Centipede bite

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Centipede bite
Scolopendra fg02.JPG
Underside of Scolopendra cingulata, showing the forcipules

A centipede bite is an injury resulting from the action of a centipede's forcipules, stinger-like appendages that pierce the skin and inject venom into the wound. Such a wound is not strictly speaking a bite, as the forcipules are a modified first pair of legs rather than true mouthparts. Clinically, the wound is viewed as a cutaneous condition characterized by paired hemorrhagic marks that form a chevron shape caused by the paired forcipules.[1]

The centipede's venom causes pain and swelling in the area of the bite, and may cause other reactions throughout the body. The majority of bites are not life-threatening to humans and present the greatest risk to children and those who develop allergic reactions.[2][3]

Symptoms[edit]

The history of a centipede bite is fairly straightforward; the victim typically sees and recognizes the centipede before or soon after being bitten.

Symptoms which are most likely to develop include:

The pain caused by centipede bites is often described as comparable to pain from scorpion stings and snakebites. However, unlike scorpions and snakes, for which certain species can be much more venomous than others, the venom toxicity of centipedes appears to be more uniform across all species. Therefore, the amount and intensity of pain from centipede bites tends to be strongly correlated to the size of the centipede, which is further enhanced by the fact that larger centipedes have larger forcipules that can inject venom deeper into the skin.

The wound left by the bite may be accompanied by swelling, redness, and small puncture wounds which may form a circular pattern. This wound may be susceptible to local ulcerations and necrosis.

Severe bite from larger species may cause a dangerous and life-threatening anaphylaxis if not treated. Infections may also occur.

Treatment[edit]

Immediate treatment consists of rinsing the bite site in cold water. If not too painful, ice the bite site. This constricts the blood vessels so the venom does not spread. Also recommended is papain, an enzyme that breaks down protein. Papain can be found in meat tenderizer and papaya. This deactivates the majority of the centipede venom's proteins. Depending on the type of centipede and level of envenomation, this treatment may not degrade the entire venom dose and residual pain will remain.

Individuals who are bitten by centipedes are sometimes given a urine test to check for muscle tissue breakdown and/or an EKG to check for heart and vascular problems.

Reassurance and pain relief is often given in the form of painkillers, such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medications, antihistamines and anti-anxiety medications. In a severe case the affected limb can be elevated and diuretic medications can be administered.

Wound care principles and sometimes antibiotics are used to keep the wound itself from becoming infected or necrotic.

In Barbados, a folk remedy involves applying a freshly cut onion to the site of the injury.

Famous case(s)[edit]

Naturalist Jacques-Henri Bernardin de Saint-Pierre reported that his dog died from a centipede bite during travels in Mauritius.[4]

YouTube personality and naturalist Coyote Peterson has been intentionally bitten by Scolopendra heros (giant desert centipede) and declares that the pain caused by the bite is worse than a bullet ant sting.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ James, William D.; Berger, Timothy G.; et al. (2006). Andrews' Diseases of the Skin: clinical Dermatology. Saunders Elsevier. ISBN 0-7216-2921-0.
  2. ^ "Centipede Bite". Orkin. 2011. Retrieved April 29, 2011.
  3. ^ Sean P. Bush; Bradley O. King; Robert L. Norris; Scott A. Stockwell (2001). "Centipede envenomation". Wilderness & Environmental Medicine. 12 (2): 93–99. doi:10.1580/1080-6032(2001)012[0093:CE]2.0.CO;2. PMID 11434497.
  4. ^ Henri Bernardin de Saint-Pierre, Voyage à l'Isle de France, à l'Isle de Bourbon, au Cap de Bonne-Espérance, etc. avec des observations nouvelles sur la nature et sur les hommes (Paris: 1773), p. 128.

External links[edit]

Classification