Central Bikol language

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Central Bikol
bicolano central
Native to Philippines
Region Bicol
Native speakers
unknown (2.5 million cited 1990 census)[1]
7th most spoken native language in the Philippines[2]
Latin (Bikol alphabet)
Bikol Braille
Historically Baybayin
Official status
Official language in
Regional language in the Philippines
Regulated by Commission on the Filipino Language
Language codes
ISO 639-3 bcl
Glottolog cent2087[3]

Central Bikol or commonly called as Bikol Legaspi or Bikol Naga is the most-spoken language in the Bicol region of southern Luzon, Philippines. It is spoken in the northern and western part of Camarines Sur, second congressional district of Camarines Norte, eastern part of Albay, northeastern part of Sorsogon, San Pascual town in Masbate, and southwestern part of Catanduanes. Central Bikol speakers can be found in all provinces of Bicol and it is a majority language in Camarines Sur. The standard Sprachraum form is based on the Canaman dialect.

Central Bikol features some vocabularies that are not found in other Bikol languages nor to other members of Central Philippine language family like Tagalog and Cebuano. Example of these are the words like matua and bitis which are the same with Kapampangan words that means older and foot/feet respectively. The word banggi (night) is also another example of this as it is different from the usual Bikol word "gab-i" but closer to the word bengi of Kapampangan. There's no formal study about the relationship of Central Luzon languages to Central Bikol but the latter has several words that are also found in the archaic form of Tagalog spoken in Rizal and Quezon provinces that are believed to be the home of Central Luzon languages such as Kapampangan and Sambalic languages in Zambales province.


Central Bikol dialects[edit]

Because of its broad geographic coverage as compare to other Bikol languages separated by islands and mountains, Central Bikol diverged into 6 dialects, but are mutually comprehensible. The division of the language into different dialects are mainly because of the influence from other Bikol languages and other languages sourrounding the region.

Canaman dialect though being used only by a small number of population in Camarines Sur, is the standard form of Central Bikol being used in literature, Catholic religious rites and mass media. Naga dialect is spoken in the first and second districts of Camarines Sur (except in Del Gallego, where residents are mostly Tagalog speakers) and in San Pascual, Masbate. Partido dialect is spoken in the eastern part of Camarines Sur centered in Goa and Lagonoy. Tabaco-Legazpi-Sorsogon (TLS) dialect is spoken in the eastern coast of Albay and northeastern part of Sorsogon. TLS is the dialect most influenced by Inland Bikol languages. Daet dialect on the other hand is spoken in the southern half of the province of Camarines Norte. Virac dialect is spoken around Virac, Catanduanes and surrounding towns on the southwestern part of the island of Catanduanes.

Dialectal comparison of Central Bikol[edit]

Canaman dialect (Standard) Naga dialect Partido dialect Tabaco-Legazpi-Sorsogon (TLS) dialect Virac dialect Daet dialect Rinconada Bikol language
(Inland Bikol)
Sorsoganon language
(Bisakol)
Tâdaw ta dae luminayog an bayong ni Pedro dawà na dae nin kandado si hawla? Tâno daw ta dai naglayog an gamgam ni Pedro dawà na mayò nin kandado si hawla? Hadaw ta `e naglayog an gamgam ni Pedro maski `e nin kandado su hawla? Natà daw ta dai naglayog an bayong ni Pedro maski wara nin kandado su hawla? Ngata daw ta dai naglayog an bayong ni Pedro maski dai nin kandado si hawla? Bakin kaya dai naglayog an gamgam ni Pedro maski mayong kandado si hawla? Ta onō (Ta ŋātâ) raw ta dirî naglayog adtoŋ bayoŋ ni Pedro dāwâ ədâ kandādo su awlā? Nakay daw kay dire naglayog an tamsi ni Pedro maski wara kandado an hawla?

Like other Philippine languages, Bikol has a number of loanwords, largely Spanish as a result of 333 years of Spanish rule in the Philippines. This includes suerte (luck), karne (carne, meat), imbestigador (investigador, investigator), litro (liter), pero (but), and krimen (crimen, crime). Another source of loanwords is Sanskrit, with words like hade (king) and karma.

Grammar[edit]

Alimantak

  Absolutive Ergative Oblique
1st person singular ako ko sakuya, sako, kanako, saako
2nd person singular ika, ka mo saimo, si-mo, kanimo
3rd person singular siya, iya niya saiya, kaniya
1st person plural inclusive kita nyato, ta satuya, sato, kanato, saato
1st person plural exclusive kami nyamo, mi samuya, samo, kanamo, saamo
2nd person plural kamo nindo saindo, kaninyo, saiyo
3rd person plural sinda ninda sainda, kanira

Particles[edit]

Like many other Philippine languages, Bikol has a rich set of discourse particles.

  • bagá – expresses doubt or hesitation
  • bayâ – giving a chance to someone; polite insisting
  • daa – (Tagalog: daw) quoting information from a secondary source
  • daw – (Tagalog: ba/kaya) interrogative particle
  • garo – (Tagalog: mukhang, parang) likeness or similitude. English: "It looks like, it's as if."
  • gáyo – "exactly"
  • daing gáyo – "not exactly, not really"
  • gayód / nanggayod – (Tagalog: bakâ) "maybe, could be"
  • giráray / liwát – (Tagalog: [m]uli) "again"
  • kutá-na / kutâ – "I hope (something did / did not happen" ; "If only ..." (conditionality of past events)
  • lang / lámang / saná – (Tagalog: lang) "only, just"
  • lugód – hoping that something will happen, or expressing surrender
  • man – (Tagalog: din, rin) "also" or "ever" (such as ano man 'whatever' and siisay man 'whoever')
  • mú-na / ngó-na – (Tagalog: muna) "first" or "yet"
  • na – (Tagalog: na) "now" or "already"
  • naman – (Tagalog: naman) "again"
  • nanggad / mananggad – (Tagalog: talaga, nga) "really, truly, absolutely" (adds a sense of certainty)
  • nyako – "I said"
  • ngani – expresses fate ("This is helpless") or a plea for others not to insist
  • ngantig – reports something one has said to a third person
  • ngapit – "then," "in case," "during/while" (span of time)
  • ngaya – politeness in requesting information ("so," "let's see")
  • pa – (Tagalog: pa) "still"
  • palán – (Tagalog: pala) expresses surprise or sudden realization
  • po – (Tagalog: po) politeness marker; "tabí" in some Bikol dialects
  • túlos / túlos-túlos – (Tagalog: agad-agad) "immediately, right away"

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Central Bikol at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. ^ Philippine Census, 2000. Table 11. Household Population by Ethnicity, Sex and Region: 2000
  3. ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Central Bicolano". Glottolog. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. 

References[edit]

  • Lobel, Jason William, Wilmer Joseph S Tria, and Jose Maria Z Carpio. 2000. An satuyang tataramon / A study of the Bikol language. Naga City, Philippines: Lobel & Tria Partnership, Co.: Holy Rosary Minor Seminary.

External links[edit]