Cenchrus ciliaris

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Cenchrus ciliaris
Cenchrus ciliaris.jpg
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Monocots
Clade: Commelinids
Order: Poales
Family: Poaceae
Subfamily: Panicoideae
Genus: Cenchrus
Species:
C. ciliaris
Binomial name
Cenchrus ciliaris
Synonyms
  • Pennisetum ciliare (L.) Link
  • Pennisetum cenchroides Rich.

Cenchrus ciliaris (buffel-grass[1] or African foxtail grass; syn. Pennisetum ciliare (L.) Link) is a species of grass native to most of Africa, southern Asia (east to India), southern Iran, and the extreme south of Europe (Sicily).[2] Other names by which this grass is known include dhaman grass, anjan grass, koluk katai and buffelgrass.[3][4]

Description[edit]

African foxtail grass is a perennial grass growing to 20 to 120 cm (10 to 50 in) tall. The leaves are linear, 3 to 25 cm (1 to 10 in) long and 4 to 10 mm (0.16 to 0.39 in) wide. The flowers are produced in a panicle 2 to 14 cm (0.8 to 5.5 in) long and 1 to 2.6 cm (0.4 to 1.0 in) wide.[5]

Distribution[edit]

African foxtail grass is native to tropical Africa, the Mediterranean region and the hotter and drier parts of Asia. It is a deep-rooted grass, tolerates drought, and will grow at altitudes of up to 2,000 m (6,600 ft). It is considered a good forage grass in Africa. It prefers light soils with a high phosphorus content. It is also sown in Queensland, Australia and elsewhere for grazing, hay and silage.[3] In the Sonoran Desert it was introduced for erosion control. In the Mexican part of the Sonoran Desert, it is still being planted and irrigated for livestock grazing. Cenchrus ciliaris has become naturalised and often an invasive species in Australia, the southwestern United States, Hawaii, Mexico, Central America, South America, and Macaronesia.[2]

As an invasive species[edit]

It was introduced in the 1930s into Arizona, United States, to provide grazing. The introduction was largely unsuccessful but the grass began to appear as a weed beside highways and in cleared fields or over-grazed land. It spreads very quickly and will often kill local native plants such as palo verdes by taking away nearby water. This plant has a very low ignition threshold and can burn even during the peak growing season. Its flammability (injurious to neighbors) and quick regrowth allow it to compete successfully against almost all vegetation in the Sonoran Desert region.[6]

Another problem of buffelgrass in the Sonoran Desert is that it intensifies wildfires such that saguaro cacti that normally survive wildfires can erupt into flames when growing in areas taken over by the grass.[7]

In Queensland, Australia, the grass has also been attributed to causing a decline in the native grass species fed on by the critically endangered northern hairy-nosed wombat, and cited as a factor in the wombats' decline.[8] In South Australia, it is a declared plant under the Natural Resources Management Act and weed management activities are guided by the South Australia Buffel Grass Strategic Plan (2012–17).[9] In Australia's Northern Territory, invasive buffel grass was implicated in making fire control more challenging following the extensive wild fires that destroyed ancient trees in oases such as Standley Chasm in February 2019.[10][11]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "BSBI List 2007". Botanical Society of Britain and Ireland. Archived from the original (xls) on 2014-10-23. Retrieved 2014-10-17.
  2. ^ a b "Cenchrus ciliaris". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 22 December 2017.
  3. ^ a b "Cenchrus ciliaris L." Grassland species: Profiles. FAO. Retrieved 22 November 2016.
  4. ^ "Buffelgrass". www.desertmuseum.org. Retrieved 2019-12-04.
  5. ^ Clayton, W.D.; Vorontsova, M.S.; Harman, K.T.; Williamson, H. "Cenchrus ciliaris". GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  6. ^ Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum: Buffelgrass.
  7. ^ "Scientists believe invasive grass poses a threat in Bighorn Fire". ktar.com. June 20, 2020. Retrieved June 20, 2020.
  8. ^ Marshall, V.M.; Lewis, M.M.; Ostendorf, B. (2012-03-01). "Buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris) as an invader and threat to biodiversity in arid environments: A review". Journal of Arid Environments. 78: 1–12. Bibcode:2012JArEn..78....1M. doi:10.1016/j.jaridenv.2011.11.005. ISSN 0140-1963.
  9. ^ "Buffel Grass". Primary Industries and Regions South Australia. Primary Industries and Regions South Australia. 13 February 2017. Retrieved 21 June 2017.
  10. ^ https://www.alicespringsnews.com.au/2019/02/11/west-macs-blaze-questions-and-sorrow/
  11. ^ "The central Australian bushfires you didn't hear about: Country and communites under threat". NITV.

External links[edit]