Cellular V2X

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The Cellular V2X (C-V2X) is a 3GPP standard describing a technology to achieve the V2X requirements. C-V2X is an alternative to 802.11p, the IEEE specified standard for V2V and other forms of V2X communications[1]. Pre-commercial C-V2X deployments have recently gained considerable momentum with support from multiple automakers[2].

History[edit]

Cellular V2X was developed within the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP),[1] to replace the US promoted Dedicated short-range communications (DSRC) and the Europe originated Cooperative Intelligent Transport Systems (C-ITS) As such standards are decisive steps towards the target autonomous driving[3] and clues to market influence, especially as the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) plans to propose the compulsory introduction of vehicle-to-everything technology off 2020 for all US vehicles.

Modes[edit]

The modes, Cellular V2X may be implemented, are:

Device-to-network i.e. Vehicle-to-Network (V2N) communication using the conventional cellular links to enable cloud services to be part of the end-to-end solution.

Device-to-device, which includes Vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) [4], Vehicle-to road and infrastructure (V2I) [4] also including the use with toll systems and the direct communication and Vehicle-to-pedestrian (V2P) – also without use of network involvement for scheduling – for the protection of the most vulnerable road users, the pedestrians[5].

The Cellular V2X mode 4 communication relies on a distributed resource allocation scheme, namely sensing-based semipersistent scheduling which schedules radio resources in a stand-alone fashion in each user equipment (UE) [6].

Problems[edit]

All the communications systems based on wireless communication suffer from the drawbacks, inherent to wireless communication, which are the limited capacities in various areas:

  • Limited data rates[8], considering, that just one autonomous car will use 4,000 GB of data per day.
  • The fact, that wireless communication is prone to external influences, which may be hostile[9].
  • In metropolitan areas, limits of data propagation due to surroundings such as buildings, tunnels[10] and also Doppler effects, causing propagation speed reduction by repetitive transmissions required.
  • The costs to provide a comprehensive appropriate network such as LTE or 5G are enormous [11].

Outlook[edit]

The solution to handle the flow of data is expected to come from artificial intelligence[12][13]. Doubts in artificial intelligence (AI) and decision making by AI exist[14].

Tests[edit]

In April 2019 test and verification of communication elements took place on the EuroSpeedway Lausitz. Participants were Ford, Samsung, Vodafone, Huawei, LG Electronics and others. Topics were communication matters, especially interoperability, said to have been successful at 96 %.[15]

Literature[edit]

  • Pino Porciello. "Security für die Smart City". Elektronik Industrie (in German) (8/2018): 14–17.
  • Toghi, Behrad (2019). "Multiple Access in Cellular V2X: Performance Analysis in Highly Congested Vehicular Networks". IEEE Vehicular Networking Conference: 1–8. arXiv:1809.02678. Bibcode:2018arXiv180902678T.

External links[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Cellular V2X as the Essential Enabler of Superior Global Connected Transportation Services". IEEE 5G Tech Focus. IEEE. 1 (2). June 2017.
  2. ^ "The V2X (Vehicle-to-Everything) Communications Ecosystem: 2019 – 2030 – Opportunities, Challenges, Strategies & Forecasts".
  3. ^ Mark Patrick, Benjamin Kirchbeck (January 27, 2018). "V2X-Kommunikation: LTE vs. DSRC" (in German).
  4. ^ a b "Autonomous and connected vehicles: navigating the legal issues" (PDF).
  5. ^ JJ Anaya, P Merdrignac, O Shagdar (17 July 2014). "Vehicle to pedestrian communications for protection of vulnerable road users". 2014 IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium Proceedings (PDF). pp. 1037–1042. doi:10.1109/IVS.2014.6856553. ISBN 978-1-4799-3638-0.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)doi:10.1109/IVS.2014.6856553
  6. ^ Toghi, Behrad; Saifuddin, Md; Fallah, Yaser; Hossein, Nourkhiz Mahjoub; M O, Mughal; Jayanthi, Rao; Sushanta, Das (5–7 December 2018). "Multiple Access in Cellular V2X: Performance Analysis in Highly Congested Vehicular Networks". 2018 IEEE Vehicular Networking Conference (VNC): 1–8. arXiv:1809.02678. Bibcode:2018arXiv180902678T.CS1 maint: Date format (link)
  7. ^ Hong-Chuan Yang, Mohamed-Slim Alouini (24 May 2018). "Wireless Transmission of Big Data: Data-Oriented Performance Limits and Their Applications". arXiv:1805.09923 [eess.SP].
  8. ^ Patrick Nelson (December 7, 2016). "Just one autonomous car will use 4,000 GB of data per day". Network World.
  9. ^ Gil Press. "6 Ways To Make Smart Cities Future-Proof Cybersecurity Cities".
  10. ^ "Tall structures and their impact on broadcast and other wireless services" (PDF).
  11. ^ "5G-Netzausbau wird "unfassbar teuer"" (in German).
  12. ^ Suhasini Gadam (2019-01-12). "Artificial Intelligence and Autonomous Vehicles".
  13. ^ "Neuromorphic computing meets the automotive world". Design&Test. October 30, 2017.
  14. ^ "How will AI, Machine Learning and advanced algorithms impact our lives, our jobs and the economy?". Harvard Business.
  15. ^ "Weltkonzerne freuen sich über Meilenstein auf Lausitzring" (in German). April 18, 2019. Retrieved April 20, 2019.