Central Asia–China gas pipeline

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Central Asia–China gas pipeline
The route of the gas pipeline
The route of the gas pipeline
CountryTurkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, China
General directionsouth–north-east
FromRight bank of Amu Darya, Saman-Depe, Turkmenistan
Passes throughOlot, Shymkent, Alataw Pass
ToHorgos, Xinjiang, People's Republic of China
(connected to West–East Gas Pipeline)
Runs alongsideBukhara–Tashkent–Bishkek–Almaty pipeline, Kazakhstan-China oil pipeline
General information
Typenatural gas
PartnersChina National Petroleum Corporation
Construction started2007
Technical information
Length1,833 km (1,139 mi)
Maximum discharge55 billion cubic metres per annum (1.9×10^12 cu ft/a)
Diameter1,067 mm (42 in)

The Central Asia–China gas pipeline (known also as Turkmenistan–China gas pipeline) is a natural gas pipeline system from Central Asia to Xinjiang in the People's Republic of China. By connecting Turkmenistan to China’s domestic grid, this pipeline makes it possible to transport gas some 7000 km from Turkmenistan to Shanghai.[1][2] More than half of Turkmen natural gas exports are delivered to China through the pipeline.[3]


The initial proposal for Central Asia–China gas pipeline was presented as the Kazakhstan–China gas pipeline, which was to follow along the Kazakhstan-China oil pipeline. In June 2003, during China's President Hu Jintao's visit to Kazakhstan, agreements to expedite the appraisal of the project were signed.[4] Following these agreements, KazMunayGas and PetroChina started a feasibility study of the pipeline project. At the same time China continued negotiations with other Central Asian countries.

On 3 April 2006, China and Turkmenistan signed a framework agreement on the pipeline construction and long-term gas supply.[5] In June 2007, during his visit to China, Turkmeni President Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedow signed an accord to speed up implementation of the Turkmeni-Chinese gas pipeline project.[6] On 30 April 2007, Uzbekistan and China signed an agreement on the construction and exploitation of the pipeline's Uzbekistan section.[7] In July 2007, it was formally announced that Turkmenistan will join original Kazakhstan-China pipeline project.[8] On 8 November 2007, Kazakhstan's oil company KazMunayGas signed an agreement with the China National Petroleum Corporation on principles of future work on the pipeline.[9]

On 30 August 2007, the construction of the 188 kilometres (117 mi) long Turkmen section of the pipeline began.[10] This section was built by Stroytransgaz, a subsidiary of Gazprom.[11] Main contractors were China Petroleum Pipeline Bureau, China Petroleum Engineering and Construction Corporation, and Zeromax.[12] Construction of the Uzbek section started on 30 June 2008.[12][13] It was built by Asia Trans Gas, a joint venture of Uzbekneftegas and CNPC.[14] Construction works of the Kazakh section started on 9 July 2008 and the first stage was finished in July 2009.[15] It was built by Asian Gas Pipeline company, a joint venture of CNPC and KazMunayGas.[16] The main contractors of this section were KazStroyService and China Petroleum Engineering and Construction Corporation.[17] The first of the two initial parallel line were completed early November 2009.[18]

The Kazakh section of the pipeline was inaugurated on 12 December 2009 during China's president Hu Jintao's visit to Kazakhstan.[19] The whole pipeline was inaugurated on 14 December 2009 in a ceremony in Saman-Depe during Hu Jintao's visit to Turkmenistan with the leaders of Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan.[20] On 13 June 2010 China and Kazakhstan signed an agreement on a branch line from Western Kazakhstan.[21]

The second line was completed by the end of 2010. Construction of the third line began in 2012.[22] It became operational on 15 June 2014, and is expected to reach the designed throughput of 25 billion cubic metres per annum (880×10^9 cu ft/a) in December 2015. The construction of a fourth line of the pipeline is expected to be launched at the end of 2014.[23]


According to CNPC, the inflow of Turkmen gas helps China in meeting its energy demands and stabilizes the country's overall consumption structure. It was expected that the pipeline's deliveries boost the natural gas proportion of energy consumption of China by an estimated 2%, which reduces the overall smoke, dust and carbon dioxide emissions.[24] For Turkmenistan, the project helps the country diversify its energy exports by delivering gas eastward as opposed to its previous deliveries to Russia and Iran. Until the inauguration of the pipeline, nearly 70% of Turkmenistan's gas exports transited through Russian pipelines.[25] Central Asia–China gas pipeline is the first pipeline to bring Central Asian natural gas to China and highlights China's quest for Central Asian energy exports. While Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan are also considering selling their gas to China, Chinese government already made new moves to penetrate deeper into Central Asian energy sector by lending $3 billion to Turkmenistan to develop the South Iolotan field in 2009 and $10 billion to Kazakhstan to pay for future oil supplies.[26]

Technical features[edit]

The length of Lines A, B, and C is about 1,833 kilometres (1,139 mi), of which 188 kilometres (117 mi) in Turkmenistan and 530 kilometres (330 mi) in Uzbekistan.[10][18][19][24] The diameter of each pipeline is 1,067 millimetres (42.0 in).[17] Lines A, B, and C constitute three parallel lines with combined total capacity of 55 billion cubic metres per annum (1.9×10^12 cu ft/a) which was reached by 2015.[23] Construction of the first line cost US$7.3 billion.[27] The pipeline project also includes the desulfurization plant at Samand-Depe to remove high sulfur content of natural gas.

A fourth pipeline (Line D), 966 kilometres (600 mi) in length to connect Galkynysh to western China via Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan, is under construction, and is expected to be completed in 2020. Upon its completion, total capacity of the four lines is expected to reach 65 billion cubic metres per year.[28]


The pipeline starts in Saman-Depe carrying natural gas from the Bagtyyarlyk gas fields on the right bank of Amu Darya in Turkmenistan. It is mainly supplied from Iolotan and Sag Kenar fields.[29] The pipeline enters Uzbekistan in Olot and runs across Uzbekistan to southern Kazakhstan parallel to the existing Bukhara–Tashkent–Bishkek–Almaty pipeline.[6][30] The pipeline crosses the Kazakhstan–China border at Khorgos, where it is connected to the second West–East Gas Pipeline.[31][32]

In Shymkent, the pipeline will be linked with the 1,400-kilometre (870 mi) branch line from Beyneu in western Kazakhstan.[21][33] It will supply natural gas from the Karachaganak, Tengiz and Kashagan gas fields.[34] The branch line will have a capacity of 15 billion cubic meters of natural gas per year.[33][35] It will be commissioned in 2014.[33]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ M. Anker, P. Baev, B. Brunstad, I. Overland, S. Torjesen, The Caspian Sea Region Towards 2025: Caspia Inc., National Giants or Trade and Transit? Eburon, Delft, Netherlands, 2010.
  2. ^ Overland, Indra (1 April 2016). "Energy: The missing link in globalization". Energy Research & Social Science. 14: 122–130. doi:10.1016/j.erss.2016.01.009.
  3. ^ Vakulchuk, Roman and Indra Overland (2019) “China’s Belt and Road Initiative through the Lens of Central Asia”, in Fanny M. Cheung and Ying-yi Hong (eds) Regional Connection under the Belt and Road Initiative. The Prospects for Economic and Financial Cooperation. London: Routledge, p. 125.
  4. ^ "China, Kazakhstan Discuss Cross-border Gas Pipeline". China Daily. 25 August 2004. Retrieved 27 July 2007.
  5. ^ Daniel Kimmage (10 April 2006). "Central Asia: Turkmenistan-China Pipeline Project Has Far-Reaching Implications". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. Retrieved 27 July 2007.
  6. ^ a b "Analysis: Turkmen Gas Deal Extends Chinese Influence". BBC Monitoring Central Asia. Downstream Today. 26 July 2007. Retrieved 27 July 2007.
  7. ^ "Uzbekistan and China to build gas pipeline". Caucaz.com. 1 May 2007. Retrieved 27 July 2007.
  8. ^ "Turkmenistan to join China, Kazakhstan pipeline project – KazMunaiGas EP CEO". Forbes. AFX News. 4 July 2007. Retrieved 27 July 2007.
  9. ^ Maria Golovnina (8 November 2007). "Kazakhstan, China agree to press ahead with pipeline". Reuters. Retrieved 15 March 2008.
  10. ^ a b "Turkmen break ground on China pipe". Upstream Online. NHST Media Group. 30 August 2007. (subscription required). Retrieved 9 September 2007.
  11. ^ Marat Gurt (19 February 2008). "Russian company wins Turkmen China pipeline tender". Reuters. Retrieved 15 March 2008.
  12. ^ a b "Kazakhstan: Workers Complete Section of Turkmenistan-China Pipeline". Eurasianet. 10 July 2009. Archived from the original on 15 July 2009. Retrieved 16 July 2009.
  13. ^ "Central Asia-China Gas Pipeline To Start Service Next Year". Asiaport Daily News. Downstream Today. 3 July 2008. Retrieved 7 July 2008.
  14. ^ "Central Asia-China Gas Pipeline, Turkmenistan to China". hydrocarbons-technology.com. 25 September 2013. Retrieved 25 September 2013.
  15. ^ "Kazakhstan gets cracking on China pipe". Upstream Online. NHST Media Group. 9 July 2008. (subscription required). Retrieved 9 July 2008.
  16. ^ "Beijing digs in with Kazakh pipes". Upstream Online. NHST Media Group. 9 April 2008. (subscription required). Retrieved 19 April 2008.
  17. ^ a b "Construction cost of Kazakhstan to China gas pipeline increases". Steel Guru. 13 July 2009. Archived from the original on 4 January 2013. Retrieved 16 July 2009.
  18. ^ a b "CNPC To Build Phase II Central Asia-China Gas Pipeline". Downstream Today. Xinhua. 12 November 2009. Retrieved 14 November 2009.
  19. ^ a b Nurshayeva, Raushan; Zhumatov, Shamil (12 December 2009). "China's Hu boosts energy ties with Central Asia". Reuters. Retrieved 12 December 2009.
  20. ^ Gurt, Marat (14 December 2009). "China extends influence into C.Asia with pipeline". Reuters. Retrieved 14 December 2009.
  21. ^ a b Wan Zhihong (14 June 2010). "China, Kazakhstan sign new gas pipeline deal". China Daily. Retrieved 20 June 2010.
  22. ^ "Construction on third line begins for Central Asia-China Gas Pipeline". Pipelines International. March 2012. Archived from the original on 12 November 2014.
  23. ^ a b "China, Central Asian countries open 3rd gas line". Business Recorder. 16 June 2014. Retrieved 20 June 2014.
  24. ^ a b "Central Asia Pipeline to Secure Gas for China". ChinaStakes. 2 July 2008. Archived from the original on 23 July 2012. Retrieved 24 February 2009.
  25. ^ Philip H. de Leon (22 December 2009). "China secures gas from Turkmenistan: Who's the real winner?". Resource Investor. Retrieved 23 December 2009.
  26. ^ Gorst, Isabel; Dyer, Geoff (14 December 2009). "Pipeline brings Asian gas to China". Financial Times. Retrieved 14 December 2009.
  27. ^ "China National Petroleum subsidiaries to pay billions for Central Asia gas pipeline". The China Post. 30 December 2007. Retrieved 1 June 2008.
  28. ^ "Завершается строительство дополнительной ветки газопровода «ЦА-Китай»" (in Russian). ORIENT-ИНФОРМАЦИОННОЕ АГЕНТСТВО "МЕДИА-ТУРКМЕН". 30 January 2020.
  29. ^ "Turkmenistan's Producers – The Gas Sector". APS Review Gas Market Trends. 22 September 2008. Retrieved 29 November 2009.
  30. ^ Ögütçü, Mehmet (2 October 2006). Kazakhstan's expanding cross-border gas links. Implications for Europe, Russia, China and other CIS countries (PDF). Windsor Energy Group's Regional Pipelines Roundtable. Almaty: The Centre for Energy, Petroleum and Mineral Law and Policy at the University of Dundee. Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 September 2007. Retrieved 2007-07-27.
  31. ^ "2nd West-East gas pipeline project in construction". People's Daily. 23 July 2008. Retrieved 28 July 2010.
  32. ^ Sharip, Farkhad (21 December 2007). "China secures new access to Kazakh oil". Eurasia Daily Monitor. The Jamestown Foundation. Retrieved 28 July 2010.
  33. ^ a b c Watkins, Eric (18 June 2010). "China, Kazakhstan sign accords for gas, uranium". Oil % Gas Journal. PennWell Corporation. Retrieved 20 June 2010.
  34. ^ "CNPC, JV Partner to Build 2nd Phase of China-Kazakh Pipeline". Asia Pulse. Downstream Today. 17 June 2010. Retrieved 20 June 2010.
  35. ^ Franz, Paris (13 June 2010). "China, Kazakhstan agree deals on gas, nuclear energy". DigitalJournal.com. Retrieved 20 June 2010.

External links[edit]