Celery mosaic virus

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Celery mosaic virus (CeMV)
Virus classification
Group: Group IV ((+)ssRNA)
Order: Unassigned
Family: Potyviridae
Genus: Potyvirus
Species: Celery mosaic virus
  • Apium virus 1
  • Western celery mosaic virus(WCeMV)
  • Celery crinkle-leaf virus
  • Celery ringspot virus
  • Poison hemlock ringspot virus

Celery mosaic virus (CeMV) is a plant pathogenic virus [1] in the genus Potyvirus and the virus family Potyviridae .

In California (USA), mosaic diseases of celery (Apium graveolens) were reported as early as 1922.[2] After some time, it became clear that there were at least two different viruses causing mosaic diseases with similar symptoms in celery.

These two viruses were first differentiated by host range.[3] One of the viruses had a wide host range and was named Southern celery mosaic. The second had a host range restricted to the family Umbelliferae (Apiaceae) and was called Western celery mosaic. Continued research showed that the Southern mosaic virus was actually an isolate of Cucumber mosaic virus [4] and Western celery mosaic eventually became known simply as Celery mosaic virus.

Symptoms and host range[edit]

Celery is the most common host of this virus. As the name implies, this virus causes a mosaic or mottling in the leaves of celery. There can also be malformation of leaflets. In older leaves, chorotic/necrotic spots may occur and the plants can be stunted. (see symptoms description[5])

Viral Inclusions of Celery mosaic virus.

In addition to celery, this virus has been identified in other important crops in the Apiaceae including carrots (Daucus carota), coriander (Coriandrum sativum), parsley (Petroselinum crispum), parsnip (Pastinaca sativa), and dill (Anethum graveolens). It has also been identified in several weed species in the Apiaceae family, including poison hemlock (Conium maculatum),[6] mock bishopweed (Ptilimnium capillaceum) and wild cherry (Apium leptophyllum).[7]

There is some confusion in the literature as to whether CeMV can infect hosts in the family Chenopodiaceae. In 2002, a paper reporting the results of a survey in Australia found three different but related potyviruses infecting species of the Apiaceae in Australia, CeMV, Carrot virus Y (CarVY), and Apium virus Y (ApVY).[8] Both CarVY[9] and ApVY[10] have been shown to infect one or more species of Chenopodium. The latter reference, reporting ApVY infecting celery in New Zealand, found the plants to be doubly infected with CeMV and ApVY and the authors suggested that CeMV “may mask the presence of ApVY”. It is possible that one or both of these viruses have been undetected in mixed infections with CeMV in some of the past studies. With sequence data now available for both CarVY and ApVY this ambiguity may be cleared up in time.

Geographic distribution[edit]

The geographic distribution of this virus is probably worldwide. In North America, besides California (USA), it has been reported in Florida [11] and in Ontario, Canada.[12] In Europe it has been reported in the UK,[13] France,[14] Germany,[15] Italy,[16] the Netherlands [17] and in the former Czechoslovakia.[18] In South America it has been identified in Argentina,[19] Brazil,[20] and Chile.[21] It has also been identified in Japan,[22] Australia [23] and New Zealand.[24]

Transmission and disease management[edit]

Celery mosaic, like most potyviruses, is non-persistently transmitted by aphids. This means that the aphid can pick up the virus on its stylet (its mouthparts) and transfer it quickly to the next plant it probes. The virus can also be transmitted mechanically by tools and machinery. There is no evidence of seed transmission.

Recommendations for management of this disease are summarized in a fact sheet from Western Australia on Celery mosaic virus.[25](See page 2 of reference for recommendations and page 3 and 4 for pictures of symptoms in celery.)


  1. ^ About Plant Viruses
  2. ^ Poole, R.F. 1922. Celery mosaic. Phytopthology 12:151-154.
  3. ^ Severin, H.H.P. and Freitag, J.H. 1938. Western celery mosaic. Hilgardia 11:493-558.
  4. ^ Price, W.C. 1935. Classification of southern celery mosaic virus. Phytopathology. 25:947-954.
  5. ^ http://www.ipm.ucdavis.edu/PMG/r104100711.html#SYMPTOMS
  6. ^ Sutabutra, T. and Campbell, R.N. 1971. Pl. Dis. Reptr. 55:328-332.
  7. ^ http://www.ipmcenters.org/cropprofiles/docs/FLCelery.html
  8. ^ Moran J. et al. 2002. Arch. Virol. 147:1855-1867.
  9. ^ Latham, L.J. and Jones R.A. 2004. Virus Research 100 :89-99.
  10. ^ Tang, J.; Clover, G. R. G.; Alexander, B. J. R. (2007). "First Report ofApium virus Yin Celery in New Zealand". Plant Disease. 91 (12): 1682. doi:10.1094/PDIS-91-12-1682C. 
  11. ^ Purcifull, D.E. and Shepard, J.F. 1967. Pl. Dis. Reptr. 51:502-505.
  12. ^ Kemp, W.G. and Frowd, J.A. (1975). Pl. Dis. Reptr 59: 50.
  13. ^ Walkey, D.G.A., Tomlinson, J.A. and Frowd, J.A. (1970). Pl. Dis. Reptr. 54: 370.
  14. ^ Marchoux, G., Navatel, J.C., Rougier, J. and Duteil, M. (1969). Annls. Phytopath. 1: 227.
  15. ^ Brandes, J. and Luisoni, E. (1966). Phytopath. Z. 57: 277.
  16. ^ Avgelis, A. and Quacquarelli, A. (1972). Phytopathol. Medit. 11: 124.
  17. ^ Steenbergen, B. and Vader, F. 1974. Groenten en Fruit 30:111
  18. ^ Chod, J. 1984. Ochr. Rost. 20: 91.
  19. ^ Gracia, O. and Feldman, J.M. (1977). Pl. Dis. Reptr 61: 905
  20. ^ Kitajima, E.W. and Costa, A.S.. 1968. Bragantia 27:7-8.
  21. ^ Docampo,D. and Nome, F. 1970. Bol.Tec.Est. Exp Agron, Univ. Chile 31:15-19.
  22. ^ Iwaki, M. and Komuro, Y. (1970). Ann. Phytopathol. Proc. Japan 36: 36
  23. ^ Traicevski,V. et al. 1999. Aust. Plant Path. 28:92
  24. ^ Fry, P.R. and Proctor, C.H. (1968). N. Z. comml. Grow. 24: 23.
  25. ^ http://www.agric.wa.gov.au/content/PW/PH/DIS/VEG/FS2001_015.PDF

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