Cent (currency)

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A United States one-cent coin, also known as a penny

The cent is a monetary unit of many national currencies that equals ​1100 of the basic monetary unit.

Etymologically, the word 'cent' derives from the Latin word centum meaning hundred.

The cent sign is commonly a simple minuscule (lower case) letter c. In North America, the c is crossed by a diagonal stroke or a vertical line (depending on typeface), yielding the character ¢.

The United States one cent coin is generally known by the nickname "penny", alluding to the British coin and unit of that name. Canada ended production of their 1¢ coin in 2012.

Symbol[edit]

¢ c
Cent (currency)
In UnicodeU+00A2 ¢ CENT SIGN (HTML ¢ · ¢)
U+0063 c LATIN SMALL LETTER C (HTML c)
Currency
Currencyvarious
Related
See alsoU+FFE0 FULLWIDTH CENT SIGN (HTML ¢)
Category Category

The cent may be represented by the cent sign, written in various ways according to the national convention and font choice. Most commonly seen forms are a minuscule letter c crossed by a diagonal stroke or a vertical line, with a tick above and below, or by a simple c, depending on the currency (see below). Cent amounts from 1 to 99 can be represented as one or two digits followed by the appropriate abbreviation (2¢, 5c, 75¢, 99c), or as a subdivision of the base unit ($0.75, €0.99) In some countries, longer abbreviations like "ct." are used. Languages that use other alphabets have their own abbreviations and conventions.

North American cent sign[edit]

The cent sign appeared as the shift of the 6 key on American manual typewriters, but that position has been taken over by the freestanding circumflex on computer keyboards. The character (offset 162) can still be created in most common code pages, including Unicode and Windows-1252:

  • On DOS- or Windows-based computers, Alt is held while typing 0162 or 155 on the numeric keypad.[1] If there is no numeric keypad, as on many laptops, A2 is typed in Windows Wordpad followed by Alt+X and copy/paste the resulting ¢ into the target document. For the US International keyboard <Right Alt> <Shift> c is typed (Windows).
  • On Macintosh systems, Option is held and 4 on the number row is pressed.
  • On Unix/Linux systems with a compose key, Compose+|+C and Compose+/+C are typical sequences.

Orthography[edit]

When written in English, the cent sign (¢ or c) follows the amount (with no space between)—for example, 2¢ and $0.02, or 2c and €0.02. Conventions in other languages may vary.

Usage[edit]

East India Company half cent (1845).
Obverse: Crowned head left with lettering Queen Victoria Reverse: Face value, year and "East India Company" inscribed inside wreath.
18,737,498 coins minted in 1845.

Minor currency units called cent or similar names[edit]

Examples of currencies around the world featuring centesimal (​1100) units called cent, or related words from the same root such as céntimo, centésimo, centavo or sen, are:

Minor currency units with other names[edit]

Examples of currencies featuring centesimal (​1100) units not called cent

Major unit Divided into
Bhutanese ngultrum 100 chhertum
Bosnia and Herzegovina convertible mark 100 pfeniga
Botswanan pula 100 thebe
British pound 100 pence (singular: penny) since 1971
Bulgarian lev 100 stotinki
Cyrillic: стотинки
("hundredths")
Chinese yuan 100 fēn (分); in general usage, divided into 10 jiǎo (角).
Croatian kuna 100 lipa
Danish krone 100 øre
Egyptian pound 100 piastres
Estonian mark 100 penni (singular: penn)
Gambian dalasi 100 bututs
Ghanaian cedi 100 pesewas
Indian rupee 100 paise
Israeli new shekel 100 agorot
Macau pataca 100 avos; circulating coins are 10, 20, and 50 avos.
Macedonian denar 100 deni
Malawian kwacha 100 tambala
Mongolian tögrög 100 möngö
Pakistani rupee 100 paise
Papua New Guinean kina 100 toea
Polish złoty 100 groszy (singular: grosz)
Qatari riyal 100 dirhams
Romanian and Moldovan leu 100 bani
Russian ruble 100 kopeks
Saudi riyal 100 halalas
Serbian dinar 100 paras
Swiss franc German: 100 Rappen
French: 100 centimes
Italian: 100 centesimi
Romansch: 100 raps
Thai baht 100 satang
Turkish Lira 100 kuruş
United Arab Emirates dirham 100 fils
Ukrainian hryvnia 100 kopiykas
Zambian kwacha 100 ngwee

Obsolete centesimal currency units[edit]

Examples of currencies which formerly featured centesimal (​1100) units but now have no fractional denomination in circulation:

Major unit Formerly divided into
Costa Rican colón (until the 1980s) 100 céntimos
Czech koruna 100 haléřů
Hungarian forint 100 fillér
Icelandic króna 100 eyrir (singular aurar)
Japanese yen 100 sen
Norwegian krone 100 øre
South Korean won 100 jeon
Swedish krona (until 2010) 100 öre
Ugandan shilling (until 2013) 100 cents.

Examples of currencies which use the cent symbol for other purposes:

  • Costa Rican colón – The common symbol '¢' is frequently used locally to represent '₡', the proper colón designation
  • Ghanaian cedi – The common symbol '¢' is sometimes used to represent '₵', the proper cedi designation

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ See Alt code for more information.