Cem Özdemir (2016)
|Leader of Alliance '90/The Greens|
15 November 2008 – 27 January 2018
|Preceded by||Reinhard Bütikofer|
|Succeeded by||Robert Habeck|
|Member of the Bundestag |
|Assumed office |
22 October 2013
|Constituency||Alliance '90/The Greens List|
16 October 1994 – 22 September 2002
|Constituency||Alliance '90/The Greens List|
|Member of the European Parliament |
13 June 2004 – 7 June 2009
|Constituency||Alliance '90/The Greens List|
|Born||21 December 1965|
Bad Urach, Baden-Württemberg, West Germany
|Political party||Alliance '90/The Greens|
Between 2008 and 2018, Özdemir served as co-chair of the Green Party, together with Claudia Roth and later Simone Peter. He has been a Member of the German Bundestag since 2013 and he was a Member of the German Bundestag between 1994 and 2002 and of the European Parliament between 2004 and 2009. He was standing as one of the top two Greens candidates for the 2017 German federal election. Since 2018, he has been serving as Chairman of the Committee on Transport.
- 1 Life and work
- 2 Political career
- 3 Political positions
- 4 Other activities
- 5 Recognition
- 6 Bibliography
- 7 References
- 8 External links
Life and work
Born in Bad Urach, a small town in the hills between Stuttgart and Ulm, Cem Özdemir is the son of a Turkish gastarbeiter ("guest worker") of Circassian provenance, hailing from Tokat, Turkey; in 1983 he and his immigrant parents acquired German citizenship. After graduating from a German Hauptschule and a Realschule Özdemir completed an apprenticeship, becoming an early childhood educator. After qualifying for advanced technical college entrance he studied social pedagogy at the Evangelical Technical College (Evangelische Fachhochschule für Sozialwesen Reutlingen) in Reutlingen, Germany. After completing his studies in 1987, Cem Özdemir worked as an educator and a freelance journalist.
Özdemir has been a member of the Green Party since 1981, originally in the district chapter of Ludwigsburg. Between 1989 and 1994 he was a member in the State Executive (Landesvorstand) of the Green Party in Baden-Württemberg. During that time he was one of the founding members of Immi-Grün – Bündnis der neuen InländerInnen, an alliance of InländerInnen (locals), as opposed to the German word Ausländer (foreigners).
Member of the German Bundestag, 1994–2002
From 1994 until 2002, Özdemir was a member of the German Bundestag; along with Leyla Onur of the Social Democrats, he was the first person of Turkish descent ever elected to the country's federal parliament. From 1998 until 2002, he was a member of the Committee on Home Affairs and served as his parliamentary group's spokesperson on this issue. In this capacity, he advocated for reforms to Germany's citizenship laws. In addition, he was the chairman of the German-Turkish Parliamentary Friendship Group.
In 1999, nine months after the Greens for the first time joined a German federal government under Chancellor Gerhard Schröder, Özdemir was among 40 younger party members of the self-described "youth of the second generation" who declared in a controversial manifesto "[that] we cannot and will not idly watch the moralizing know-it-alls in our party from the founding generation" around Jürgen Trittin.
In 2002, Özdemir was accused of violating parliamentary regulations for retaining "Miles & More" frequent-flier miles accrued during official travel as a member of the Bundestag for personal use. He was also criticised for having taken out a credit with Moritz Hunzinger, a German PR consultant and lobbyist, in order to overcome personal financial issues. This affair was also associated with Rudolf Scharping, former German Minister of Defence (1998 – 2002). Subsequently, Özdemir resigned as spokesman for domestic affairs and as a member of the Bundestag.
In 2003, Özdemir joined the German Marshall Fund of the United States in Washington, D.C. and Brussels as a Transatlantic Fellow. During his fellowship he gave various speeches and brown bag lectures at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, on the issue of Turkey and Europe. He also researched on the ways that minority groups in the United States and Europe organize themselves politically.
Member of the European Parliament, 2004–2009
From 2004 until 2009, Özdemir was a Member of the European Parliament in the parliamentary group The Greens/European Free Alliance (Greens/EFA). During that time he served as the group's spokesperson on foreign policy and a member of the Committee on Foreign Affairs (AFET). In addition, he served as the European Parliament's rapporteur on Central Asia and as vice chair of the Permanent Ad Hoc Delegation for Relations with Iraq.
Between 2006 and 2007, Özdemir also served as vice president of the "CIA Committee" (Temporary Committee on the alleged use of European countries by the CIA for the transport and illegal detention of prisoners).
Co-chair of the Green Party, 2009–2013
On 2 June 2008, Özdemir announced his candidacy as co-chair of his party. Özdemir's rival candidate was Volker Ratzmann, leader of the Green parliamentary group in the Berlin House of Representatives, who eventually withdrew his candidacy on 4 September 2008 for personal reasons.
In the run-up to the party co-chair elections, Özdemir also ran for a promising party list position for the 2009 German elections at the federal state party conference of Baden-Württemberg. In two separate runs he lost to his respective direct opponents. Nevertheless, Özdemir adhered to his candidacy for the party chairmanship.
In the 2009 elections, Özdemir was not elected to the Bundestag. As a candidate in the constituency of Stuttgart I, which covers south Stuttgart he polled 29.9%, but lost to Stefan Kaufmann, the candidate of the CDU.
Member of the German Bundestag, 2013–present
Özdemir re-entered the Bundestag as a result of the 2013 elections. He serves as deputy chairman of the German-Chinese Parliamentary Friendship Group. Since 2018, he has been chairing the Committee on Transport.
Relations with Russia
In 2011, Özdemir stepped down from the Quadriga Award's board of trustees to protest the nonprofit group's decision to honor Prime Minister Vladimir Putin of Russia. The groups decision sparked a public outcry and the annual prize ceremony was later canceled. After a two-day visit to Armenia, Özdemir tweeted in reference to Armenia's recent accession into the Eurasian Economic Union that "The closer Yerevan moves towards Putin's Russia, the less freedom for media, NGOs, LGBT. People want open society."
Relations with Turkey
Özdemir opposes the accession of Turkey to the European Union under President Erdogan. When Özdemir criticised Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdoğan of Turkey in a speech he delivered in Cologne in May 2014, Erdoğan personally targeted Özdemir during one of his party's group meetings in the parliament declaring him "a so-called Turk" and described his criticisms as "very ugly." Upon Erdoğan's attacks, the Turkish ambassador in Berlin, Hüseyin Avni Karslıoğlu, was summoned to the German Foreign Office and was informed about Germany's unease on the prime minister's remarks.
Soon after, Özdemir told Spiegel Online it would be "irresponsible" for German intelligence services not to target Turkey given its location as a transit country for Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant militants from Europe.
Özdemir has also been critical of Turkey's mass arrests and crackdown on dissent following a failed coup attempt in July 2016. He was put under police protection at the 2018 Munich Security Conference after meeting Turkey's delegation in his hotel.
On 12 March 2015 Özdemir visited the Armenian Genocide memorial in Yerevan, Armenia and declared his formal recognition of the Armenian Genocide and called on Turkey to recognize it as well. In an interview he stated: "I think that Germany should obviously refer to the Armenian Genocide issue. As a friend of two countries, we should help to open the Armenian-Turkish border. As a friend of both countries, we should exert effort, so that the Armenian-Turkish relations become like the French-German or Polish-German relations."
In 2016 Özdemir initiated a resolution in the Bundestag that would formally classify the 1915 massacres as genocide. The resolution passed on 2 June 2016 with what Speaker Norbert Lammert called a "remarkable majority." At the time, Özdemir emphasized that the resolution was not designed to point fingers at others but rather to acknowledge Germany's partial responsibility for the genocide. In 1915, the German Empire was an ally of the Ottoman Empire and failed to condemn the violence. After the Bundestag's approval of the resolution he received multiple death threats.
Legalization of cannabis
Özdemir advocates legalizing cannabis. In December 2014, his parliamentary immunity from prosecution was lifted when Berlin prosecutors opened an investigation into suspected growing of drugs after an Ice Bucket Challenge video showed him with a cannabis plant in the background. In a subsequent interview with Westdeutsche Allgemeine Zeitung, Özdemir stated that "in a free society it should be up to each individual person to decide whether they want to consume cannabis and take the associated risks."
The United Nations
Özdemir is a supporter of the Campaign for the Establishment of a United Nations Parliamentary Assembly, an organisation which campaigns for democratic reformation of the United Nations. He believes it is necessary "to give voice to every citizen, woman and man, all over the world; to create legitimacy by true representation, and to enhance political responsibility of the states' leaders."
Relations with the African continent
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Özdemir has in the past voted in favor of German participation in United Nations peacekeeping missions as well as in United Nations-mandated European Union peacekeeping missions on the African continent, such as in Darfur/Sudan (2013, 2015 and 2016), South Sudan (2013, 2015 and 2016), Mali (2014, 2015, 2016 and 2017), the Central African Republic (2014) and Liberia (2015).
On Somalia, Özdemir has a mixed voting record. He has at times voted in favor of Operation Atalanta (2016 and 2017) but also abstained from votes on extending the mandate for the mission (2014 and 2015). He also voted against German participation in EUTM Somalia (2014) or abstained (2015, 2016 and 2017).
- Berlin office of the American Jewish Committee (AJC), Member of the Advisory Board
- Das Progressive Zentrum, Member of the Circle of Friends
- Deutsche Telekom, Yes, I can! Initiative for Children and Young People, Member of the Board of Trustees
- European Council on Foreign Relations (ECFR), Founding Member
- German Association for Small and Medium-Sized Businesses (BVMW), Member of the Political Advisory Board
- German-Turkish Forum of Stuttgart, Member of the Board of Trustees
- Stiftung neue verantwortung, Member of the Presidium
- Theodor Heuss Foundation, Member of the Board of Trustees
- Amadeu Antonio Foundation, Founding Member
- Berlin Center for Torture Victims, Member of the Advisory Board (1998–2002)
- ZDF, Member of the Television Board (2009–2013)
- 2018 – Ramer Award for Courage in the Defense of Democracy
- 2011 – Foreign Policy List of Top Global Thinkers
- 2009 – Honorary doctorate of the Tunceli University
- 1996 – Theodor Heuss Medal
- Currywurst und Döner – Integration in Deutschland ISBN 3785709463
- Ich bin Inländer (autobiography) ISBN 3423361506
- Die Türkei: Politik, Religion, Kultur ISBN 3407753438
- "Biography". Oezdemir.de. 13 October 2011. Retrieved 20 October 2011.
- "Grüne Urwahl: Die Mitglieder entscheiden" [Green Primary: The Members Decide]. Alliance '90/The Greens (in German). Berlin, Germany. Retrieved 16 October 2016.
- Dempsey, Judy (16 November 2008). "Greens in Germany pick son of Turks as leader". New York Times. Retrieved 20 October 2011.
- Spiegel online, 15 October 2008: A Turk at the Top.
- "Nachwuchs: Cem Özdemir zum zweiten Mal Vater". Spiegel Online (in German). 5 December 2009.
- Arena Profile: Cem Özdemir Politico.
- Tony Czuczka (30 September 2010), Turks in Germany Bridge Two Worlds as Anti-Immigrant Voices Spark Debate Bloomberg News.
- Cem Özdemir Heinrich Böll Stiftung North America, press release of 25 January 2013.
- Edmund L. Andrews (7 July 1999), Old Greens In Germany Challenged By Upstarts New York Times.
- Desmond Butler (2 August 2002), Scandal Over Frequent-Flier Miles Shakes Up German Politics New York Times.
- "Bundestag: Bonusmeilen werden noch weiteren Abgeordneten um die Ohren fliegen - SPIEGEL ONLINE - Nachrichten - Politik". Spiegel.de. 30 July 2002. Retrieved 20 October 2011.
- "Hunzinger-Affäre: Özdemir erhielt Darlehen und PR-Honorar - SPIEGEL ONLINE". Spiegel.de. 21 July 2002. Retrieved 25 January 2015.
- Stephen Brown (25 September 2011), German opposition wants citizen vote on EU issues Reuters.
- Stephen Brown (20 March 2013), German Greens see risks in Cyprus seeking Russian aid Reuters.
- Nicholas Kulish (16 July 2011), German Group That Cited Putin as ‘Role Model’ Cancels Prize After Outcry New York Times.
- dpa (12 July 2011), Özdemir verlässt Quadriga-Kuratorium Die Zeit.
- Cem Özdemir [@cem_oezdemir] (14 March 2015). "After 2 days in #Armenia: The closer Yerevan moves twds #Putin's #Russia, the less freedom f media, NGOs, #LGBT. People want open society" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
- Özdemir schließt EU-Beitritt der Türkei mit Erdogan aus F.A.Z. 12 June 2016
- "Keine EU-Mitgliedschaft mit dieser Türkei" Die Zeit 13 June 2016
- Cem Özdemir: 'Erdogan wants to establish Turkey in Germany' Deutsche Welle 19 July 2017
- Selcuk Gultasli (13 June 2014), Erdogan’s new Turkey full of 'spies' and 'traitors' EUobserver.
- Emre Peker and Harriet Torry (18 August 2014), Turkey Summons German Ambassador Over Spying Claims Wall Street Journal.
- "Ankara mayor accuses German politician Cem Ozdemir of being an “Armenian servant” and traitor". Horizon Weekly. 20 August 2017.
- "German politician Özdemir given police protection at MSC". Deutsche Welle. 18 February 2018.
- "Özdemir'den 'soykırımı tanıma' çağrısı" (in Turkish). Deutsche Welle. 12 March 2015. Archived from the original on 15 March 2015.
- "Cem Özdemir'den 'soykırımı tanıma' çağrısı". Hürriyet (in Turkish). 12 March 2015.
- "Cem Özdemir öyle bir çağrı yaptı ki…AKP çılgına dönecek !". Taraf (in Turkish). 12 March 2015. Archived from the original on 15 March 2015.
- "Turkish-German Lawmaker Calls on Turkey to 'Face History'". Asbarez. 13 March 2015.
- "Cem Özdemir speaks to DW about Armenia vote". Deutsche Welle. 2 June 2016.
- Smale, Alison; Eddy, Melissa (2 June 2016). "German Parliament Recognizes Armenian Genocide, Angering Turkey". The New York Times.
- "Bundestag passes Armenia 'genocide' resolution unanimously, Turkey recalls ambassador". Deutsche Welle. 2 June 2016.
- Rick Noack (2 June 2016), Turkey protests Germany’s recognition of Armenian ‘genocide’ Washington Post.
- "Germany and the Armenian genocide: Name and shame". The Economist. 2 June 2016.
- Porter, Tom (6 June 2016). "German MP under police guard after Armenian genocide resolution". International Business Times.
- "Personal police guard given to Turkish-origin German MP after 'Armenian genocide' bill". Hürriyet Daily News. 6 June 2016.
- Opposition Leader Faces Cannabis Plant Investigation[dead link] New York Times, 18 January 2015.
- Bethan John (28 August 2014), German Green's ice bucket challenge lights up dope debate Reuters.
- "Statements". Campaign for a UN Parliamentary Assembly. Retrieved 28 September 2017.
- Circle of Friends Das Progressive Zentrum.
- Board of Trustees Theodor Heuss Foundation, Stuttgart.
- Elisabeth Binder (October 12, 2018), American Jewish Committee in Berlin: Kritische Fragen zum Geburtstag Der Tagesspiegel.
- "The FP Top 100 Global Thinkers". Foreign Policy. Archived from the original on 1 December 2011. Retrieved 4 December 2011.
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