The Cellular V2X (C-V2X) is a 3GPP standard describing a technology to achieve the V2X requirements. C-V2X is an alternative to 802.11p, the IEEE specified standard for V2V and other forms of V2X communications. Pre-commercial C-V2X deployments have recently gained considerable momentum with support from multiple automakers.
Cellular V2X was developed within the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP), to replace the US promoted Dedicated short-range communications (DSRC) and the Europe originated Cooperative Intelligent Transport Systems (C-ITS) As such standards are decisive steps towards the target autonomous driving and clues to market influence, especially as the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) plans to propose the compulsory introduction of vehicle-to-everything technology off 2020 for all US vehicles.
The modes, Cellular V2X may be implemented, are:
Device-to-network i.e. Vehicle-to-Network (V2N) communication using the conventional cellular links to enable cloud services to be part of the end-to-end solution.
Device-to-device, which includes Vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) , Vehicle-to road and infrastructure (V2I)  also including the use with toll systems and the direct communication and Vehicle-to-pedestrian (V2P) – also without use of network involvement for scheduling – for the protection of the most vulnerable road users, the pedestrians.
The Cellular V2X mode 4 communication relies on a distributed resource allocation scheme, namely sensing-based semipersistent scheduling which schedules radio resources in a stand-alone fashion in each user equipment (UE) .
- The fact, that wireless communication is prone to external influences, which may be hostile.
- In metropolitan areas, limits of data propagation due to surroundings such as buildings, tunnels and also Doppler effects, causing propagation speed reduction by repetitive transmissions required.
In April 2019 test and verification of communication elements took place on the EuroSpeedway Lausitz. Participants were Ford, Samsung, Vodafone, Huawei, LG Electronics and others. Topics were communication matters, especially interoperability, said to have been successful at 96 %.
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