Celebic languages

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Celebic
Geographic
distribution
Sulawesi
Linguistic classificationAustronesian
Subdivisions
Glottologcele1242[1]

The Celebic languages are a subgroup of the Austronesian languages spoken on the island of Sulawesi, formerly spelled Celebes. Almost all of the languages spoken in the provinces of Central Sulawesi and Southeast Sulawesi belong to the Celebic group. A few Celebic languages (e.g. Wotu, Bonerate) are located in South Sulawesi province. By number of languages (but not by number of speakers), Celebic is the largest subgroup of Austronesian languages on Sulawesi.

Subgrouping[edit]

Internal classification[edit]

David Mead (2003a:125)[2][3] classifies the Celebic languages as follows.

Position within Austronesian[edit]

At the current stage of research, the Celebic languages are considered to make up a primary branch of the Malayo-Polynesian subgroup within the Austronesian language family.[4]

Sound changes[edit]

David Mead (2003a:125)[2] lists the following sound changes for Celebic and its subgroups.

1. Proto-Malayo-Polynesian to Proto-Celebic

  • *C1C2 > *C2 (C1 not nasal)
  • *h > Ø
  • *d > *r
  • *ay, *-ey > *e
  • *-aw, *-ew > *o
  • *j > *y, Ø

2. Proto-Celebic to Proto-Eastern Celebic

3. Proto-Eastern Celebic to Proto-Saluan–Banggai

  • *-awa- > *oa
  • *-b, *-g > *p, *k
  • *q > *ʔ

4. Proto-Eastern Celebic to Proto-Southeastern Celebic

  • *-w- > Ø
  • *s > *s, *h
  • *Z > *s
  • *ñ > n
  • *b > *b, *w

5. Proto-Southeastern Celebic to Proto-Bungku–Tolaki

  • *q > *ʔ
  • *w- > *h
  • *ʀ > Ø initially and contiguous to *i

6. Proto-Southeastern Celebic to Proto-Muna–Buton

  • *w > Ø
  • final consonant loss (?)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Celebic". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  2. ^ a b Mead, David. 2003a. "Evidence for a Celebic supergroup." In Issues in Austronesian historical phonology, John Lynch (ed.). pages 115-141. Pacific Linguistics 550. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics, Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, Australian National University.
  3. ^ Mead, David. 2003b. "The Saluan-Banggai microgroup of eastern Sulawesi." In Issues in Austronesian historical phonology, John Lynch (ed.). pages 65–86. Pacific Linguistics 550. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics, Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, Australian National University.
  4. ^ Smith, Alexander D. (2017). "The Western Malayo-Polynesian Problem". Oceanic Linguistics. 56 (2): 435–490. doi:10.1353/ol.2017.0021.

External links[edit]