Cellular Jail

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Cellular Jail (Kālā Pānī)
Front View of Cellular Jail, Port Blair.JPG
Entrance to Cellular Jail
General information
TypePrison for political prisoners (Indian independence activists)
Architectural styleCellular, Pronged
Town or cityPort Blair, Andaman
Coordinates11°40′30″N 92°44′53″E / 11.675°N 92.748°E / 11.675; 92.748
Construction started1896
ClientBritish Raj
OwnerGovernment of India

The Cellular Jail, also known as Kālā Pānī (Hindi for black waters), was a colonial prison in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India. The prison was used by the British especially to exile political prisoners to the remote archipelago. Many notable dissidents such as Batukeshwar Dutt, Yogendra Shukla and Vinayak Damodar Savarkar, among others, were imprisoned here during the struggle for India's independence. Today, the complex serves as a national memorial monument.[2]


Although the prison complex itself was constructed between 1896 and 1906, the British had been using the Andaman islands as a prison since the days in the immediate aftermath of the Sepoy Mutiny of 1857.

The Ross Island Prison Headquarters, 1872

Shortly after the rebellion was suppressed, the British executed many rebels. Those who survived were exiled for life to the Andamans to prevent their re-offending. Two hundred rebels were transported to the islands under the custody of the jailer David Barry and Major James Pattison Walker, a military doctor who had been warden of the prison at Agra. Another 733 from Karachi arrived in April, 1868.[3] In 1863, the Rev. Henry Fisher Corbyn, of the Bengal Ecclesiastical Establishment, was also sent out there and he set up the 'Andamanese Home' there, which was also a repressive institution albeit disguised as a charitable one.[4] Rev. Corbyn was posted in 1866 as Vicar to St. Luke's Church, Abbottabad, and later died there and is buried at the Old Christian Cemetery, Abbottabad. More prisoners arrived from India and Burma as the settlement grew.[5] Anyone who belonged to the Mughal royal family, or who had sent a petition to Bahadur Shah Zafar during the Rebellion was liable to be deported to the islands.[citation needed]

Port Blair - Viper New Jails under construction

The remote islands were considered to be a suitable place to punish the independence activists. Not only were they isolated from the mainland, the overseas journey (Kala Pani) to the islands also threatened them with loss of caste, resulting in social exclusion.[6] The convicts could also be used in chain gangs to construct prisons, buildings and harbour facilities. Many died in this enterprise. They served to colonise the island for the British.[citation needed]

By the late 19th century the independence movement had picked up momentum. As a result, the number of prisoners being sent to the Andamans grew and the need for a high-security prison was felt. From August 1889 Charles James Lyall served as home secretary in the Raj government, and was also tasked with an investigation of the penal settlement at Port Blair.[7][8] He and A. S. Lethbridge, a surgeon in the British administration, concluded that the punishment of transportation to the Andaman Islands was failing to achieve the purpose intended and that indeed criminals preferred to go there rather than be incarcerated in Indian jails. Lyall and Lethbridge recommended that a "penal stage" should exist in the transportation sentence, whereby transported prisoners were subjected to a period of harsh treatment upon arrival. The outcome was the construction of the Cellular Jail, which has been described as "a place of exclusion and isolation within a more broadly constituted remote penal space."[9]


Andaman Cellular Jail
Cellular Jail

The construction of the prison started in 1896 and was completed in 1906. The original building was a puce-colored brick building.The bricks used to build the building were brought from Burma.[citation needed]

The building had seven wings, at the centre of which a tower served as the intersection and was used by guards to keep watch on the inmates; this format was based on Jeremy Bentham's idea of the Panopticon. The wings radiated from the tower in straight lines, much like the spokes of a bicycle wheel. A large bell was kept in the tower to raise an alarm.[citation needed]

One of the seven wings

Each of the seven wings had three stories upon completion. There were no dormitories and a total of 696 cells. Each cell was 4.5 by 2.7 metres (14.8 ft × 8.9 ft) in size with a ventilator located at a height of 3 metres (9.8 ft).[10] The name, "cellular jail", derived from the solitary cells which prevented any prisoner from communicating with any other.[citation needed] Also, the spokes were so designed such that the face of a cell in a spoke saw the back of cells in another spoke. This way, communication between prisoners was impossible. They were all in solitary confinement.[11]


From inside of a Cell

Solitary confinement was implemented as the British government desired to ensure that political prisoners and revolutionaries be isolated from each other. The Andaman island served as the ideal setting for the government to achieve this.[citation needed]

Most prisoners of the Cellular Jail were independence activists. Some inmates of the Cellular Jail were Fazl-e-Haq Khairabadi, Yogendra Shukla, Batukeshwar Dutt, Maulvi Liaquat Ali, Babarao Savarkar, Vinayak Damodar Savarkar, Sachindra Nath Sanyal, Bhai Parmanand, Sohan Singh and Subodh Roy.[12] Several revolutionaries tried in the Alipore Case (1908), such as Barindra Kumar Ghose, the surviving companion of Bagha Jatin, was transferred to Berhampore Jail in Bengal, before his mysterious death in 1924. Savarkar brothers Babarao and Vinayak didn't know of each other in the same jail but in different cells, for two years.[citation needed]

Cellular Jail Balcony

In March 1868, 238 prisoners tried to escape. By April they were all caught. One committed suicide and of the remainder Superintendent Walker ordered 87 to be hanged.[13]

Hunger strikes by the inmates in May 1933 called attention to the Jail Authorities. 33 prisoners protested about the treatment meted to the prisoners and sat in hunger strike. Among them were Mahavir Singh, an associate of Bhagat Singh (Lahore conspiracy case), Mohan Kishore Namadas (convicted in Arms Act Case) and Mohit Moitra (also convicted in Arms Act Case). These three died due to force-feeding.[14][15] Mahatma Gandhi and Rabindranath Tagore intervened. The government decided to repatriate the political prisoners from the Cellular Jail in 1937-38.[1]

Japanese occupation[edit]

The Empire of Japan invaded the Andaman islands in March 1942 capturing the small British garrison. The Cellular Jail then became home to British, suspected British India supporters, and later of members of the Indian Independence League, many of whom were tortured and killed there.[16] Notionally during this period control of the Islands was passed to Subhas Chandra Bose, who hoisted the Indian National Flag for the first time on the islands, at the Gymkhana Ground in Port Blair, appointed INA General AD Loganathan as the governor of the Islands, and announced the Azad Hind Government was not merely a Government in Exile, and had freed the territory from the British rule.[17]

On 7 October 1945 the British resumed control of the Islands, and prison, following the surrender of the islands to Brigadier J A Salomons, of the 116th Indian Infantry Brigade, a month after the Surrender of Japan, at the end of World War II.

Post Independence[edit]

Another two wings of the jail were demolished after India achieved independence. However, this led to protests from several former prisoners and political leaders who saw it as a way of erasing the tangible evidence of their history. The remaining three wings and the central tower were therefore converted into a National Memorial on 11 February 1979 by then Prime Minister of India Shri.Morarji Desai.[citation needed]

The Govind Ballabh Pant Hospital was set up in the premises of the Cellular Jail in 1963. It is now a 500-bed hospital with about 40 doctors serving the local population.[18]

The centenary of the jail's completion was marked on 10 March 2006. Many erstwhile prisoners were felicitated on this occasion by the Government of India.[19]

See also[edit]

Flogging frame exhibit at Cellular Jail.jpg A model of Cellular Jail at Cellular Jail.jpg Man operated oil mill exhibit at Cellular Jail..jpg



  1. ^ a b "A memorial to the freedom fighters". The Hindu. India. 15 August 2004. Retrieved 2 September 2006.
  2. ^ History of Andaman Cellular Jail: Recapture of Andaman Islands to keep Political Prisoners Archived 18 January 2007 at the Wayback Machine.. AndamanCellularJail.org. Retrieved 6 August 2010.
  3. ^ History of Andaman Cellular Jail: A Short history of the Andaman Islands Archived 18 January 2007 at the Wayback Machine.. AndamanCellularJail.org
  4. ^ George Weber, Pioneer Biographies of the British Period to 1947, np, nd, Appendix A
  5. ^ "Hundred years of the Andamans Cellular Jail". Andaman and Nicobar Administration website. Archived from the original on 30 September 2007. Retrieved 2 September 2006. Source: The Hindu, 21 December 2005.
  6. ^ Alison Bashford; Carolyn Strange (12 November 2012). Isolation: Places and Practices of Exclusion. Psychology Press. p. 37. ISBN 978-0-415-30980-6. Retrieved 2 February 2013.
  7. ^ "Lyall, Sir Charles James". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/34642. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  8. ^ The India List and Office List. India Office. 1905. p. 552. Retrieved 2011-11-21.
  9. ^ Strange, Carolyn; Bashford, Alison (2003). Isolation: places and practices of exclusion. London: Routledge. pp. 41–42. ISBN 978-0-415-30980-6. Retrieved 2011-11-22.
  10. ^ "Cellular Jail - Darkness At Noon". MapsofIndia.com. Archived from the original on 1 November 2006. Retrieved 2 September 2006.
  11. ^ "India Image: Cellular Jail". Andaman and Nicobar Administration website. Archived from the original on 24 May 2006. Retrieved 2 September 2006.
  12. ^ Freedom Fighters Deported to Andamans Archived 2010-09-06 at the Wayback Machine.. AndamanCellularJail.org.
  13. ^ History of Andaman Cellular Jail: Atrocities committed on early freedom fighters Archived 18 January 2007 at the Wayback Machine.. AndamanCellularJail.org.
  14. ^ Murthy, R. V. R. (2011). Andaman and Nicobar Islands: A Saga of Freedom Struggle. Kalpaz Publications. ISBN 978-8178359038.
  15. ^ Sinha, Srirajyam (1993). Bejoy Kumar Sinha: A Revolutionary's Quest for Sacrifice. Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan.
  16. ^ N. Iqbal Singh The Andaman Story (Delhi: Vikas Publ.) 1978 p249
  17. ^ Abraham, Bobins (2017-12-30). "This Day In 1943 Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose Hoisted First Independent Indian Flag In Andaman & Nicobar". Times of India. Times of India. Retrieved 2018-09-11.
  18. ^ "Dedication of INSAT- 3C/ Inauguration of Andaman & Nicobar Islands Tele-medicine Project (G B Pant Hospital)" (Press release). Indian Space Research Organization. Archived from the original on 29 February 2004. Retrieved 3 September 2006.
  19. ^ "Cellular Jail completes 100 years". Andaman & Nicobar Administration website. Retrieved 2 September 2006.

External links[edit]