Censorship in Nazi Germany
Censorship in Nazi Germany was extreme and strictly enforced by the governing Nazi Party, but specifically by Joseph Goebbels and his Reich Ministry of Public Enlightenment and Propaganda. Censorship within Nazi Germany included control of all forms of mass communication, which included newspaper, music, literature, radio, and film. The same body also produced and disseminated their own literature which were solely devoted to furthering Nazi ideas and myths. Antisemitism lay at the core of their works, including 1940 films such as Jud Süß and The Eternal Jew. The ministry promoted the cult of Adolf Hitler by sponsoring early films such as Triumph of the Will of the 1934 rally and The Victory of Faith made in 1933, and which survives now as a single copy recently discovered in the UK. It was banned by the Nazis owing to the prominent role of Ernst Roehm, who was murdered by Hitler on the Night of the Long Knives in 1934.
The ministry tightly controlled information available to their citizens. Almost all Modernist art, such as Impressionism and Expressionism, was considered degenerate art by the Nazi regime, and much modern music such as Jazz and Swing was also barred as degenerate music. Jewish composers like Mendelssohn and Schoenberg were also banned.
Amongst those authors and artists who were suppressed both during the Nazi book burnings and the attempt to destroy modernist fine art in the "degenerate" art exhibition were:
Artists banned include:
Composers banned include:
Dramatists banned include:
Philosophers, scientists, and sociologists suppressed by Nazi Germany include:
- Albert Einstein
- Niels Bohr
- Edmund Husserl
- Karl Marx
- Friedrich Engels
- Friedrich Nietzsche
- Sigmund Freud
- Max Scheler
- Magnus Hirschfeld
Politicians suppressed by Nazi Germany include:
To avoid censorship, some books were given innocent-looking covers and were called Tarnschriften.
- Censorship in Germany
- Nazi propaganda
- Degenerate art
- Degenerate music
- List of authors banned in Nazi Germany
- ^ "Control and opposition in Nazi Germany". BBC Bitesize.
- ^ Adam, Peter (1992). Art of the Third Reich. New York:, Harry N. Abrams, Inc.., pp. 121-122
- ^ The Engineer as Ideologue: Reactionary Modernists in Weimar and Nazi Germany - J Herf - Journal of Contemporary History (SAGE, London, Beverly Hills …, 1984 –