Celestial Church of Christ

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Celestial Church of Christ
Benin - batism ceremony in Cotonou.jpg
"Spiritual headwashing" in Cotonou, Benin
ClassificationPentecostal
OrientationAfrican initiated church
GovernanceRev Emmanuel Mobiyina Oshoffa, Pastor Head, CCC Worldwide (2002–Date)
RegionWorldwide
HeadquartersPorto-Novo
Supreme Headquarters: Tchakou Benin
International Headquarters: Mission House, Ketu, Lagos, Nigeria
Holy City: Celestial City Imeko, Ogun State
FounderSamuel Bilewu Joseph Oshoffa
Origin29 September 1947
Benin
MinistersProphet Samuel Owatunde Marshal, Dr. Kunle Hamilton, Evangelist Davies Ekunola
Church buildingsParishes all over the world[citation needed]
Official websiteCelestial Church of Christ Worldwide

The Celestial Church of Christ is an African Initiated Church founded by Samuel Bilewu Joseph Oshoffa on 29 September 1947 in Porto-Novo, Benin.[1] It is mainly located in Africa and in the Afro-descendant communities in the world, particularly in Benin and Nigeria.[2]

History[edit]

The movement was founded by Samuel Bilewu Joseph Oshoffa, a former carpenter born in Dahomey (now Benin) in 1909.[3] Raised as Protestant (Methodism), he had a divine revelation on 27 May 1947, during a solar eclipse, in a forest where he was lost. He felt called to pray, to heal the sick, and to raise the dead, and he founded his church in September 1947.[4] Having appointed himself through the guidance the Prophet, Reverend, Pastor, and Founder, he occupied the highest office of the movement he had just founded. The hegemony he exercised on doctrine and discipline issues made succession difficult after his death in 1985 in Lagos, Nigeria.[3]

The Celestial Church of Christ (CCC) was recognized and authorized by the Republic of Dahomey (former name of Benin) in 1965. From 1976, the church launched an evangelistic campaign in the former colony of the French West Africa, which became independent in 1960. From the late 1990s, this church has shown its willingness to use the Internet as a privileged means of evangelization thus allowing the many existing branches of the church within the African Diaspora (United Kingdom, Germany, Austria, France, USA) to maintain contact with each other and with Nigeria, the country in which the church is the most popular.[5]

The movement has continued to grow since Oshoffa's death, but has also suffered setbacks—the most immediate being severe difficulties related to the matter of succession.[6] Oshoffa was succeeded by Alexander Abiodun Adebayo Bada, who was head of the church until his death on 8 September 2000.[7] Bada was briefly followed as leader by Philip Hunsu Ajose, who died in March 2001. There was a dispute over the succession to Ajose, with some declaring Gilbert Oluwatosin Jesse the leader, while the majority recognised the Reverend Emmanuel Oshoffa, son of Samuel Oshoffa.[8] Following Jesse's death, his faction declared that Superior Evangelist Paul Suru Maforikan was the new spiritual leader of the church.[9] Contrary to the procedure of succession in Nigeria, Porto-Novo, the supreme headquarters, successfully chose Benoit Agbaossi (1931–2010) to the head of the church, who in his turn appointed Benoit Adeogun as the next Rev. Pastor shortly before his death in 2010.

Imeko Convocation[edit]

Every December (usually, between 5-7 days preceding Christmas), the church hosts an international event called Imeko Convocation, held in spirit and belief of pilgrimage. It is mandated that every member of Celestial Church of Christ all over the word attends annually. The church believes the event attendance is a mandate, given through the founder of the church, Samuel Bilewu Joseph Oshoffa, after declarations that God had chosen Imeko as the New Jerusalem for the fold.[10]

Beliefs[edit]

The Celestial Church of Christ is prophetic with Christian background. The faithful are called “Celestians”, and the church is sometimes informally called “Cele”. The official name of the church is inspired by a vision by which Jesus would have said that Church members adore him as do the angels in heaven.[1] The name of the church comes from Deuteronomy 26:15 "Look down from thy Holy habitation, from heaven, and bless thy people Israel and the land which thou hast given us, as thou didst swear to our father, a land flowing with milk and honey". The name signifies that they deem themselves as celestial or a representative of the heavenly on Earth. The church claims inspiration from God through the manifestation of the Holy Spirit among the faithful. Its doctrinal teachings are based on the Bible, and any superstition or animist belief from traditional African religions is excluded,[1] as in other churches in the Aladura movement.

The church is governed by twelve major recommendations, consisting several banned things, including food, common to other monotheistic religions.[1] Tobacco, alcohol and eating pork are forbidden. The faithful must remove their shoes for prayer and in the places of worship. Men and women are separated at the church. Menstruating women and those who have recently given birth are unclean and cannot attend church events for seven days in the first case after which they would be "sanctified". Members of Celestial Church of Christ are forbidden to engage or participate in any form of idolatory, fetish ceremony or cults, black magic and charms. Only men who are "anointed" are allowed access to the altar.

The church uses all English bibles and the Yoruba translated versions.[11] Although the church takes elements from Gungbe and Yoruba thought, it also has strong similarities to the "purification movements" against paganism that are relatively common in African Christianity. Oshoffa believed he had a mission to combat "'Satan', 'fetish priests' and other 'powers of darkness'."(Marburg colloquy)

Architecture[edit]

The temples of worship always face east. An altar stand has seven candle holders that represent the seven spirits of Jehovah as represented in Rev. 4:5. The church auditorium also has different rows for male and female seats.

But on days that services are observed during the week like the Wednesday and the Friday services another alter is made which has 3 candles rather than 7.

Reception[edit]

In 2001, it was the second largest church in Benin by the number of its practitioners (nearly half a million).[12]

Bibliography[edit]

  • (in French) Pierre Ndjom, Lumière sur l'Eglise du Christianisme Céleste, Paris (France), 2016, 283 p. ISBN 978-2-9557548-0-1
  • (in French) Apollinaire Adetonah, Lumière sur le Christianisme Céleste, 1972, 85 p.
  • (in French) Christine Henry, Pierre-Joseph Laurent and André Mary, « Du vin nouveau dans de vieilles outres : parcours d'un dissident du Christianisme Céleste (Bénin) », in Social Compass, 2001, vol. 48, no 3, pp. 353–68
  • (in French) Christine Henry, La force des anges : rites, hiérarchie et divination dans le Christianisme Céleste, Bénin, Brepols, Turnhout (Belgique), 2008, 280 p. (ISBN 978-2-503-52889-2)
  • (in French) Codjo Hébert Johnson, Le syncrétisme religieux dans le golfe du Bénin : le cas du 'Christianisme céleste' , Université Panthéon-Sorbonne, Paris, 1974, 139 p.
  • (in French) Joël Noret, « La place des morts dans le christianisme céleste », in Social compass, 2003, vol. 50, no 4, pp. 493–510
  • (in French) Laurent Omonto Ayo Gérémy Ogouby, « L'Église du christianisme céleste », in Les religions dans l'espace public au Bénin: vodoun, christianisme, islam, L'Harmattan, Paris, 2008, pp. 46–48 (ISBN 978-2-296-06111-8)
  • (in French) R. Saint-Germain, « Les chrétiens célestes, description d'une Église indépendante africaine: Questions d'éthique en sciences des religions », in Religiologiques (Montréal), 1996, vol. 13, pp. 169–94
  • (in French) Codjo Sodokin, Les 'syncrétismes' religieux contemporains et la société béninoise: Le cas du christianisme céleste, Université Lumière, Lyon, 1984, 306 p.
  • (in French) Albert de Surgy, L'Église du Christianisme Céleste: Un exemple d'Église prophétique au Bénin, Karthala editions, 2001, 332 p. (ISBN 2845861303)
  • (in French) Claude Wauthier, « L'Église du christianisme céleste », in Sectes et prophètes d'Afrique noire, Seuil, Paris, 2007, chapter XV, p. 227 and f. (ISBN 9782020621816)
  • Afeosemime U. Adogame, Celestial Church of Christ: the politics of cultural identity in a West African prophetic-charismatic movement, P. Lang, Francfort-sur-le-Main, New York, P. Lang, 1999, 251 p.
  • (in English) Edith Oshoffa, The Enigmatic spiritual leader of our time S.B.J. Oshoffa: Celestial Church of Christ Beulah Parish, 1st Edition April 2014, Edith Oshoffa, (ISBN 9789789378692)

Filmography[edit]

  • (in French) Regard sur le christianisme céleste, documentary film produced by Albert de Surgy, CNRS Audiovisuel, Meudon, 1995, 40' (VHS)

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Adetonah, A. (1972). Lumière sur le Christianisme Céleste (in French). p. 85.
  2. ^ "Le Christianisme Céleste en France et en Belgique". Cairn. Retrieved 2 August 2010.
  3. ^ a b Crumbly, Deidre Helen (2008). Spirit, Structure, and Flesh: Gendered Experiences in African Instituted Churches Among the Yoruba of Nigeria p. 54 on. University of Wisconsin Press. p. 182. ISBN 978-0-299-22910-8. Retrieved 7 April 2017.
  4. ^ Partridge, Christopher (2004). New Religions A Guide.New York: Oxford. ISBN 978-0-19-522042-1.
  5. ^ Obafẹmi Kẹhinde Olupọna, Jacob; Rey, Terry (2008). Òrìşà devotion as world religion: the globalization of Yorùbá religious culture. Univ of Wisconsin Press. pp. 257–58. ISBN 978-0-299-22464-6.
  6. ^ "This Day Online". Archived from the original on 27 September 2007. Retrieved 10 June 2007.
  7. ^ "Celestial signs lighten Bada's burial". The Comet. Celestial Church. 2 October 2000. Archived from the original on 1 October 2011. Retrieved 2011-06-12.
  8. ^ Yemi Akinsuyi (11 October 2003). "Celestial Church: Oschoffa Renews Call for Peace". ThisDay. Archived from the original on 1 October 2011. Retrieved 12 June 2011.
  9. ^ BISI ERETAN. "Cele: Maforikan succeeds Jesse". Celestial Church of Christ. Archived from the original on 1 October 2011. Retrieved 12 June 2011.
  10. ^ André, Mary (2002). "Pilgrimage to Imeko (Nigeria): An African Church in the Time of the 'Global Village". Hal Archives Ouvertes.fr.
  11. ^ Farrell, Cecila (24 August 1991). "Church Rooted in Africa Mixes 'Best of All Religions' Into One; Hyattsville Parish Blends Traditions to Help Cleanse the World". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2 August 2010.
  12. ^ De Surgy, Albert (June 2001). L'Église du christianisme céleste un exemple d'Église prophétique au Bénin (in French). Series: Chrétiens en liberté. Paris: Karthala.

External links[edit]