking the concession, but no action was taken.
Armed with the Rudd Concession, in 1889 Rhodes obtained a charter from the British Government for his British South Africa Company (BSAC) to rule, police, and make new treaties and concessions from the Limpopo River to the great lakes of Central Africa. He obtained further concessions and treaties north of the Zambezi, such as those in Barotseland (the Lochner Concession with King Lewanika in 1890, which was similar to the Rudd Concession); and in the Lake Mweru area (Alfred Sharpe's 1890 Kazembe concession). Rhodes also sent Sharpe to get a concession over mineral-rich Katanga, but met his match in ruthlessness: when Sharpe was rebuffed by its ruler Msiri, King Leopold II of Belgium obtained a concession over Msiri's dead body for his Congo Free State.
Rhodes also wanted Bechuanaland Protectorate (now Botswana) incorporated in the BSAC charter. But three Tswana kings, including Khama III, travelled to Britain and won over British public opinion for it to remain governed by the British Colonial Office in London. Rhodes commented: "It is humiliating to be utterly beaten by these niggers."
The British Colonial Office also decided to administer British Central Africa (Nyasaland, today's Malawi) owing to[clarification needed] the activism of David Livingstone trying to end the East African Arab-Swahili slave trade. Rhodes paid much of the cost so that the British Central Africa Commissioner Sir Harry Johnston, and his successor Alfred Sharpe, would assist with security for Rhodes in the BSAC's north-eastern territories. Johnston shared Rhodes's expansionist views, but he and his successors were not as pro-settler as Rhodes, and disagreed on dealings with Africans.
The BSAC had its own police force, the British South Africa Police, which was used to control Matabeleland and Mashonaland, in present-day Zimbabwe. The company had hoped to start a "new Rand" from the ancient gold mines of the Shona. Because gold deposits weren't as plentiful as they had hoped, many of the white settlers who accompanied the BSAC to Mashonaland became farmers rather than miners. White settlers and their locally-employed Native Police engaged in widespread indiscriminate rape of Ndebele women in the early 1890s.
The Ndebele and the Shona—the two main, but rival, peoples— took advantage of the absence of most of the BSAP for the Jameson Raid in January 1896, they separately rebelled against the coming of the European settlers, the BSAC defeated them in the Second Matabele War. Rhodes went to Matabeleland after his resignation as Cape Colony Premier, and appointed himself Colonel in his own column of irregular troops moving from Salisbury to Bulawayo to relieve the siege of whites there. He remained Managing Director of the BSAC (with power of attorney to take decisions without reference back to the Board in London) until June 1896, defying Chamberlain's calls to resign, and he gave instructions that no mercy be shown in putting down the rebellion, telling officers that "Your instructions are" he told a major, to "do the most harm you can to the natives around you." He ordered a police officer to "kill all you can", even those Ndebele who begged for mercy and threw down their arms... Shortly after learning of the assassination of the Ndebele spiritual leader, Mlimo, by the American scout Frederick Russell Burnham, and after participating in the cavalry charge at one of the last pitched battles of this phase of the war, Rhodes' associate Johan Colenbrander arranged for a meeting with the remaining Ndebele chiefs. Rhodes and a few colleagues walked unarmed into the Ndebele stronghold in Matobo Hills. In a series of meetings between August and October, he persuaded the Impi to lay down their arms, thus ending the Second Matabele War.
In the aftermath of the war in Matabeleland, but whilst the uprising in Mashonaland was being suppressed, Rhodes returned to London to give evidence the UK House of Commons Select Committee of Enquiry into the Jameson Raid. As Rhodes had incriminating telegrams demonstrating the complicity and foreknowledge of the Raid by Joseph Chamberlain, the Colonial Secretary, he and his solicitor were able to blackmail Chamberlain into retaining the BSAC Charter, leaving the Company in charge of administering the territory north of the Limpopo even as it became a Crown Colony. Rhodes returned to Mashonaland, further overseeing the suppression of the uprising there into 1897. The scandal attached to his name did not prevent him rejoining the board of the BSAC in 1898. He remained an MP in the Cape Parliament and a Privy Councillor.
By the end of 1894, the territories over which the BSAC had concessions or treaties, collectively called "Zambesia" after the Zambezi River flowing through the middle, comprised an area of 1,143,000 km2 between the Limpopo River and Lake Tanganyika. In May 1895, its name was officially changed to "Rhodesia", reflecting Rhodes's popularity among settlers who had been using the name informally since 1891. The designation Southern Rhodesia was officially adopted in 1898 for the part south of the Zambezi, which later became Zimbabwe; and the designations North-Western and North-Eastern Rhodesia were used from 1895 for the territory which later became Northern Rhodesia, then Zambia. He built a house for himself in 1897 in Bulawayo.
Rhodes decreed in his will that he was to be buried in Matopos Hills (now Matobo Hills). After his death in the Cape in 1902, his body was transported by train to Bulawayo. His burial was attended by Ndebele chiefs, now paid agents of the BSAC administration, who asked that the firing party should not discharge their rifles as this would disturb the spirits. Then, for the first time, they gave a white man the Matabele royal salute, Bayete. Rhodes is buried alongside Leander Starr Jameson and 34 British soldiers killed in the Shangani Patrol. Despite occasional efforts to return his body to the United Kingdom, his grave remains there still, "part and parcel of the history of Zimbabwe" and attracts thousands of visitors each year.
"Cape to Cairo Red Line"
One of Rhodes's dreams (shared by other members of the British Empire) was for a "red line" on the map from the Cape to Cairo (on geo-political maps, British dominions were always denoted in red or pink). Rhodes had been instrumental in securing southern African states for the Empire. He and others felt the best way to "unify the possessions, facilitate governance, enable the military to move quickly to hot spots or conduct war, help settlement, and foster trade" would be to build the "Cape to Cairo Railway".
This enterprise was not without its problems. France had a conflicting strategy in the late 1890s to link its colonies from west to east across the continent and the Portuguese produced the "Pink Map", representing their claims to sovereignty in Africa. Ultimately, Belgium and Germany proved to be the main obstacles to the British objective until the United Kingdom conquered and seized Tanganyika from the Germans as a League of Nations mandate.
Rhodes wanted to expand the British Empire because he believed that the Anglo-Saxon race was destined to greatness. In what he described as "a draft of some of my ideas" written in 1877 while a student at Oxford, Rhodes said of the English, "I contend that we are the first race in the world, and that the more of the world we inhabit the better it is for the human race. I contend that every acre added to our territory means the birth of more of the English race who otherwise would not be brought into existence."
Rhodes wanted to develop a Commonwealth in which all of the British-dominated countries in the empire would be represented in the British Parliament. Rhodes explicitly stipulated in his will that all races should be eligible for the scholarships. It is said that he wanted to develop an American elite of philosopher-kings who would have the United States rejoin the British Empire. As Rhodes also respected and admired the Germans and their Kaiser, he allowed German students to be included in the Rhodes scholarships. He believed that eventually the United Kingdom (including Ireland), the US, and Germany together would dominate the world and ensure perpetual peace.[page needed]
Rhodes's views on race have been debated; he supported the rights of indigenous Africans to vote, but critics have labelled him as an "architect of apartheid" and a "white supremacist", particularly since 2015. According to Magubane, Rhodes was "unhappy that in many Cape Constituencies, Africans could be decisive if more of them exercised this right to vote under current law [referring to the Cape Qualified Franchise]," with Rhodes arguing that "the native is to be treated as a child and denied the franchise. We must adopt a system of despotism, such as works in India, in our relations with the barbarism of South Africa". Rhodes advocated the governance of indigenous Africans living in the Cape Colony "in a state of barbarism and communal tenure" as "a subject race. I do not go so far as the member for Victoria West, who would not give the black man a vote. ... If the whites maintain their position as the supreme race, the day may come when we shall be thankful that we have the natives with us in their proper position."
However others have disputed these views. For example, historian Raymond C. Mensing notes that Rhodes has the reputation as the most flamboyant exemplar of the British imperial spirit, and always believed that British institutions were the best. Mensing argues that Rhodes quietly developed a more nuanced concept of imperial federation in Africa, and that his mature views were more balanced and realistic. According to Mensing, "Rhodes was not a biological or maximal racist. Despite his support for what became the basis for the apartheid system, he is best seen as a cultural or minimal racist". In a 2016 opinion piece for The Times, Oxford University professor Nigel Biggar argued that although Rhodes was a committed imperialist, the charges of racism against him are unfounded. In a 2021 article, Biggar further argued that:
If Rhodes was a racist, he would not have enjoyed cordial relations with individual Africans, he would not have regarded them as capable of civilisation, and he would not have supported their right to vote at all. Nor would he have stipulated in his final will of July 1899 that the scholarships that would famously bear his name should be awarded without regard for “race”. And yet he did all these things.
On domestic politics within Britain, Rhodes was a supporter of the Liberal Party. Rhodes' only major impact was his large-scale support of the Irish nationalist party, led by Charles Stewart Parnell (1846–1891).
Rhodes worked well with the Afrikaners in the Cape Colony; he supported teaching Dutch as well as English in public schools. While Prime Minister of the Cape Colony, he helped to remove most of their legal disabilities. He was a friend of Jan Hofmeyr, leader of the Afrikaner Bond, and it was largely because of Afrikaner support that he became Prime Minister of the Cape Colony. Rhodes advocated greater self-government for the Cape Colony, in line with his preference for the empire to be controlled by local settlers and politicians rather than by London.
Scholar and Zimbabwean author Peter Godwin, whilst critical of Rhodes, writes that he needs to be viewed via the prisms and cultural and social perspective of his epoch, positing that Rhodes "was no 19th-century Hitler. He wasn't so much a freak as a man of his time...Rhodes and the white pioneers in southern Africa did behave despicably by today's standards, but no worse than the white settlers in North America, South America, and Australia; and in some senses better, considering that the genocide of natives in Africa was less complete. For all the former African colonies are now ruled by indigenous peoples, unlike the Americas and the Antipodes, most of whose aboriginal natives were all but exterminated."
Godwin goes on to say "Rhodes and his cronies fit in perfectly with their surroundings and conformed to the morality (or lack of it) of the day. As is so often the case, history simply followed the gravitational pull of superior firepower."
Rhodes never married, pleading, "I have too much work on my hands" and saying that he would not be a dutiful husband.[page needed] Author Robin Brown has claimed in The Secret Society: Cecil John Rhodes’s Plan for a New World Order that Rhodes was a homosexual who was in love with his private secretary, Neville Pickering, and that he established "… a homosexual hegemony—which was already operative in the Secret Society—[and] went on to influence, if not control, British politics at the beginning of the twentieth century". Paul Maylam of Rhodes University criticised the book in a review for The Conversation as "based heavily on surmise and assertion" and lacking "referenced source material to substantiate its claims", as well as being riddled with basic factual errors.
In the last years of his life, Rhodes was stalked by Polish princess Catherine Radziwiłł, born Rzewuska, who had married into the noble Polish family Radziwiłł. The princess falsely claimed that she was engaged to Rhodes, and that they were having an affair. She asked him to marry her, but Rhodes refused. In reaction, she accused him of loan fraud. He had to go to trial and testify against her accusation. She wrote a biography of Rhodes called Cecil Rhodes: Man and Empire Maker.[page needed] Her accusations were eventually proven to be false.
Second Boer War
During the Second Boer War Rhodes went to Kimberley at the onset of the siege, in a calculated move to raise the political stakes on the government to dedicate resources to the defence of the city. The military felt he was more of a liability than an asset and found him intolerable. The officer commanding the garrison of Kimberley, Lieutenant Colonel Robert Kekewich, experienced serious personal difficulties with Rhodes because of the latter's inability to co-operate.
Despite these differences, Rhodes' company was instrumental in the defence of the city, providing water and refrigeration facilities, constructing fortifications, and manufacturing an armoured train, shells and a one-off gun named Long Cecil.
Rhodes used his position and influence to lobby the British government to relieve the siege of Kimberley, claiming in the press that the situation in the city was desperate. The military wanted to assemble a large force to take the Boer cities of Bloemfontein and Pretoria, but they were compelled to change their plans and send three separate smaller forces to relieve the sieges of Kimberley, Mafeking and Ladysmith.
Although Rhodes remained a leading figure in the politics of southern Africa, especially during the Second Boer War, he was dogged by ill health throughout his relatively short life.
He was sent to Natal aged 16 because it was believed the climate might help problems with his heart. On returning to England in 1872, his health again deteriorated with heart and lung problems, to the extent that his doctor, Sir Morell Mackenzie, believed he would survive only six months. He returned to Kimberley where his health improved. From age 40 his heart condition returned with increasing severity until his death from heart failure in 1902, aged 48, at his seaside cottage in Muizenberg.
The government arranged an epic journey by train from the Cape to Rhodesia, with the funeral train stopping at every station to allow mourners to pay their respects. It was reported that at Kimberley, "practically the entire population marched in procession past the funeral car". He was finally laid to rest at World's View, a hilltop located approximately 35 kilometres (22 mi) south of Bulawayo, in what was then Rhodesia. Today, his grave site is part of Matobo National Park, Zimbabwe.
Rhodes has been the target of much recent criticism, with some historians attacking him as a ruthless imperialist and white supremacist. The continued presence of his grave in the Matopos (now Matobos) hills has not been without controversy in contemporary Zimbabwe. In December 2010, Cain Mathema, the governor of Bulawayo, branded the grave outside the country's second city an "insult to the African ancestors" and said he believed its presence had brought bad luck and poor weather to the region.
In February 2012, Mugabe loyalists and ZANU-PF activists visited the grave site demanding permission from the local chief to exhume Rhodes's remains and return them to Britain. Many considered this a nationalist political stunt in the run up to an election, and Local Chief Masuku and Godfrey Mahachi, one of the country's foremost archaeologists, strongly expressed their opposition to the grave being removed due to its historical significance to Zimbabwe. Then-president Robert Mugabe also opposed the move.
In his second will, written in 1877 before he had accumulated his wealth, Rhodes wanted to create a secret society that would bring the whole world under British rule. His biographer calls it an "extensive fantasy." Rhodes envisioned a secret society to extend British rule worldwide, including China, Japan, all of Africa and South America, and indeed the United States as well:
To and for the establishment, promotion and development of a Secret Society, the true aim and object whereof shall be for the extension of British rule throughout the world, the perfecting of a system of emigration from the United Kingdom, and of colonisation by British subjects of all lands where the means of livelihood are attainable by energy, labour and enterprise, and especially the occupation by British settlers of the entire Continent of Africa, the Holy Land, the Valley of the Euphrates, the Islands of Cyprus and Candia, the whole of South America, the Islands of the Pacific not heretofore possessed by Great Britain, the whole of the Malay Archipelago, the seaboard of China and Japan, the ultimate recovery of the United States of America as an integral part of the British Empire, the inauguration of a system of Colonial representation in the Imperial Parliament which may tend to weld together the disjointed members of the Empire and, finally, the foundation of so great a Power as to render wars impossible, and promote the best interests of humanity.— Cecil Rhodes
Rhodes's final will—when he actually did have money—was much more realistic and focused on scholarships. He also left a large area of land on the slopes of Table Mountain to the South African nation. Part of this estate became the upper campus of the University of Cape Town, another part became the Kirstenbosch National Botanical Garden, while much was spared from development and is now an important conservation area.
In his last will, he provided for the establishment of the Rhodes Scholarship. Over the course of the previous half-century, governments, universities and individuals in the settler colonies had been establishing travelling scholarships for this purpose. The Rhodes awards fit the established pattern. The scholarship enabled male students from territories under British rule or formerly under British rule and from Germany to study at Rhodes's alma mater, the University of Oxford. Rhodes' aims were to promote leadership marked by public spirit and good character, and to "render war impossible" by promoting friendship between the great powers.
Rhodes Memorial stands on Rhodes's favourite spot on the slopes of Devil's Peak, Cape Town, with a view looking north and east towards the Cape to Cairo route. From 1910 to 1984 Rhodes's house in Cape Town, Groote Schuur, was the official Cape residence of the prime ministers of South Africa and continued as a presidential residence.
His birthplace was established in 1938 as the Rhodes Memorial Museum, now known as Bishops Stortford Museum. The cottage in Muizenberg where he died is a provincial heritage site in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. The cottage today is operated as a museum by the Muizenberg Historical Conservation Society, and is open to the public. A broad display of Rhodes material can be seen, including the original De Beers board room table around which diamonds worth billions of dollars were traded.
The residents of Kimberley, Northern Cape elected to build a memorial in Rhodes's honour in their city, which was unveiled in 1907. The 72-ton bronze statue depicts Rhodes on his horse, looking north with map in hand, and dressed as he was when met the Ndebele after their rebellion.
Memorials to Rhodes have been opposed since at least the 1950s, when some Afrikaner students demanded the removal of a Rhodes statue at the University of Cape Town. A 2015 movement, known as "Rhodes Must Fall" (or #RhodesMustFall on social media), began with student protests at the University of Cape Town that were successful in getting university authorities to remove the Rhodes statue from the campus. The protest also had the broader goal of highlighting what the activists considered the lack of systemic post-apartheid racial transformation in South African institutions.
Following a series of protests and vandalism at the University of Cape Town, various allied movements both in South Africa and other countries have been launched in opposition to Cecil Rhodes memorials. These include a campaign to change the name of Rhodes University and to remove a statue of Rhodes from Oriel College, Oxford. The campaign was covered in a documentary by Channel 4, which was called The Battle for Britain's Heroes. The documentary was commissioned after Afua Hirsch wrote an article on the topic. Moreover, an article by Amit Chaudhuri, in The Guardian, suggested the criticism was "unsurprising and overdue". Other academics including Kehinde Andrews, prominent British academic and author specialising in Black studies, have vocally spoken in favour of #RhodesMustFall. However, Oriel College opted to keep the Rhodes statue, despite the protests. Oriel College claimed in 2016 they would lose about £100 million worth of gifts if they removed the statue. Nevertheless, in June 2020, the college voted in favour of setting up an independent commission of inquiry, amid widespread support for removing the statue.
Encyclopædia Britannica, discussing his legacy, wrote of Rhodes that he "once defined his policy as 'equal rights for every white man south of the Zambezi' and later, under liberal pressure, amended 'white' to 'civilized'. But he probably regarded the possibility of native Africans becoming 'civilized' as so remote that the two expressions, in his mind, came to the same thing."
As part of his legacy, on his death Rhodes left a significant amount of money to be used to finance talented young scholars ("race" was not a criterion) at Oxford. Currently, in Oxford a number of those South African and Zimbabwean recipients of funds from his legacy are campaigning for his statue to be removed from display in Oxford. When asked if there was any double standard or hypocrisy in being funded by the Rhodes Scholarship fund and benefiting from the opportunity, whilst at the same time, campaigning against the legacy of Rhodes, one of the South African campaigners, Ntokozo Qwabe, replied that "this scholarship does not buy our silence...There is no hypocrisy in being a recipient of a Rhodes scholarship and being publicly critical of Cecil Rhodes and his legacy... There is no clause that binds us to find 'the good' in Rhodes’ character, nor to sanitise the imperialist, colonial agenda he propagated".
In June 2020, amid the wider context of Black Lives Matter protests, the governing body of Oxford's Oriel college voted to remove the statue of Rhodes located on the college's façade facing Oxford's High Street. The actual removal would not take place until at least early spring 2021, when a commission set up by the college delivers its report on the future of the statue. In May 2021, the commission reported that, while the majority of members supported the statue's removal, the costs to do so were prohibitively high, and the college would therefore not be taking action.
- Mark Twain's sarcastic summation of Rhodes ("I admire him, I frankly confess it; and when his time comes I shall buy a piece of the rope for a keepsake"), from Chapter LXIX of Following the Equator, still often appears in collections of famous insults.[b]
- The will of Cecil Rhodes is the central theme in the science fiction book Great Work of Time by John Crowley, an alternative history in which the Secret Society stipulated in the will was indeed established. Its members eventually achieve the secret of time travel and use it to restrain World War I and prevent World War II, and to perpetuate the world ascendancy of the British Empire up to the end of the Twentieth Century. The book contains a vivid description of Cecil Rhodes himself, seen through the eyes of a traveller from the future British Empire.
- In the British film Rhodes of Africa (1936, directed by Austrian filmmaker Berthold Viertel), Rhodes was portrayed by Canadian actor Walter Huston.
- Rhodes is the unofficial mascot of Uncomfortable Oxford, an Oxford based tour guide and history organisation which focuses on British imperial history. Much of their promotional material, tours and speeches all focus on Rhodes's statue outside of Oriel College, Oxford, and they were central to organising the 2020 Oxford Black Lives Matter protests following the murder of George Floyd.
- Rhodes was played by Ferdinand Marian in the Nazi propaganda film Ohm Krüger (1941), where he—like all other British characters in the film—was presented as an outright villain.
- In 1901, Rhodes bought Dalham Hall, Suffolk. In 1902, Colonel Frank Rhodes erected the village hall in the village of Dalham, near Bury St Edmunds, to commemorate the life of his brother, who had died before taking possession of the estate.
- Rhodes was a peripheral but influential character in the historical novel The Covenant by James Michener.
- His memorial at Devil's Peak also served as a temple in The Adventures of Sinbad episode "The Return of the Ronin".
- The 1976 Hugh Masekela album Colonial Man has a song titled "Cecil Rhodes".
- Cecil Rhodes was the subject of a South African television mini-series, Barney Barnato, made in 1989 and first aired on SABC in early 1990.
- In 1996, BBC-TV made an eight-part television drama about Rhodes called Rhodes: The Life and Legend of Cecil Rhodes. It was produced by David Drury and written by Antony Thomas. It tells the story of Rhodes' life through a series of flashbacks of conversations between him and Princess Catherine Radziwiłł and also between her and people who knew him. It also shows the story of how she stalked and eventually ruined him. In the serial, Cecil Rhodes is played by Martin Shaw, the younger Cecil Rhodes is played by his son Joe Shaw, and Princess Radziwiłł is played by Frances Barber. In the serial Rhodes is portrayed as ruthless and greedy. The serial also suggests that he was homosexual. Countering the implication of Rhodes' homosexuality, historian and journalist Paul Johnson wrote that Rhodes had been falsely smeared by the programme, commenting: "In nine tendentious hours, Rhodes is to be presented as a corrupt and greedy money-grabber, a racist and paedophile, whose disgusting passion was to get his hands on young boys ... the BBC has spent £10m of our money putting together a farrago of exaggerations and smears about this great man." Peter Godwin said of the film that "it feels like a work overwhelmingly informed by malice, consistently seizing on the very worst interpretation of the man without really attempting to get under his skin. Rhodes was no 19th-century Hitler. He wasn't so much a freak as a man of his time."
- Rhodes features prominently in Wilbur Smith's Ballantyne series of novels, fictional stories based amongst real events in Rhodes' lifetime.
- With the provision of funding for the creation of De Beers in 1887, Rothschild also turned to investment in the mining of precious stones, in Africa and India. Today it markets 40% of the world's rough diamonds, and at one time marketed 90%.
- His account of how "Cecil Rhodes" made his first fortune by discovering, in Australia, in the belly of a shark, a newspaper that gave him advance knowledge of a great rise in wool prices, is completely fictional—Twain dates the event at 1870, when Rhodes was in South Africa.
- The Times & 27 March 1902.
- "Why Rhodes Must Fall". Harvard Political Review. 21 March 2021. Retrieved 13 March 2022.
- Nordling, Linda (18 May 2021). "University of Cape Town's battle to tackle a racist legacy". Nature. 593 (7859): 465–467. Bibcode:2021Natur.593..465N. doi:10.1038/d41586-021-01321-3. PMID 34007077. S2CID 234782113.
- "Cecil Rhodes statue in Cape Town has head removed". BBC News. 15 July 2020. Retrieved 13 March 2022.
- Magazine, Smithsonian; Gershon, Livia. "Why a New Plaque Next to Oxford's Cecil Rhodes Statue Is So Controversial". Smithsonian Magazine. Retrieved 13 March 2022.
- Greenberger, Alex (20 May 2021). "Controversial Cecil Rhodes Statue to Remain at Oxford College". ARTnews.com. Retrieved 13 March 2022.
- "Here's why the statue of Cecil Rhodes in Oxford is being pulled down". inews.co.uk. 19 June 2020. Retrieved 13 March 2022.
- "To be born English is to win first prize in the lottery of life. Cecil Rhodes". www.quotemaster.org. Retrieved 13 March 2022.
- "Cecil Rhodes - Wikiquote". en.wikiquote.org. Retrieved 13 March 2022.
- "'Colonialism had never really ended': my life in the shadow of Cecil Rhodes". The Guardian. 14 January 2021. Retrieved 13 March 2022.
- "Cecil Rhodes was a racist, but you can't readily expunge him from history | Will Hutton". The Guardian. 20 December 2015. Retrieved 13 March 2022.
- Koutonin, Mawuna (18 August 2016). "Lost cities #9: racism and ruins – the plundering of Great Zimbabwe". The Guardian. Retrieved 13 March 2022.
- Rotberg 1988, p. 128.
- Dowden, Richard (17 April 1994). "Apartheid: made in Britain: Richard Dowden explains how Churchill, Rhodes and Smuts caused black South Africans to lose their rights". The Independent. London. Retrieved 15 January 2016.
- History of South Africa Timeline (1485–1975) Archived 13 September 2011 at the Wayback Machine
- Maylam, Paul. "What Cecil John Rhodes said in his will about who should get scholarships". The Conversation. Retrieved 13 March 2022.
- "Cecil John Rhodes". South African History Online. Retrieved 4 September 2018.
- Davies, Andrew John (14 August 1995). "site unseen : Netteswell House, Bishop's Stortford". The Independent. Retrieved 26 February 2021.
- "Papers of the Rhodes Family (Hildersham Hall collection)". bodley.ox.ac.uk. Retrieved 4 August 2019.
- Williams 1921.
- "Doctors, dentists and dancers – the inhabitants of bustling David Place". Jersey Evening Post: 17. 13 September 2018.
- Flint 2009, p. 37.
- Epstein 1982.
- Knowles 2005.
- Boschendal 2007.
- Picton-Seymour 1989.
- Oberholster 1987, p. 91.
- Alexander 1914, p. 259.
- Thomas 1997.
- "Famous People in the Diamond Industry". Cape Town Diamond Museum. Retrieved 25 September 2018.
- Rosenthal 1965.
- Rotberg 1988, pp. 76–.
- "Purchasing Power of Pound". Measuring Worth. 15 February 1971. Retrieved 11 June 2020.
- Martin 2009, p. 162.
- "Cecil Rhodes | Prime Minister of Cape Colony". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 20 July 2017.
- Martin 2009.
- Mnyanda, Siya (25 March 2015). "'Cecil Rhodes' colonial legacy must fall – not his statue'". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 15 January 2016.
- Magubane 1996, p. 108.
- "South Africa before and in the build up to 1899". South African History Online. 8 November 2011. Retrieved 26 May 2019.
- Parkinson, Justin (1 April 2015). "Why is Cecil Rhodes such a controversial figure?". BBC News. Retrieved 20 July 2017.
- Burrows v. Rhodes and Jameson,  1 Q B 816 , South Africa Military History
- Parsons 1993, pp. 179–81.
- Rönnbäck & Broberg 2019, p. 30.
- Blake 1977, p. 55.
- Burrett, Robert S (2001). ""It's mine" "No, it's mine!" Early company squabbles over the border areas of the Tati Concession". Botswana Notes and Records. 33: 13–25. JSTOR 40980292.
- Robert Blake A History of Rhodesia pp.119-20
- "The Real Cecil Rhodes". New Politic. 19 November 2021. Retrieved 20 February 2022.
- Rotberg 1988, pp. 555–59.
- Panton 2015, p. 321.
- Farwell 2001, pp. 539–.
- Andrew Roberts Salisbury: Victorian Titan pp.635-7
- Gray 1956.
- Gray 1954.
- Domville-Fife 1900, p. 89.
- Laing 2012.
- Barbara Crossette. "An African Journal, From the Cape to Cairo". The New York Times. Retrieved 25 September 2018.
- William Roger Louis, and Prosser Gifford, eds. France and Britain in Africa: imperial rivalry and colonial rule (Yale University Press, 1971).
- "The Mapa Cor-de-rosa: A Portuguese Empire That Never Was". Think Big. 20 December 2011. Retrieved 25 September 2018.
- "Tanganyika Mandate". Retrieved 25 September 2018.
- Rhodes 1902, p. 58.
- Rotberg 1988, p. 150.
- Biggar 2016.
- Flint 2009.
- Magubane 1996, p. 109.
- Castle 2016.
- Karen Attiah (25 November 2015). "Woodrow Wilson and Cecil Rhodes must fall". The Washington Post. Washington, D.C. Retrieved 15 January 2016.
- Plaut, Martin (16 April 2015). "From Cecil Rhodes to Mahatma Gandhi: why is South Africa tearing its statues down?". New Statesman. London. Retrieved 15 January 2016.
- Mensing 1986, pp. 99–106
- Moyse, Ashley (2016). "The Controversial Legacy of Cecil Rhodes". McDonald Centre.
- Biggar, Nigel (12 August 2021). "Cecil Rhodes and the Abuse of History". History Reclaimed.
- Pinney 1995, p. 72.
- McCracken 2003, pp. 22–24.
- Rotberg 1988, pp. 131–33.
- Plomer 1984.
- Robin Brown, The Secret Society: Cecil John Rhodes' Plan for a New World Order (Penguin: 2015).
- "Rhodes: closet gay man who hatched a secret society to promote empire?". theconversation.com. Retrieved 7 March 2021.
- Radziwill 1918.
- Lockhart & Woodhouse 1963, p. 487.
- Pakenham 1992, pp. 321–23.
- Phelan 1913.
- Roberts 1976.
- Thompson 2007, pp. 131–.
- "Mr. Rhodes's Bequests", New-York Tribune, 6 April 1902, p. 4
- Wilson 2016, p. 848.
- Maylam 2005, p. 6.
- Kenrick, David (2019). Decolonisation, Identity and Nation in Rhodesia, 1964–1979: a race against time. Springer. ISBN 978-3-030-32697-5.
- Blair 2004.
- Rotberg 1988, p. 102.
- Michael Howard, The Lessons of History (1992) p. 66.
- Rotberg 1988, pp. 663–69.
- Pietsch 2011, pp. 723–39.
- Rhodes 1902, pp. 23–45.
- Philip Ziegler, Legacy: Cecil Rhodes, the Rhodes Trust and Rhodes Scholarships (Yale UP, 2008) online review
- Maylam 2005, p. 56.
- Masondo, Sipho (22 March 2015). "Rhodes: As divisive in death as in life". News24. Archived from the original on 6 February 2016. Retrieved 20 January 2016.
- "Op-Ed: Rhodes statue removed from uct". The Rand Daily Mail. Johannesburg: Times Media Group. 9 April 2015. Retrieved 10 April 2015.
- Grootes, Stephen (6 April 2015). "Op-Ed: Say it aloud – Rhodes must fall". Daily Maverick. Retrieved 7 April 2015.
- Ispas, Mara. "Rhodes Uni Council approves plans for name change". SA Breaking News. Retrieved 1 June 2015.
- Hind, Hassan (12 July 2015). "Oxford Students Want 'Racist' Statue Removed". Sky News. Archived from the original on 16 January 2017. Retrieved 13 July 2015.
- O'Grady, Sean (29 March 2019). "TV Review: The Battle for Britain's Heroes (Channel 4)". The Independent. Retrieved 2 April 2019.
- Chaudhuri, Amit (16 March 2016). "The real meaning of Rhodes Must Fall". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2 April 2019.
- Scott, Peter (2 February 2016). "Oxford students' fight to topple Cecil Rhodes statue was the easy option". The Guardian.
- Rawlinson, Kevin (28 January 2016). "Cecil Rhodes statue to remain at Oxford after 'overwhelming support'". The Guardian.
- Mohdin, Aamna; Adams, Richard; Quinn, and Ben (17 June 2020). "Oxford college backs removal of Cecil Rhodes statue". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 17 June 2020.
- Encyclopaedia Britannica Effects Of The Jameson Raid On Rhodes’s Career
- "Cecil Rhodes statue row: Chris Patten tells students to embrace freedom of thought". The Guardian. 13 January 2016. Retrieved 17 June 2020.
- Shakib, Delara; Linda Givetash (18 June 2020). "Rhodes will fall: Oxford University to remove statue amid anti-racism calls". NBC News. Retrieved 7 July 2020.
- Race, Michael (5 January 2021). "Decision over future of Oxford's Cecil Rhodes statue delayed". BBC News. Retrieved 27 April 2021.
- Race, Michael (20 May 2021). "Removal of Oxford's Cecil Rhodes statue on hold over costs". BBC News. Retrieved 20 May 2021.
- Twain 1898.
- Rhodes of Africa (1936).
- Gregory, Andy (9 June 2020). "Cecil Rhodes protest – live: Oxford students demand removal of colonialist's statue, as Labour councils to review public monuments". Independent. Retrieved 22 December 2020.
- Goldsbrough, Susannah (19 June 2020). "Uncomfortable Oxford: meet the student group asking the city to confront its colonial past". The Telegraph. Archived from the original on 11 January 2022. Retrieved 22 December 2020.
- "Rhodes" on IMDB
- Godwin 1998.
- Aldrich, Robert; Wotherspoon, Garry (2001). Who's who in Gay and Lesbian History: From Antiquity to World War II. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-15982-1.
- Alexander, Eleanor, ed. (1914). "Chapter XIV: South Africa 1893". Primate Alexander, Archbishop of Armagh. A memoir. London: Edward Arnold. p. 259.
- Bigelow, Bill; Peterson, Bob (2002). Rethinking Globalization: Teaching for Justice in an Unjust World. Milwaukee: Rethinking Schools. ISBN 978-0-942961-28-7.
- Blake, Robert (1977). A History of Rhodesia. London: Methuen. ISBN 978-0413283504.
- Anon (2007). Boschendal: founded 1685. Boschendal Ltd. ISBN 978-0-620-38001-0.
- Britten, Sarah (2006). The Art of the South African Insult. 30° South Publishers. ISBN 978-1-920143-05-3.
- Colvin, Ian (1922). The Life of Jameson. London: E. Arnold and Co. ISBN 978-1-116-69524-3.
- Currey, John Blades; Simons, Phillida Brooke (1986). 1850 to 1900: fifty years in the Cape Colony. Brenthurst Press. ISBN 978-0-909079-31-4.
- Davidson, Apollon Borisovich (2003). Cecil Rhodes and his Time. Christopher English (trans.). Protea Book House. ISBN 978-1-919825-24-3.
- Epstein, Edward Jay (1982). The rise and fall of diamonds: the shattering of a brilliant illusion. Simon and Schuster. ISBN 978-0671412890.
- Ferguson, Niall (1999). The house of Rothschild: the world's banker, 1849–1999. Viking. ISBN 978-0-670-88794-1.
- Flint, John (2009). Cecil Rhodes. Little, Brown. ISBN 978-0-316-08670-7., a scholarly biography
- Galbraith, John S. Crown and Charter: the Early Years of the British South Africa Company (1974).
- Garrett, F. Edmund (1905). . The Empire and the century. London: John Murray. pp. 478–520.
- Johari, J. C. (1993). Voices Of Indian Freedom Movement. Anmol Publications Pvt. Limited. ISBN 978-81-7158-225-9.
- Judd, Denis, and Keith Surridge. The Boer War: A History (Bloomsbury Publishing, 2013).
- Knowles, Lilian Charlotte Anne; Knowles, Charles Matthew (2005). The Economic Development of the British Overseas Empire. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-0415350488.
- Le Sueur, Gordon (1913). Cecil Rhodes. The Man and His Work. London: London.
- Lockhart, John Gilbert; Woodhouse, Christopher Montague (1963). Cecil Rhodes: The Colossus of Southern Africa. Macmillan.
- McDonald, J.G. (1917). Rhodes – A Life. London: Chatto & Windus. p. 403.
- Magubane, Bernard M. (1996). The Making of a Racist State: British Imperialism and the Union of South Africa, 1875–1910. Trenton, New Jersey: Africa World Press. ISBN 978-0865432413.
- Martin, Meredith (2009). Diamonds, Gold, and War: The British, the Boers, and the Making of South Africa. CreateSpace. ISBN 978-1-4587-1877-8.
- Massie, Robert K. (1991). Dreadnought: Britain, Germany and the Coming of the Great War. London: Jonathan Cape. ISBN 978-1781856680.
- McCracken, Donal P. (2003). Forgotten Protest: Ireland and the Anglo-Boer War. Ulster Historical Foundation. pp. 22–24. ISBN 978-1903688182.
- Millin, Sarah Gertrude (1933). Rhodes. Harper & brothers.
- Oberholster, A. G.; Van Breda, Pieter (1987). Paarl Valley, 1687–1987. Human Sciences Research Council. ISBN 0-7969-0539-8.
- Pakenham, Thomas (1992). Boer War. HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0380720019.
- Parsons, Neil (1993). A New History of Southern Africa. London: Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-8419-5319-2.
- Phelan, T. (1913). The Siege of Kimberley. Dublin: M.H. Gill and Son. ISBN 978-0-554-24773-1.
- Picton-Seymour, Désirée (1989). Historical Buildings in South Africa. Struikhof Publishers. ISBN 978-0-947458-01-0.
- Pinney, Thomas (1995). The Letters of Rudyard Kipling: Volume 3: 1900–10. Palgrave Macmillan UK. p. 72. ISBN 978-1349137398.
- Plomer, William (1984). Cecil Rhodes. D. Philip. ISBN 978-0-08646018-9.
- Radziwill, Princess Catherine (1918). Cecil Rhodes: Man and Empire Maker. London, New York, Toronto and Melbourne: Cassell & Company, Ltd. ISBN 978-0-554-35300-5.
- Rhodes, Cecil (1902). Stead, William Thomas (ed.). The Last Will and Testament of Cecil John Rhodes, with Elucidatory Notes, to which are Added Some Chapters Describing the Political and Religious Ideas of the Testator. London.
- Roberts, Brian (1969). Cecil Rhodes and the Princess. Lippincott.
- Roberts, Brian (1976). Kimberley: Turbulent City. D. Philip. ISBN 978-0-949968-62-3.
- Rönnbäck, Klas; Broberg, Oskar (2019). Capital and Colonialism: The Return on British Investments in Africa 1869–1969. Springer. ISBN 978-3-030-19711-7.
- Rosenthal, Eric (1965). South African Surnames. H. Timmins.
- Rotberg, Robert I. (1988). The Founder: Cecil Rhodes and the Pursuit of Power. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-987920-5.; 856pp; the standard scholarly biography says McFarlane, (2007)
- Simpson, William; Jones, Martin Desmond (2000). Europe, 1783–1914. Routledge. p. 237. ISBN 978-0-415-22660-8.
- Thomas, Antony (1997). Rhodes: Race for Africa. St. Martin's Press. ISBN 978-0-312-16982-4.
- Thompson, J. Lee (2007). Forgotten Patriot: A Life of Alfred, Viscount Milner of St. James's and Cape Town, 1854–1925. Fairleigh Dickinson Univ Press. ISBN 978-0-8386-4121-7.
- Twain, Mark (1898). A Journey around the World. Hartford, CT: The American Publishing Company.
- Williams, Basil (1921). Cecil Rhodes. Holt.
- Wilson, Scott (2016). Resting Places: The Burial Sites of More Than 14,000 Famous Persons, 3d ed. McFarland. ISBN 978-1-4766-2599-7.
- Domville-Fife, C.W. (1900). The encyclopedia of the British Empire the first encyclopedic record of the greatest empire in the history of the world. Bristol: Rankin. p. 89.
- Farwell, Byron (2001). The Encyclopedia of Nineteenth-century Land Warfare: An Illustrated World View. W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 978-0-393-04770-7.
- Panton, Kenneth J. (2015). Historical Dictionary of the British Empire. London: Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 978-0810878013.
- Brown, Richard (November 1990). "The Colossus". The Journal of African History. Cambridge University Press. 31 (3): 499–502. doi:10.1017/S002185370003125X. S2CID 197414114.
- Gray, J.A. (1956). "A Country in Search of a Name". The Northern Rhodesia Journal. III (1): 75–78. Retrieved 1 August 2014.
- Gray, J.A. (1954). "First Records-? 6. The Name Rhodesia". The Northern Rhodesia Journal. II (4): 101–02. Retrieved 1 August 2014.
- Lowry, Donal (2004). "'The granite of the ancient North': race, nation and empire at Cecil Rhodes's mountain mausoleum and Rhodes House, Oxford". In Wrigley, Richard; Craske, Matthew (eds.). Pantheons: Transformations of a Monumental Idea. Ashgate. ISBN 978-0-7546-0808-0.
- Mensing, Raymond C. (1986). "Cecil Rhodes's Ideas of Race and Empire". International Social Science Review. 61 (3): 99 – via ProQuest.
- Pietsch, Tamson (2011). "Many Rhodes: travelling scholarships and imperial citizenship in the British academic world, 1880–1940". History of Education. 40 (6): 723–39. doi:10.1080/0046760X.2011.594096. ISSN 0046-760X. S2CID 144672521.
- Plumb, J. H. "Cecil Rhodes" History Today (June 1953) 3#6 pp 431–38.
- Rotberg, Robert I. (2014). "Did Cecil Rhodes Really Try to Control the World?". The Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History. 42 (3): 551–67. doi:10.1080/03086534.2014.934000. ISSN 0308-6534. S2CID 159787554.
- Blair, David (19 October 2004). "Racists on List of 'Great South Africans'". The Telegraph. Archived from the original on 11 January 2022. Retrieved 18 July 2014.
- Briggs, Simon (31 May 2009). "England on Guard as World Takes Aim in Twenty20 Stakes". The Daily Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on 11 January 2022. Retrieved 13 June 2009.
- Castle, Stephen (29 January 2016). "Oxford University Will Keep Statue of Cecil Rhodes". The New York Times. Retrieved 15 February 2016.
- "Death of Mr. Rhodes". The Times. 27 March 1902. p. 7.
- Laing, Aislinn (22 February 2013). "Robert Mugabe blocks Cecil John Rhodes Exhumation". The Telegraph. London. Retrieved 1 April 2013.
- "The Lottery of Life". The Independent. 5 May 2001. Retrieved 26 January 2010.
- PBS: Empires; Queen Victoria; The Changing Empire; Characters : Cecil Rhodes
- Godwin, Peter (11 January 1998). "Rhodes to Hell". Slate. Retrieved 7 January 2007.
- Biggar, Nigel (23 February 2016). "Rhodes, Race, and the Abuse of History". Standpoint. Archived from the original on 3 August 2019. Retrieved 9 June 2016.
- Verschoyle, F. (1900). Cecil Rhodes: His Political Life and Speeches, 1881–1900. Chapman and Hall Limited.
Historiography and memory
- Galbraith, John S. (2008). "Cecil Rhodes and his 'cosmic dreams': A reassessment". The Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History. 1 (2): 173–89. doi:10.1080/03086537308582371. ISSN 0308-6534.
- McFarlane, Richard A. (2007). "Historiography of Selected Works on Cecil John Rhodes (1853–1902)". History in Africa. 34: 437–46. doi:10.1353/hia.2007.0013. S2CID 163034852.
- Maylam, Paul (2005). The Cult of Rhodes: Remembering an Imperialist in Africa. New Africa Books. ISBN 978-0-86486-684-4.
- Phimister, I.R. (2007). "Rhodes, Rhodesia and the Rand". Journal of Southern African Studies. 1 (1): 74–90. doi:10.1080/03057077408707924. ISSN 0305-7070.
- Van Hartesveldt, Fred R. (2000). The Boer War: Historiography and Annotated Bibliography. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 6–. ISBN 978-0-313-30627-3.
- von Tunzelmann, Alex (17 February 2016). "Rhodes Must Fall? A Question of When Not If". historytoday.com. Retrieved 21 August 2017.
- Ziegler, Philip (2008). Legacy: Cecil Rhodes, the Rhodes Trust and Rhodes Scholarship s. Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-11835-3. online review