Central Algonquian languages

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Central Algonquian
(areal)
Geographic
distribution:
North America
Linguistic classification: Algic
Subdivisions:
Glottolog: None
cree1271  (Cree-Montagnais-Naskapi)[1]
east2765  (Eastern Great Lakes Algonquian)[2]
meno1252  (Menominee)[3]

The Central Algonquian languages are commonly grouped together as a subgroup of the larger Algonquian family, itself a member of the Algic family. Though the grouping is often encountered in the literature, it is an areal grouping rather than a genetic one. In other words, the languages are grouped together because they were spoken near each other, not because they are any more closely related to one another than to any other Algonquian language. Within the Algonquian family, only Eastern Algonquian is a valid genealogical group.

Within the Central Algonquian grouping languages that are closely related are Potawatomi and Chippewa, otherwise known as Ojibwe, which are generally grouped together as an Ojibwa-Potawatomi sub-branch. David J. Costa speculated in his 2003-2004 web publications that within Central Algonquian is a specific language sub-branch that he refers to as "Eastern Great Lakes." The hypothesis for the subgroup is based on lexical and phonological innovations.

Family division[edit]

The languages are listed below along with dialects and subdialects. This classification follows Goddard (1996) and Mithun (1999).

1. Cree-Montagnais (also known as Kirištino˙ or Cree-Montagnais-Naskapi)

i. Cree
ii. Montagnais-Naskapi

2. Menominee (also known as Menomini)
I. Eastern Great Lakes (also known as Core Central)

a. Ojibwe–Potawatomi (also known as Ojibwe–Potawatomi–Ottawa, Anishinaabemowin, or the Anishinaabe language)
3. Ojibwe (also known as Ojibwa, Ojibway, Ojibwe–Ottawa, Ojibwemowin or the Anishinaabe language)
i. Northern
  • Algonquin
  • Oji-Cree (also known as Severn Ojibwe, Anishininiimowin or the Anishinini language)
ii. Southern
4. Potawatomi
5. Fox (also known as Fox-Sauk-Kickapoo or Mesquakie-Sauk-Kickapoo)
  • Fox (also known as Meskwaki, Mesquakie, or Meshkwahkihaki)
  • Sauk (also known as Sac and Fox)
  • Kickapoo
  • Mascouten (unattested)
6. Shawnee (Ša˙wano˙ki)
7. Miami-Illinois

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank, Sebastian, eds. (2016). "Cree-Montagnais-Naskapi". Glottolog 2.7. Jena: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. 
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank, Sebastian, eds. (2016). "Eastern Great Lakes Algonquian". Glottolog 2.7. Jena: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. 
  3. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank, Sebastian, eds. (2016). "Menominee". Glottolog 2.7. Jena: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. 

External links[edit]

Bibliography[edit]

  • Campbell, Lyle (1997). American Indian languages: The historical linguistics of Native America. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-509427-1.
  • Goddard, Ives (1994). "The West-to-East Cline in Algonquian Dialectology." In William Cowan, ed., Papers of the 25th Algonquian Conference 187-211. Ottawa: Carleton University.
  • ———— (1996). "Introduction". In Ives Goddard, ed., "Languages". Vol. 17 of William Sturtevant, ed., The Handbook of North American Indians. Washington, D.C.: The Smithsonian Institution.
  • Mithun, Marianne (1999). The languages of Native North America. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-23228-7 (hbk); ISBN 0-521-29875-X.