Cellular V2X

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The Cellular V2X (C-V2X) is a 3GPP standard describing a technology to achieve the V2X requirements. C-V2X is an alternative to 802.11p, the IEEE specified standard for V2V and other forms of V2X communications[1]. Pre-commercial C-V2X deployments have recently gained considerable momentum with support from multiple automakers[2].

History[edit]

Cellular V2X uses 3GPP standardised 4G LTE or 5G mobile cellular connectivity to send and receive signals from a vehicle to other vehicles, pedestrians or to fixed objects such as traffic lights in its surroundings. It commonly uses the 5.9 GHz frequency band to communicate – this being the officially designated intelligent transportation system (ITS) frequency in most countries. C-V2X can function without network assistance and has a range that exceeds a mile. In 2014, 3GPP Release 13 spurred studies to test the applicability of the then current standards to V2X. This resulted in the 3GPP Release 14 specifications for C-V2X communications, finalised in 2017. 3GPP Release 15 introduced 5G for V2N use-cases, and 3GPP Release 16 includes work on 5G NR direct communications for V2V/V2I.[3]

C-V2X was developed within the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP),[1] to replace the US promoted Dedicated short-range communications (DSRC) and the Europe originated Cooperative Intelligent Transport Systems (C-ITS) As such standards are decisive steps towards the target autonomous driving[4] and clues to market influence, especially as the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) plans to propose the compulsory introduction of vehicle-to-everything technology off 2020 for all US vehicles.

In Europe, the EU announced in July 2019 that it was adopting a technology-neutral approach to C-ITS, leaving the way forward for 4G, 5G and other advanced technologies to be part of V2X applications and services.[5]

In the United States, the Federal Communications Commission proposed late in 2019 that 20 MHz and possibly 30 MHz of the 5.9 GHz band be allocated to C-V2X.[6]

Modes[edit]

The modes, Cellular V2X may be implemented, are:

Device-to-network i.e. Vehicle-to-Network (V2N) communication using the conventional cellular links to enable cloud services to be part of the end-to-end solution.

Device-to-device, which includes Vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) [7], Vehicle-to road and infrastructure (V2I) [7] also including the use with toll systems and the direct communication and Vehicle-to-pedestrian (V2P) – also without use of network involvement for scheduling – for the protection of the most vulnerable road users, the pedestrians[8].

The Cellular V2X mode 4 communication relies on a distributed resource allocation scheme, namely sensing-based semipersistent scheduling which schedules radio resources in a stand-alone fashion in each user equipment (UE) [9].

Problems[edit]

All the communications systems based on wireless communication suffer from the drawbacks, inherent to wireless communication, which are the limited capacities in various areas:

  • Limited data rates[11], considering, that just one autonomous car will use 4,000 GB of data per day.
  • Wireless communication is susceptible to external influences, which may be hostile[12].
  • In metropolitan areas, limits of data propagation due to surroundings such as buildings, tunnels[13] and also Doppler effects, causing propagation speed reduction by repetitive transmissions required.
  • The costs to provide a comprehensive appropriate network such as LTE or 5G are enormous [14].

Outlook[edit]

The solution to handle the flow of data is expected to come from artificial intelligence[15][16]. Doubts in artificial intelligence (AI) and decision making by AI exist[17].

Tests[edit]

In April 2019 test and verification of communication elements took place on the EuroSpeedway Lausitz. Participants were Ford, Samsung, Vodafone, Huawei, LG Electronics and others. Topics were communication matters, especially interoperability, said to have been successful at 96 %.[18]

In September 2019, the Global mobile Suppliers Association reported that it had identified global trials and products including[19]:

  • twenty-five operators involved in trials of LTE- or 5G-based C-V2X technologies
  • three 3GPP Release 14 compliant C-V2X chipsets
  • eight pre-commercial and commercial automotive-grade modules supporting LTE or 5G for C-V2X from seven vendors
  • sixteen C-V2X RSUs (Roadside Units) from 13 vendors
  • fourteen C-V2X OBUs (Onboard Units) from 12 vendors

Literature[edit]

  • Pino Porciello. "Security für die Smart City". Elektronik Industrie (in German) (8/2018): 14–17.
  • Toghi, Behrad (2019). "Multiple Access in Cellular V2X: Performance Analysis in Highly Congested Vehicular Networks". IEEE Vehicular Networking Conference: 1–8. arXiv:1809.02678. Bibcode:2018arXiv180902678T.

External links[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Cellular V2X as the Essential Enabler of Superior Global Connected Transportation Services". IEEE 5G Tech Focus. IEEE. 1 (2). June 2017.
  2. ^ "The V2X (Vehicle-to-Everything) Communications Ecosystem: 2019 – 2030 – Opportunities, Challenges, Strategies & Forecasts".
  3. ^ GSA: C-V2X Market Report (retrieved 15 October 2019)
  4. ^ Mark Patrick, Benjamin Kirchbeck (January 27, 2018). "V2X-Kommunikation: LTE vs. DSRC" (in German).
  5. ^ Capacity: EU ambassadors reject ‘Wifi-only’ move for autonomous cars (4 July 2019)
  6. ^ Eggerton, John (November 25, 2019). "FCC to split up 5.9 GHZ". Broadcasting & Cable: 20.
  7. ^ a b "Autonomous and connected vehicles: navigating the legal issues" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2018-08-20. Retrieved 2018-08-20.
  8. ^ JJ Anaya, P Merdrignac, O Shagdar (17 July 2014). "Vehicle to pedestrian communications for protection of vulnerable road users". 2014 IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium Proceedings (PDF). pp. 1037–1042. doi:10.1109/IVS.2014.6856553. ISBN 978-1-4799-3638-0.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)doi:10.1109/IVS.2014.6856553
  9. ^ Toghi, Behrad; Saifuddin, Md; Fallah, Yaser; Hossein, Nourkhiz Mahjoub; M O, Mughal; Jayanthi, Rao; Sushanta, Das (5–7 December 2018). "Multiple Access in Cellular V2X: Performance Analysis in Highly Congested Vehicular Networks". 2018 IEEE Vehicular Networking Conference (VNC): 1–8. arXiv:1809.02678. Bibcode:2018arXiv180902678T. doi:10.1109/VNC.2018.8628416. ISBN 978-1-5386-9428-2.CS1 maint: date format (link)
  10. ^ Hong-Chuan Yang, Mohamed-Slim Alouini (24 May 2018). "Wireless Transmission of Big Data: Data-Oriented Performance Limits and Their Applications". arXiv:1805.09923 [eess.SP].
  11. ^ Patrick Nelson (December 7, 2016). "Just one autonomous car will use 4,000 GB of data per day". Network World.
  12. ^ Gil Press. "6 Ways To Make Smart Cities Future-Proof Cybersecurity Cities".
  13. ^ "Tall structures and their impact on broadcast and other wireless services" (PDF).
  14. ^ "5G-Netzausbau wird "unfassbar teuer"" (in German).
  15. ^ Suhasini Gadam (2019-01-12). "Artificial Intelligence and Autonomous Vehicles".
  16. ^ "Neuromorphic computing meets the automotive world". Design&Test. October 30, 2017.
  17. ^ "How will AI, Machine Learning and advanced algorithms impact our lives, our jobs and the economy?". Harvard Business.
  18. ^ "Weltkonzerne freuen sich über Meilenstein auf Lausitzring" (in German). April 18, 2019. Retrieved April 20, 2019.
  19. ^ GSA: C-V2X Market Report (retrieved 15 October 2019)