The Celtic nations are territories in Northern and Western Europe where Celtic languages or cultural traits have survived. The term "nation" is used in its original sense to mean a people who share a common identity and culture and are identified with a traditional territory. It is not synonymous with "sovereign state".
The six territories recognised as Celtic nations are Brittany (Breizh), Cornwall (Kernow), Wales (Cymru), Scotland (Alba), Ireland (Éire), and the Isle of Man (Mannin). Each has a Celtic language that is either still spoken or was spoken into modern times.
Territories in north-western Iberia—particularly Galicia, Northern Portugal and Asturias; sometimes referred to as Gallaecia, which includes North-Central Portugal—are sometimes included due to their culture and history. Unlike the others, however, no Celtic language has been spoken there in modern times.
- 1 Six Celtic nations
- 2 Celtic languages
- 3 Celtic identity
- 4 Terminology
- 5 Territories of the ancient Celts
- 6 Celtic diaspora
- 7 See also
- 8 References
- 9 Further reading
- 10 External links
Six Celtic nations
Each of the six nations has its own Celtic language. In Wales, Scotland, Brittany, and Ireland, these have been spoken continuously through time, while Cornwall and the Isle of Man have languages that were spoken into modern times but later died as spoken community languages. In the latter two regions, however, language revitalization movements have led to the adoption of these languages by adults and produced a number of native speakers.
Ireland, Wales, Brittany and Scotland contain areas where a Celtic language is used on a daily basis – in Ireland the area is called the Gaeltacht on the west coast; Y Fro Gymraeg in Wales, and in Brittany Breizh-Izel. Generally these communities are in the west of their countries and in more isolated upland or island areas. The term Gàidhealtachd historically distinguished the Gaelic-speaking areas of Scotland (the Highlands) from the Lowland Scots (i.e. Anglo-Saxon)-speaking areas. More recently, this term has also been adopted as the Gaelic name of the Highland council area, which includes non-Gaelic speaking areas. Hence, more specific terms such as sgìre Ghàidhlig ("Gaelic-speaking area") are now used.
In Wales, the Welsh language is a core curriculum (compulsory) subject, which all pupils study. Additionally, 20% of school children in Wales go to Welsh medium schools, where they are taught entirely in the Welsh language. In the Republic of Ireland, all school children study Irish as one of the three core subjects up until the end of secondary school, and 7.4% of primary school education is through Irish medium education, which is part of the Gaelscoil movement.
Parts of the northern Iberian Peninsula, namely Galicia, Cantabria, Asturias and Northern Portugal, also lay claim to this heritage. Notably, the region's music features extensive use of bagpipes, an instrument common in Celtic music. Musicians from Galicia and Asturias have participated in Celtic music festivals, such as the Breton Festival Interceltique de Lorient, which in 2013 celebrated the Year of Asturias. Northern Portugal, part of ancient Gallaecia (Galicia, Minho, Douro and Trás-os-Montes), also has traditions quite similar to Galicia. However, no Celtic language has been spoken in northern Iberia since probably the Early Middle Ages.
Irish was once widely spoken on the island of Newfoundland before largely disappearing there by the early 20th century. Vestiges remain in some words found in Newfoundland English, such as scrob for "scratch", and sleveen for "rascal" There are no fluent speakers of Scottish Gaelic in Newfoundland or Labrador today. Knowledge seems to be largely restricted to memorized passages, such as traditional tales and songs.
Canadian Gaelic dialects of Scottish Gaelic are still spoken by Gaels in other parts of Atlantic Canada, primarily on Cape Breton Island and adjacent areas of Nova Scotia. In 2011, there were 1,275 Gaelic speakers in Nova Scotia, and 300 residents of the province considered a Gaelic language to be their "mother tongue".
Patagonian Welsh is spoken principally in Y Wladfa in the Chubut Province of Patagonia with sporadic speakers throughout Argentina by Welsh Argentines. Estimates of the number of Welsh speakers range from 1,500 to 5,000.
The chart below shows the population of each Celtic nation and the number of people in each nation who can speak Celtic languages. The total number of people residing in the Celtic nations is 19,596,000 people and, of these, the total number of people who can speak the Celtic languages is approximately 2,818,000, or 14.3%.
|Nation||Celtic name||Celtic language||People||Population||Competent speakers||Percentage of population|
|6,399,115 (ROI 4,588,252, NI 1,810,863)||1,944,353 total:
— Ireland: 1,904,958 (ROI 1,774,437, NI 130,521)
— United States: 30,000
— Canada: 7,500
— Australia: 1,895
|29.7% (ROI 38.6%, NI 7.2%)|
— Wales: 611,000
— England: 150,000 
— Argentina: 5,000
— United States: 2,500 
— Canada: 2,200 
|Isle of Man||Mannin
- 1 The flag of the Republic of Ireland is used by the Celtic League to represent Ireland, although there is no universally accepted flag for the whole of the island.
Of the languages above, three belong to the Goidelic or Gaelic branch (Irish, Manx, Scottish Gaelic) and three to the Brythonic or Brittonic branch (Welsh, Cornish, Breton). Their names for each other in each language shows some of the similarities and differences:
Isle of Man
|Wales||an Bhreatain Bheag||a' Chuimrigh||Bretyn||Cymru||Kembra||Kembre|
|Cornwall||an Chorn||a' Chòrn||y Chorn||Cernyw||Kernow||Kernev-Veur|
|Brittany||an Bhriotáin||a' Bhreatainn Bheag||y Vritaan||Llydaw||Breten Vian||Breizh|
|Great Britain||an Bhreatain Mhór||Breatainn Mhòr||Bretyn Vooar||Prydain Fawr||Breten Veur||Breizh Veur|
Formal cooperation between the Celtic nations is active in many contexts, including politics, languages, culture, music and sports:
Established in 1917, the Celtic Congress is a non-political organisation that seeks to promote Celtic culture and languages and to maintain intellectual contact and close cooperation between Celtic peoples.
Festivals celebrating the culture of the Celtic nations include the Festival Interceltique de Lorient (Brittany), the Pan Celtic Festival (Ireland), CeltFest Cuba (Havana, Cuba), the National Celtic Festival (Portarlington, Australia), the Celtic Media Festival (showcasing film and television from the Celtic nations), and the Eisteddfod (Wales).
Inter-Celtic music festivals include Celtic Connections (Glasgow), and the Hebridean Celtic Festival (Stornoway). Due to immigration, a dialect of Scottish Gaelic (Canadian Gaelic) is spoken by some on Cape Breton Island in Nova Scotia, while a Welsh-speaking minority exists in the Chubut Province of Argentina. Hence, for certain purposes, such as the Festival Interceltique de Lorient– Gallaecia, Asturias and Cape Breton Island in Nova Scotia are considered three of the nine Celtic nations.
Competitions are held between the Celtic nations in sports such as rugby union (Pro 12 – formerly known as the Celtic League), athletics (Celtic Cup) and association football (the Nations Cup – also known as the Celtic Cup).
The Republic of Ireland enjoyed a period of rapid economic growth between 1995–2007, leading to the use of the phrase Celtic Tiger to describe the country. Aspirations for Scotland to achieve a similar economic performance to that of Ireland's led the Scotland First Minister Alex Salmond to set out his vision of a Celtic Lion economy for Scotland, in 2007.
The term "Celtic nations" derives from the linguistics studies of the 16th century scholar George Buchanan and the polymath Edward Lhuyd. As Assistant Keeper and then Keeper of the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford (1691–1709), Lhuyd travelled extensively in Great Britain, Ireland and Brittany in the late 17th and early 18th centuries. Noting the similarity between the languages of Brittany, Cornwall and Wales, which he called "P-Celtic" or Brythonic, the languages of Ireland, the Isle of Mann and Scotland, which he called "Q-Celtic" or Goidelic, and between the two groups, Lhuyd published Archaeologia Britannica: an Account of the Languages, Histories and Customs of Great Britain, from Travels through Wales, Cornwall, Bas-Bretagne, Ireland and Scotland in 1707. His Archaeologia Britannica concluded that all six languages derived from the same root. Lhuyd theorised that the root language descended from the languages spoken by the Iron Age tribes of Gaul, whom Greek and Roman writers called Celtic. Having defined the languages of those areas as Celtic, the people living in them and speaking those languages became known as Celtic too. There is some dispute as to whether Lhuyd's theory is correct. Nevertheless, the term "Celtic" to describe the languages and peoples of Brittany, Cornwall and Wales, Ireland, the Isle of Mann and Scotland was accepted from the 18th century and is widely used today.
These areas of Europe are sometimes referred to as the "Celt belt" or "Celtic fringe" because of their location generally on the western edges of the continent, and of the states they inhabit (e.g. Brittany is in the northwest of France, Cornwall is in the south west of Great Britain, Wales in western Great Britain and the Gaelic-speaking parts of Ireland and Scotland are in the west of those countries). Additionally, this region is known as the "Celtic Crescent" because of the near crescent shaped position of the nations in Europe.
Territories of the ancient Celts
The Continental Celtic languages were extinct by the Early Middle Ages, and the continental "Celtic cultural traits", such as an oral traditions and practices like the visiting of sacred wells and springs, largely disappeared or, in some cases, were translated. Since they no longer have a living Celtic language, they are not included as 'Celtic nations'. Nonetheless, some of these countries have movements claiming a "Celtic identity"
The Iberian Peninsula was an area heavily influenced by Celtic culture, particularly the ancient region of Gallaecia (about the modern region of Galicia and Braga, Viana do Castelo, Douro, Porto, and Bragança in Portugal) and the Asturian region (Asturias, León, Zamora in Spain). Only France and Britain have more ancient Celtic place names than Spain and Portugal combined (Cunliffe and Koch 2010 and 2012).
Some of the Celtic tribes recorded in these regions by the Romans were the Gallaeci, the Bracari, the Astures, the Cantabri, the Celtici, the Celtiberi the Tumorgogi, Albion and Cerbarci. The Lusitanians are categorised by some as Celts, or at least Celticised, but there remain inscriptions in an apparently non-Celtic Lusitanian language. However, the language had clear affinities with the Gallaecian Celtic language. Modern-day Galicians, Asturians, Cantabrians and northern Portuguese claim a Celtic heritage or identity. Although the Celtic cultural traces are as difficult to analyse as in the other former Celtic countries of Europe, because of the extinction of Iberian Celtic languages in Roman times, Celtic heritage is attested in toponymics and language substratum, ancient texts, folklore and music. At the end, late Celtic influence is also attributed to the fifth century Romano-Briton colony of Britonia in Galicia.
In Celtic languages, England is usually referred to as "Saxon-land" (Sasana, Pow Sows, Bro-Saoz etc.), and in Welsh as Lloegr (though the Welsh translation of English (language) also refers to the Saxon route: Saesneg, with the English people being referred to as "Saeson", or "Saes" in the singular). The mildly derogatory Scottish Gaelic term Sassenach derives from this source. However, spoken Cumbric survived until approximately the 12th century, Cornish until the 18th century, and Welsh within the Welsh Marches, notably in Archenfield, now part of Herefordshire, until the 19th century. Both Cumbria and Cornwall were traditionally Brythonic in culture; Anglo-Saxon settlement in these areas was historically small. Cornwall existed as an independent state for some time after the foundation of England, and Cumbria originally retained a great deal of autonomy within the Kingdom of Northumbria. The unification of the Anglian kingdom of Northumbria with the Cumbric kingdom of Cumbria came about due to a political marriage between the Northumbrian King Oswiu and Queen Riemmelth (Rhiainfellt in Old Welsh), a then Princess of Rheged, with only a minor Anglian presence as a consequence.
Movements of population between different parts of Great Britain over the last two centuries, with industrial development and changes in living patterns such as the growth of second home ownership, have greatly modified the demographics of these areas, including the Isles of Scilly off the coast of Cornwall, although Cornwall in particular retains unique cultural features, and a Cornish self-government movement is well established.
Brythonic and Cumbric placenames are found throughout England but are more common in the West of England than the East, reaching their highest density in the traditionally Celtic areas of Cornwall, Cumbria and the areas of England bordering Wales. Name elements containing Brythonic topographic words, such as: caer 'fort', as in the Cumbrian city of Carlisle; pen 'hill' as in the Cumbrian town of Penrith and Pendle Hill in Lancashire; arfon 'river' as in the River Avon in Warwickshire; and mynydd 'mountain', as in Long Mynd in Shropshire; occur in many areas of England. The name 'Cumbria' is derived from the same root as Cymru, the Welsh name for Wales, meaning 'the land of comrades'.
Formerly Gaulish regions
Most French people identify with the ancient Gauls and are well aware that they were a people that spoke Celtic languages and lived Celtic ways of life. Nowadays, the popular nickname Gaulois, "Gaulish people", is very often used to mean 'stock French people' to make the difference with the descendants of foreigners in France.
Walloons occasionally characterise themselves as "Celts", mainly in opposition to the "Teutonic" Flemish and "Latin" French identities. Others think they are Belgian, that is to say Germano-Celtic people different from the Gaulish-Celtic French.
The ethnonym "Walloon" derives from a Germanic word meaning "foreign", cognate with the words "Welsh" and "Vlach". The name of Belgium, home country of the Walloon people, is cognate with the Celtic tribal names Belgae and (possibly) the Irish legendary Fir Bolg.
The Canegrate culture (13th century BC) may represent the first migratory wave of the proto-Celtic population from the northwest part of the Alps that, through the Alpine passes, had already penetrated and settled in the western Po valley between Lake Maggiore and Lake Como (Scamozzina culture). It has also been proposed that a more ancient proto-Celtic presence can be traced back to the beginning of the Middle Bronze Age (XVI-XV century BC), when North Westwern Italy appears closely linked regarding the production of bronze artifacts, including ornaments, to the western groups of the Tumulus culture (Central Europe, 1600 BC - 1200 BC). La Tène cultural material appeared over a large area of mainland Italy, the southernmost example being the Celtic helmet from Canosa di Puglia.
Italy is home to the Lepontic, the oldest attested Celtic language (from the 6th century BC). Anciently spoken in Switzerland and in Northern-Central Italy, from the Alps to Umbria. According to the Recueil des Inscriptions Gauloises, more than 760 Gaulish inscriptions have been found throughout present-day France – with the notable exception of Aquitaine – and in Italy, which testifies the importance of Celtic heritage in the peninsula.
The French- and Arpitan-speaking Aosta Valley region in Italy also presents a claim of Celtic heritage. The Northern League autonomist party often exalts what it claims are the Celtic roots of all Northern Italy or Padania. Reportedly, Friuli also has an claim to Celticity.
Central and Eastern European regions
Celtic tribes inhabited land in what is now southern Germany and Austria. Many scholars have associated the earliest Celtic peoples with the Hallstatt culture. The Boii, the Scordisci, and the Vindelici are some of the tribes that inhabited Central Europe, including what is now Slovakia, Serbia, Croatia, Poland and the Czech Republic as well as Germany and Austria. The Boii gave their name to Bohemia. The Boii founded a city on the site of modern Prague, and some of its ruins are now a tourist attraction. There are claims among modern Czechs that the Czech people are as much descendants of the Boii as they are from the later Slavic invaders (as well as the historical Germanic peoples of Czech lands). This claim may not only be political: according to a 2000 study by Semino, 35.6% of Czech males have y-chromosome haplogroup R1b, which is common among Celts but rare among Slavs. Celts also founded Singidunum near present-day Belgrade, though the Celtic presence in modern day Serbian regions is limited to the far north (mainly including the historically at least partially Hungarian Vojvodina). The modern-day capital of Turkey, Ankara, was once the center of the Celtic culture in Central Anatolia, giving the name to the region—Galatia. The La Tène culture—named for a region in modern Switzerland—succeeded the Halstatt era in much of central Europe.
In other regions, people with a heritage from one of the Celtic nations also associate with the Celtic identity. In these areas, Celtic traditions and languages are significant components of local culture. These include the Permanent North American Gaeltacht in Tamworth, Ontario, Canada which is the only Irish Gaeltacht outside of Ireland; the Chubut valley of Patagonia with Welsh-speaking Argentines (known as Y Wladfa); Cape Breton Island in Nova Scotia, with Gaelic-speaking Canadians; and southeast Newfoundland with Irish-speaking Canadians. Also at one point in the 1900s there were well over 12,000 Gaelic Scots from the Isle of Lewis living in the Eastern Townships of Quebec, Canada, with place names that still exist today recalling those inhabitants.
Large swathes of the United States of America were subject to migration from Celtic peoples, or people from Celtic nations. Irish-speaking Irish Catholics congregated particularly in the East Coast cities of New York, Boston, and Philadelphia, while Scots and Ulster-Scots were particularly prominent in the Southern United States, including Appalachia.
A legend that became popular during the Elizabethan era claims that a Welsh prince named Madoc established a colony in North America in the late 12th century. The story continues that the settlers merged with local Indian tribes, who preserved the Welsh language and the Christian religion for hundreds of years. However, there is no contemporary evidence that Prince Madoc existed. An area of Pennsylvania known as the Welsh Tract was settled by Welsh Quakers, where the names of several towns still bear Welsh names, such as Bryn Mawr, the Lower and Upper Gwynedd Townships, and Bala Cynwyd. In the 19th century, Welsh settlers arrived in the Chubut River valley of Patagonia, Argentina and established a colony called Y Wladfa (Spanish: Colonia Galesa). Today, the Welsh language and Welsh tea houses are common in several towns, many of which have Welsh names. Dolavon and Trelew are examples of Welsh towns.
In New Zealand, the southern regions of Otago and Southland were settled by the Free Church of Scotland. Many of the place names in these two regions (such as the main cities of Dunedin and Invercargill and the major river, the Clutha) have Scottish Gaelic names, and Celtic culture is still prominent in this area.
In addition to these, a number of people from Canada, the United States, Australia, South Africa and other parts of the former British Empire have formed various Celtic societies over the years.
- Koch, John (2005). Celtic Culture : A Historical Encyclopedia. ABL-CIO. pp. xx, 300, 421, 495, 512, 583, 985. ISBN 978-1-85109-440-0. Retrieved 24 November 2011.
- "Constitition of the League". The Celtic League. 2015. Retrieved 6 January 2015.
- Koch, John T. (2006). Celtic Culture: A Historical Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. p. 365. Retrieved 2 March 2011.
- Alberro, Manuel (2005). "Celtic Legacy in Galicia". E-Keltoi: Journal of Interdisciplinary Celtic Studies 6: 1005–1035.
- Koch, John T. (2006). Celtic Culture: A Historical Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. pp. 365, 697, 788–791. Retrieved 2 March 2011.
- "Site Officiel du Festival Interceltique de Lorient". Festival Interceltique de Lorient website. Festival Interceltique de Lorient. 2009. Retrieved 2009-05-15. Cite error: Invalid
<ref>tag; name "Festival_1" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page).
- Ian Johnston (21 September 2006). "We're nearly all Celts under the skin". The Scotsman. Retrieved 2007-11-24.
- Koch, John T. (2006). Celtic Culture: A Historical Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. pp. 34, 365–366, 529, 973, 1053. Retrieved 15 June 2010.
- Beresford Ellis, Peter (1990). The Story of the Cornish Language. Tor Mark Press. pp. 20–22. ISBN 0-85025-371-3.
- "Fockle ny ghaa: schoolchildren take charge". Iomtoday.co.im. 2008-03-20. Retrieved 2013-09-30.
- "http://www.breizh.net/icdbl/saozg/Celtic_Languages.pdf" (PDF). Breizh.net website. U.S. Branch of the International Committee for the Defense of the Breton Language. 1995. Retrieved 2008-10-26.
- "BBC Wales – The School Gate – About School – The Curriculum at Primary School –". BBC website. BBC. 20 February 2010. Retrieved 2010-02-20.[dead link]
- "BBC News:Education:Local UK languages 'taking off'". BBC News website (BBC). 12 February 2009. Retrieved 2010-02-20.
- "Les nations celtes". 43e Festival Interceltique de Lorient (in French).
- Koch, John T. (2006). Celtic Culture: A Historical Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO.
- Koch, John T. (2006). "Britonia". In John T. Koch, Celtic Culture: A Historical Encyclopedia. Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO, p. 291.
- Language: Irish Gaelic, Newfoundland and Labrador Heritage website.
- Statistics Canada, NHS Profile 2011, by province.
- Statistics Canada, 2011 Census of Canada, Table: Detailed mother tongue
- Western Mail (Cardiff, Wales). 27 Dec 2004. Patagonia Welsh to watch S4C shows.
- "Wales and Patagonia". Wales.com website. Welsh Assembly Government. 2015. Retrieved 25 October 2015.
- The 2011 population of the Republic of Ireland was 4,588,252 and that of Northern Ireland in 2011 was 1,810,863. These are Census data from the official governmental statistics agencies in the respective jurisdictions:
- Central Statistics Office, Dublin
- Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency (2008). "Population and Migration Estimates Northern Ireland (2008)" (PDF). Belfast: Department of Finance and Personnel. Retrieved 2010-01-11.
- "Central Statistics Office Ireland". Cso.ie. Retrieved 2013-09-30.
- The figure for Northern Ireland from the 2001 Census is somewhat ambiguous, as it covers people who have "some knowledge of Irish". Out of the 167,487 people who claimed to have "some knowledge", 36,479 of them could understand it when spoken, but couldn't speak it themselves.
- "2004 Welsh Language Use Survey: the report – Welsh Language Board". Retrieved 2010-05-23.
- United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. "Refworld | World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples – United Kingdom : Welsh". UNHCR. Retrieved 2010-05-23.
- "Wales and Argentina". Wales.com website. Welsh Assembly Government. 2008. Retrieved 2 January 2011.
- "Table 1. Detailed Languages Spoken at Home and Ability to Speak English for the Population 5 Years and Over for the United States: 2006–2008 Release Date: April, 2010" (xls). United States Census Bureau. 27 April 2010. Retrieved 2 January 2011.
- "2006 Census of Canada: Topic based tabulations: Various Languages Spoken (147), Age Groups (17A) and Sex (3) for the Population of Canada, Provinces, Territories, Census Metropolitan Areas and Census Agglomerations, 2006 Census – 20% Sample Data". Statistics Canada. 7 December 2010. Retrieved 3 January 2011.
- "Publication of the report on the 2004 Welsh Language Use Survey". Welsh Language Board website An increase from the 2001 census results: 582,368 persons age 3 and over were able to speak Welsh – 20.8% of the population. Welsh Language Board. 8 May 2006. Retrieved 2010-04-04.
- (French) Données clés sur breton, Ofis ar Brezhoneg
- "Mixed report on Gaelic language". BBC News. 2005-10-10. Retrieved 2013-09-30.
- Kenneth MacKinnon (2003). "Census 2001 Scotland: Gaelic Language – first results". Retrieved 2007-03-24.
- "'South West:TeachingEnglish:British Council:BBC". BBC/British Council website (BBC). 2010. Retrieved 2010-02-20.
- projects.ex.ac.uk – On being a Cornish ‘Celt’: changing Celtic heritage and traditions[dead link]
- Effectively extinct as a spoken language in 1777. Language revived from 1904, though a tiny 0.1% percent is able to hold a limited conversion in Cornish.
- "Isle of Man Census 2011" (PDF). Isle of Man Government. Retrieved 17 October 2014.
- "An English-Cornish Glossary in the Standard Written Form". Retrieved 2013-09-30.
- "The Celtic League". Celtic League website. The Celtic League. 2010. Retrieved 2010-02-20.
- "Information on The International Celtic Congress Douglas, Isle of Man hosted by". Celtic Congress website (in Irish and English). Celtic Congress. 2010. Retrieved 2010-02-20.
- "Welcome to the Pan Celtic 2010 Home Page". Pan Celtic Festival 2010 website. Fáilte Ireland. 2010. Retrieved 2010-02-20.
- "About the Festival". National Celtic Festival website. National Celtic Festival. 2009. Retrieved 2010-02-20.
- "About Us::Celtic Media Festival". Celtic Media Festival website. Celtic Media Festival. 2009. Retrieved 2010-02-20.
- "Celtic connections:Scotland's premier winter music festival". Celtic connections website. Celtic Connections. 2010. Retrieved 2010-02-20.
- "'Hebridean Celtic Festival 2010 – the biggest homecoming party of the year". Hebridean Celtic Festival website. Hebridean Celtic Festival. 2009. Retrieved 2010-02-20.
- "Magners League:About Us:Contact Information". Magners League website. Magners League. 2009. Retrieved 2010-02-20.
- "scottishathletics-news". scottishathletics website. scottishathletics. 14 June 2006. Retrieved 2010-02-20.
- Coulter, Colin; Coleman, Steve (2003). The end of Irish history?: critical reflections on the Celtic tiger. Google Books (Manchester: Manchester University Press). p. 83. ISBN 0-7190-6230-6. Retrieved 2010-02-20.
- ""Celtic Tiger" No More – CBS Evening News – CBS News". CBS News website (CBS Interactive). 7 March 2009. Retrieved 2010-02-20.
- "BBC News:Scotland:Salmond gives Celtic Lion vision". BBC News website (BBC). 12 October 2007. Retrieved 2010-02-20.
- "Who were the Celts? ... Rhagor". Amgueddfa Cymru – National Museum Wales website. Amgueddfa Cymru – National Museum Wales. 4 May 2007. Retrieved 2009-12-10.
- Lhuyd, Edward (1707). Archaeologia Britannica: an Account of the Languages, Histories and Customs of Great Britain, from Travels through Wales, Cornwall, Bas-Bretagne, Ireland and Scotland. Google Books (Oxford).
- Nathalie Koble, Jeunesse et genèse du royaume arthurien, Paradigme, 2007, ISBN 2-86878-270-1, p.145
- The term "Celtic Fringe" gained currency in late-Victorian years (Thomas Heyck, A History of the Peoples of the British Isles: From 1870 to Present, Routledge, 2002, ISBN 0-415-30233-1, p.43) and is now widely attested, e.g. Michael Hechter, Internal Colonialism: The Celtic Fringe in British National Development, Transaction Publishers, 1999, ISBN 0-7658-0475-1; Nicholas Hooper and Matthew Bennett, England and the Celtic Fringe: Colonial Warfare in The Cambridge Illustrated Atlas of Warfare, Cambridge University Press, 1996, ISBN 0-521-44049-1
- Ian Hazlett, The Reformation in Britain and Ireland, Continuum International Publishing Group, 2003, ISBN 0-567-08280-6, p.21
- "Ethnographic Map of Pre-Roman Iberia (circa 200 b". Arkeotavira.com. Retrieved 2013-09-30.
- Melhuish, Martin (1998). Celtic Tides: Traditional Music in a New Age. Ontario, Canada: Quarry Press Inc. p. 28. ISBN 1-55082-205-5.
- The Kingdom of Kernow 'exists apart from England' – Telegraph.co.uk, 29 January 2010
- "What Is France? Who Are the French?". Retrieved 15 May 2010.
- "Belgium: Flemings, Walloons and Germans". Retrieved 15 May 2010.
- Venceslas Kruta: La grande storia dei celti. La nascita, l'affermazione e la decadenza, Newton & Compton, 2003, ISBN 88-8289-851-2, ISBN 978-88-8289-851-9
- "The Golasecca civilization is therefore the expression of the oldest Celts of Italy and included several groups that had the name of Insubres, Laevi, Lepontii, Oromobii (o Orumbovii)". (Raffaele C. De Marinis)
- "Manufatti in ferro di tipo La Tène in area italiana : le potenzialità non sfruttate".
- Piggott, Stuart (06-05-2008). Early Celtic Art From Its Origins to its Aftermath. Transaction Publishers. p. 3. ISBN 978-0-202-36186-4. Check date values in:
- Schumacher, Stefan; Schulze-Thulin, Britta; aan de Wiel, Caroline (2004). Die keltischen Primärverben. Ein vergleichendes, etymologisches und morphologisches Lexikon (in German). Innsbruck: Institut für Sprachen und Kulturen der Universität Innsbruck. pp. 84–87. ISBN 3-85124-692-6.
- Percivaldi, Elena (2003). I Celti: una civiltà europea. Giunti Editore. p. 82.
- Kruta, Venceslas (1991). The Celts. Thames and Hudson. p. 55.
- Stifter, David (2008). Old Celtic Languages (PDF). p. 12.
- MORANDI 2004, pp. 702-703, n. 277
- Peter Schrijver, "Gaulish", in Encyclopedia of the Languages of Europe, ed. Glanville Price (Oxford: Blackwell, 1998), 192.
- Landolfi, Maurizio (2000). Adriatico tra 4. e 3. sec. a.C. L'ERMA di BRETSCHNEIDER. p. 43.
- "Aosta Festival digs up Celtic roots in Italy". Retrieved 15 May 2010.
- "Celtica Festival 2009, Northern Italy". Retrieved 15 May 2010.
- "KurMor Celtic Festival in Ara, Udine, Friuli, Italy". Retrieved 15 May 2010.
- "Celts – Hallstatt and La Tene cultures". Celts.etrusia.co.uk. 2005-10-21. Retrieved 2013-09-30.
- Celtic Impressions – The Celts[dead link]
- AncientWorlds.net, 27k
- authorName. "Vindelici". Ancientworlds.net. Retrieved 2013-09-30.
- "Boii – Britannica Online Encyclopedia". Britannica.com. Retrieved 2013-09-30.
- "Prague Celtic History Remains Route Celtic Walk in Prague". Prague.net. Retrieved 2013-09-30.
- O. Semino et al, The genetic legacy of paleolithic Homo sapiens sapiens in extant Europeans: a Y chromosome perspective, Science, vol. 290 (2000), pp. 1155–59.
- "The Early Celts". Angelfire.com. Retrieved 2013-09-30.
- Catlin, G. Die Indianer Nordamerikas Verlag Lothar Borowsky
- "Encyclopedia of New Zealand". Te Ara. 2012-07-13. Retrieved 2013-09-30.
- Lewis, John (1 December 2008). "Regal poise amid 'Celtic' clime". Otago Daily Times. Retrieved 23 September 2011.
- "DunedinCelticArts.org.nz". DunedinCelticArts.org.nz. Retrieved 2013-09-30.
- "OtagoCaledonian.org". OtagoCaledonian.org. Retrieved 2013-09-30.
- Celtic League
- Celtic League International
- Celtic League – American Branch
- The Celtic Realm
- Celtic-World.Net, – Various information on Celtic culture and music
- PDF (306 KB)
- Simon James Ancient Celts Page
- an article on Celtic Realms by Jim Gilchrist of The Scotsman
- The Celtic Nations Association