|Systematic (IUPAC) name|
|Bioavailability||16% to 21% (dose-dependent)|
|Protein binding||60% to 70%|
|Biological half-life||1.7 ± 0.6 hours|
|Molecular mass||395.416 g/mol|
|(what is this?)|
As of 2008, cefdinir, as Omnicef, was the highest-selling cephalosporin antibiotic in the United States, with more than US$585 million in retail sales of its generic versions alone. Cephalosporin antibiotic structurally similar to cefixime.
It was discovered by Fujisawa Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd. (now Astellas) and introduced in 1991 under the brand name Cefzon. Warner-Lambert licensed this cephalosporin for marketing in US from Fujisawa. Abbott obtained U.S. marketing rights to Omnicef (cefdinir) in December 1998 through an agreement with Warner-Lambert Company. It was approved by FDA on Dec 4, 1997. It is available in US as Omnicef by Abbott Laboratories and in India as Cednir by Abbott, Kefnir by Glenmark, Cefdair by Xalra Pharma and Cefdiel by Ranbaxy.
Mechanism of action
Therapeutic uses of cefdinir include otitis media, soft tissue infections, and respiratory tract infections, including sinusitis, strep throat (note: no documented resistance of Group A Streptococcus to penicillin has ever been reported, and penicillin or amoxicillin is the first line treatment), community-acquired pneumonia, and acute exacerbations of bronchitis.
Spectrum of bacterial susceptibility and resistance
Cefdinir is a broad-spectrum antibiotic and has been used to treat infections of the respiratory tract including pneumonia, sinusitis, and bronchitis. The following represents MIC susceptibility data for a few medically significant microorganisms.
- Haemophilus influenzae: 0.05 - 4 μg/ml
- Streptococcus pneumoniae: 0.006 - 64 μg/ml
- Streptococcus pyogenes: ≤0.004 - 2 μg/ml
Side effects include diarrhea, vaginal infections or inflammation, nausea, headache, and abdominal pain."
Cefdinir is administered orally. It is available as capsules and a suspension. Dosage, schedule, and duration of therapy varies according to the type of infection.
"Blood" in the stool
The pediatric version of cefdinir can bind to iron in the digestive tract; in rare cases, this causes a rust or red discoloration of the stool. Blood typically appears dark brown or black in stool, and testing may confirm which is present. If the reddish stool is accompanied by abdominal pain, weight loss, diarrhea, etc., a Clostridium difficile infection caused by the antibiotic could be signified. Special caution required for pediatric dry powder; it may take longer for proper mixing.
Acylation of the primary amine 1 with 4-bromo-3-oxobutanoyl bromide (2) leads to the amide (3). The active methylene group in that product is then nitrosated with sodium nitrite; the initial product spontaneously tautomerizes to afford the oxime (4). The bromoketone array in that intermediate constitutes a classical starting function for construction of thiazoles. Reaction of 4 with thiourea thus leads to formation of an aminothiazole moiety. Thus there is obtained the antibiotic cefdinir (5).
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- T. Takaya et al., BE 897864 ; eidem, U.S. Patent 4,559,334 (1984, 1985 both to Fujisawa).
- Inamoto, Y; Chiba, T; Kamimura, T; Takaya, T (1988). "FK 482, a new orally active cephalosporin synthesis and biological properties". The Journal of antibiotics 41 (6): 828–30. PMID 3255303.
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- González, M; Rodríguez, Z; Tolón, B; Rodríguez, J. C.; Velez, H; Valdés, B; López, M. A.; Fini, A (2003). "An alternative procedure for preparation of cefdinir". Il Farmaco 58 (6): 409–18. doi:10.1016/S0014-827X(03)00063-6. PMID 12767379.