|Historical region of Croatiaa|
|• Total||28,337 km2 (10,941 sq mi)|
|• Density||85/km2 (220/sq mi)|
b The figure is an approximation based on the territorial span and population of ten Croatian counties (Bjelovar-Bilogora, Karlovac, Koprivnica-Križevci, Krapina-Zagorje, Lika-Senj, Littoral-Gorski Kotar, Međimurje, Sisak-Moslavina, Varaždin, Zagreb) and the City of Zagreb.
Croatia proper (// ( listen); Croatian: Hrvatska pronounced [xř̩ʋaːtskaː]) is one of the four historical regions of the Republic of Croatia, together with Dalmatia, Slavonia, and Istria. It is located between Slavonia in the east, the Adriatic Sea in the west, and Dalmatia to the south. The region is not officially defined, and its borders and extent are described differently by various sources. Croatia proper is the most significant economic area of the country, contributing well over 50% of Croatia's gross domestic product. The capital of both Croatia proper, and the Republic of Croatia, Zagreb, is the largest city and most important economic centre in the region.
It only became Croatia proper in 1522, when the capital of Croatia was moved from Dalmatia to Bihac.
Croatia proper comprises several smaller regions of its own: Lika, Gorski Kotar, Međimurje, the Croatian Littoral, Podravina, Posavina, Kordun, Banovina, Prigorje, Turopolje, Moslavina, and Žumberak. The region covers 28,337 square kilometres (10,941 square miles) of land and has a population of 2,418,214. Croatia proper straddles the boundary between the Dinaric Alps and the Pannonian Basin. The boundary of these two geomorphological units runs from Žumberak to Banovina, along the Sava River. The Dinaric Alps area is typified by karst topography, while the Pannonian Basin exhibits plains, especially in the river valleys—along the Sava, Drava, and Kupa—interspersed with hills and mountains developed as horst and graben structures. Lika and Gorski Kotar are part of the Dinaric Alps, and contain five out of eight mountains in Croatia higher than 1,500 metres (4,900 feet). Karst topography predominates in that area, resulting in specific landforms and hydrology because of the interaction of the karst and the region's watercourses—this is exemplified by the Plitvice Lakes. Most of the region has a moderately warm and rainy continental climate, although there is considerable seasonal snow at greater elevations. The region belongs almost exclusively to the Black Sea drainage basin and includes most of the large rivers flowing in Croatia.
The boundaries of Croatia proper were shaped by territorial losses of medieval Croatia to the Republic of Venice and the Ottoman conquest starting in the 15th century. In effect, Croatia proper loosely corresponds to what was termed reliquiae reliquiarum olim magni et inclyti regni Croatiae (the relics of the relics of the formerly great and glorious Kingdom of Croatia) and the subsequent Kingdom of Croatia within the Habsburg Empire. The region contains most of the 180 preserved or restored castles and manor houses in Croatia, as it was spared any large-scale war damage throughout its history. Varaždin and Zagreb occupy prominent spots in terms of culture among the region's cities. The west of the region represents a natural barrier between the Adriatic Sea and the Pannonian Basin, and this, along with Ottoman conquest and resulting military frontier status, has contributed to the relatively poor development of the economy and infrastructure of that area.
Croatia proper is a geographic region of Croatia that encompasses territory around Zagreb, located between Slavonia in the east and the Adriatic Sea in the west. Its exact borders are determined ambiguously, and the extent of the region is defined differently by various sources. The border with Slavonia to the east was variously defined throughout history, depending on the political divisions of Croatia. Croatia proper roughly corresponds to the area of Zagreb and ten Croatian counties: Bjelovar-Bilogora, Karlovac, Koprivnica-Križevci, Krapina-Zagorje, Lika-Senj, Međimurje, Primorje-Gorski Kotar, Sisak-Moslavina, Varaždin, and Zagreb County.
Most of the region, excluding Primorje-Gorski Kotar and Lika-Senj counties, is part of the Continental Croatia NUTS-2 statistical unit along with all of Slavonia. Primorje-Gorski Kotar and Lika-Senj are included in the Adriatic Croatia NUTS unit.
The ten counties and Zagreb cover 28,337 square kilometres (10,941 square miles) of land, corresponding to 50% of the territory of Croatia, and have a population of 2,418,214 yielding a population density of 85.3377/km2 (221.024/sq mi). Croatia proper comprises several smaller regions of its own: the Croatian Littoral, Lika, Gorski Kotar, Međimurje, Podravina, Posavina, Kordun, Banovina, Prigorje, Turopolje, Moslavina, and Žumberak. The western areas of Lika and Gorski Kotar suffered from population depletion during World War II and the Croatian War of Independence, and the 2001 census indicated a large proportion of elderly. In 2001, 31.5% of population of Lika was over 60 years of age. The Ogulin-Plaški Valley contains the largest settlement of the area, Ogulin, with a population of 8,216. The second-largest settlement in Mountainous Croatia, and the largest in Lika, is Gospić
|City of Zagreb||Zagreb||641||792,875|
|Source: Croatian Bureau of Statistics|
Croatia proper straddles the boundary between the Dinaric Alps and the Pannonian Basin, two of three major geomorphological parts of Croatia. The boundary runs from the 1,181-metre (3,875 ft) Žumberak range to the Banovina area, along the Sava River. The Dinaric Alps are linked to a fold and thrust belt active from the Late Jurassic to recent times, and is itself part of the Alpine orogeny that extends southeast from the southern Alps. Karst topography is especially prominent in the Dinaric Alps.
The Pannonian Basin took shape through Miocenian thinning and subsidence of crust structures formed during the Late Paleozoic Variscan orogeny. Paleozoic and Mesozoic structures are visible in Papuk and other Slavonian mountains. The processes also led to the formation of a stratovolcanic chain in the basin 12–17 Mya; intensified subsidence was observed until 5 Mya as well as flood basalts at about 7.5 Mya. The contemporary tectonic uplift of the Carpathian Mountains cut off the flow of water to the Black Sea, and the Pannonian Sea formed in the basin. Sediments were transported to the basin from the uplifting Carpathian and Dinaric mountains, with particularly deep fluvial sediments being deposited in the Pleistocene epoch during the formation of the Transdanubian Mountains. Ultimately up to 3,000 metres (9,800 ft) of sediment was deposited in the basin, and the sea eventually drained through the Iron Gate gorge. The result is large plains, particularly in river valleys, and especially along the Sava, Drava, and Kupa rivers. The plains are interspersed with horst and graben structures, believed to have broken the Pannonian Sea's surface as islands. The tallest among these landforms are 1,059-metre (3,474 ft) Ivanšćica and 1,035-metre (3,396 ft) Medvednica, north of Zagreb. Parts of 489-metre (1,604 ft) Moslavačka gora, along with igneous landforms on Papuk and Požeška gora mountains in Slavonia to the east, are possibly remnants of a volcanic arc from the same tectonic plate collision that caused the Dinaric Alps.
|Highest mountains of Croatia proper|
|Velebit||Vaganski Peak||1,757 m (5,764 ft)|
|Plješivica||Ozeblin||1,657 m (5,436 ft)|
|Velika Kapela||Bjelolasica-Kula||1,533 m (5,030 ft)|
|Risnjak||Risnjak||1,528 m (5,013 ft)|
|Snježnik||Snježnik||1,506 m (4,941 ft)|
|Žumberak||Sveta Gera||1,181 m (3,875 ft)|
|Ivanšćica||Ivanšćica||1,059 m (3,474 ft)|
|Medvednica||Sljeme||1,035 m (3,396 ft)|
|Samoborska gora||Japetić||879 m (2,884 ft)|
|Strahinščica||Strahinščica||846 m (2,776 ft)|
|Plešivica||Plešivica||777 m (2,549 ft)|
|Ravna gora (Trakošćan)||Ravna gora||686 m (2,251 ft)|
|Kalničko gorje||Kalnik||642 m (2,106 ft)|
|Zrinska gora||Piramida||616 m (2,021 ft)|
|Vodenica||Vodenica||537 m (1,762 ft)|
|Petrova gora||Veliki Petrovac||512 m (1,680 ft)|
The region is a part of the Dinaric Alps, linked to a Late Jurassic to recent times fold and thrust belt, itself part of the Alpine orogeny, extending southeast from the southern Alps. The Dinaric Alps in Croatia encompass the entire Gorski Kotar and Lika regions, as well as considerable parts of Dalmatia, with their northeastern edge running from 1,181-metre (3,875 ft) Žumberak to the Banovina region, along the Sava River, and their westernmost landforms being 1,272-metre (4,173 ft) Ćićarija and 1,396-metre (4,580 ft) Učka mountains in Istria. The Mountainous Croatia contains five out of eight mountains in Croatia higher than 1,500 metres (4,900 feet): Velebit, Plješivica, Velika Kapela, Risnjak and Snježnik. Karst topography makes up about half of Croatia and is especially prominent in the Dinaric Alps and in turn, the Mountainous Croatia. There are numerous caves in the Mountainous Croatia. The longest cave in Croatia and in the entire Dinaric Alps, 20,656-metre (67,769 ft) Kita Gaćešina, is located in southern Velebit area of the Mountainous Croatia.
Hydrology and climate
The vast majority of the region is encompassed by the Black Sea drainage basin. The area includes all the largest rivers flowing in the country—Sava, Drava, Mura, and Kupa—except the Danube. The largest lakes in Croatia proper are 17.1-square-kilometre (6.6 sq mi) Lake Dubrava and 10.1-square-kilometre (3.9 sq mi) Lake Varaždin reservoirs, both near Varaždin, through which the Drava River flows. Croatia proper has a wealth of wetlands. Two out of the four Croatian wetlands included in the Ramsar list of internationally-important wetlands are located in the region—Lonjsko Polje along the Sava and Lonja rivers near Sisak, and Crna Mlaka near Jastrebarsko. A high degree of karstification of the terrain in the Dinaric Alps has resulted in an increased permeability of soil and rocks and the formation of travertine barriers and waterfalls. The finest examples of the interaction of watercourses and karst are the Plitvice Lakes, listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site, and Rastoke, to the north of the Plitvice Lakes.
Lika and Gorski Kotar are marked by several significant rivers draining north towards the Pannonian Basin. Those are the Kupa, tracing the northern boundary of the region, Dobra, Mrežnica and the Korana—forming travertine barriers and waterfalls before discharging into Kupa in area of Karlovac, as well as Una, in the eastern part of the region, at the border of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Furthermore, there are losing streams such as Gacka, Krbava and Lika rivers, reflecting a high degree of karstification of the terrain in the region, resulting in increased permeability of soil and rocks. Ingress of water underground resulted in formation of subterranean watercourses and lakes. Probably the finest example of interaction of karst terrain and watercourses in the area are Plitvice Lakes—16 interlinked lakes between Mala Kapela and Plješevica, through which Korana River flows. The area is abundant in travertine barriers, waterfalls and caves of biological origin—created through deposition of calcium carbonate through agency of moss, algae and aquatic bacteria. The Plitvice Lakes are listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site, and they are a part of one of three Croatia's national parks located in the Mountainous Croatia, along with Risnjak and Sjeverni Velebit.
Croatia proper has a moderately warm and rainy continental climate (Dfb) as defined by the Köppen climate classification. Mean monthly temperatures range between −3 °C (27 °F) (in January) and 18 °C (64 °F) (in July). Temperature peaks are pronounced in the region compared to parts of Croatia closer to the Adriatic Sea, because of the absence of its moderating effect. The lowest temperature of −35.5 °C (−31.9 °F) was recorded on 3 February 1919 in Čakovec, and the highest temperature of 42.4 °C (108.3 °F) was recorded on 5 July 1950 in Karlovac. Gorski Kotar and Lika represent the coldest parts of Croatia as mean annual temperature there ranges between 8 and 10 °C (46 and 50 °F) at lower elevations and 2 and 4 °C (36 and 39 °F) at greater elevations. Gorski Kotar mountain peaks of Risnjak and Snježnik receive the greatest precipitation in Croatia—3,500 millimetres (140 inches) per year. Overall, the region has no arid periods of the year. Gorski Kotar also receives the least sunlight—1,700 hours per year on average.
According to the 2011 census, the total population of the ten counties of Croatia proper, together with that of the city of Zagreb, is 2,418,214—representing 56.4% of the population of Croatia. The largest proportion of the total population lives in the city of Zagreb, followed by Zagreb County. Lika-Senj County is the least populous county of Croatia proper. The population density of the counties ranges from 156.9 to 9.5 persons per square kilometre, with the highest density recorded in Međimurje County and the lowest in Lika-Senj County. The highest population density is recorded in the city of Zagreb area, at 1,236.9 persons per square kilometre. Zagreb is the largest city in Croatia proper, followed by Rijeka, Karlovac, Varaždin, Sisak, and Velika Gorica. Other cities in Croatia proper have populations below 30,000. According to the 2001 census, Croats account for 92.0 percent of population of the region, and the most significant ethnic minority are Serbs, comprising 3.4 percent of the population. The largest proportion of the Serb minority was recorded in the Sisak-Moslavina and Karlovac counties (11.7 percent and 11.0 percent respectively), while a significant Czech minority was observed in Bjelovar-Bilogora county, comprising 5.3 percent of population of the county.
|The most populous urban areas in Croatia proper|
|Rank||City||County||Urban population||Municipal population|
|1||Zagreb||City of Zagreb||686,568||792,875|
|Sources: Croatian Bureau of Statistics, 2011 Census|
The lowland regions of Croatia proper are the most significant economic area of Croatia in terms of its contribution to the national gross domestic product (GDP). The city of Zagreb alone contributes 30.9 percent of Croatia's GDP, followed by Zagreb and Varaždin counties, contributing 5.5 percent and 3.6 percent of the nation's GDP respectively. taken on its own, the area contributes 54.5 percent of Croatia's GDP and has an average GDP per capita of 12,446 euros—16.7 percent above the national average. By 2011, the national GDP share increased further for the city of Zagreb and Zagreb County, reaching 31.4 percent and 5.7 percent respectively.
The economy of the city of Zagreb represents the bulk of the economy of Croatia proper. Its most significant components are wholesale and retail trade, accounting for 38.1% of the city's economic income, followed by the processing industry, encompassing 20.3% of the economy of Zagreb. Further industries, by income share, are the energy industry—the supply of electric power, natural gas, steam, and air conditioning (7.8%); information and communications (7.2%); civil engineering (5.4%), professional technical and scientific services (4.6%); financial services (4.5%); and transport and storage services (3.9%). These account for 91.8% of the total income of the city's economy. Small businesses generate 22% of the total income; 14.4% is attributed to medium enterprises and the rest to large companies. The economy of the Zagreb County, largely contiguous with Zagreb's metropolitan area, is dominated by wholesale and retail trade (53.5% of total income) and the processing industry (25.7%), followed by transport (6.1%) and civil engineering (5.3%). Unlike the economy of the city of Zagreb, the county's economic income is largely generated by small and medium businesses (64.6%). The city of Zagreb and the Zagreb County dominate the economy of the Croatia proper and Croatia as a whole: nearly 91% of all Croatia's wholesale and retail trade companies and 45% of the Croatian processing industry is headquartered there.
In 2010, nine companies headquartered in the Croatia proper ranked among the largest by income among Croatian companies, and 27 out of the top 30 companies were based in the region. The largest were INA, Konzum (a part of Agrokor corporate group), Hrvatska elektroprivreda, and T-Hrvatski Telekom—all of them headquartered in Zagreb. Deloitte ranked these four among the top 500 Central European companies, along with a further nine Croatian companies, all of which are headquartered in the region. Deloitte ranks Agrokor as the largest business among Croatia's enterprises. The largest company by income in the Varaždin County is the 15th-ranked food processing industry company Vindija, while the 17th-ranked petrochemical plant Petrokemija, based in Kutina, is the largest company in the Sisak-Moslavina County. Podravka, a Koprivnica-based food processing company, ranks as the 26th-largest by income in Croatia; it is the largest in the Koprivnica-Križevci County. The largest company by income in the Zagreb County is PIK Vrbovec, a meat processing company headquartered in Vrbovec, which ranks 36th in Croatia. Karlovačka pivovara, a brewery headquartered in Karlovac, is the largest company in the Karlovac County. It ranks 115th in Croatia.
|County||GDP||GDP per capita|
|City of Zagreb||14,622||30.9||18,554||173.7|
|Source: Croatian Bureau of Statistics (2008 data)|
In contrast, the regions of Lika and Gorski Kotar are the least developed area of the region and the country in general. The main source of income in the area was forestry, farming and animal husbandry. Forests represent a development potential of the area as 45% of Lika and as much as 83% of Gorski Kotar is forested. Industrialisation of the region started after the World War II, with a particular emphasis on development of wood processing industry in Gorski Kotar and other industries elsewhere in the region, but it did not create sufficient jobs to prevent economic migrations. Furthermore, the economic structure of the area sustained great downturn in the 1990s during the Croatian War of Independence. Since the 2000s, an increasing prominence is given to tourism sector, especially rural tourism.
Three Pan-European transport corridors and corridor branches run through Croatia proper. The corridor Vb encompasses the A4 motorway, spanning from Zagreb to Varaždin and the border of Hungary, and a section of the A1 and A6 motorways, extending south of Zagreb towards Karlovac and Rijeka. The transport corridor also contains a parallel railway line connecting the Port of Rijeka and Budapest via Zagreb. The second major transport route is the corridor X, represented as the A3 motorway and a double-track railway spanning the region from west to east, as well as the A2 motorway—the Xa branch of the corridor X. The three routes form junctions near Zagreb.
The region is also home to the largest airport in Croatia—the Zagreb Airport. In April 2012, a 30-year concession contract to develop and manage the airport as a regional transport centre was signed by the Government of Croatia and Zagreb Airport International Company Limited. The only navigable river in the region is the Sava, downstream of Sisak. The navigable route became disused after onset of the Croatian War of Independence in 1991, and it has not been fully restored since the end of the war, limiting the size of vessels that may reach Sisak.
Pipeline transport infrastructure in the region comprises the Jadranski naftovod (JANAF) pipeline, connecting the Sisak and Virje crude oil storage facilities and terminals to a terminal in Slavonski Brod further east on the Sava River, and the Omišalj oil terminal—a part of the Port of Rijeka. The JANAF system also includes a petroleum derivatives pipeline to a fuel handling terminal in Zagreb. The region forms a center of Croatia's natural gas supply system, based on an underground storage facility located approximately 50 kilometres (31 miles) east of Zagreb.
The Dinaric mountain ranges of Lika and Gorski Kotar in the region's western reaches represent a natural barrier between the Adriatic Sea to its west and the Pannonian Basin and to its east, traversed by few high-performance transport routes until recently. The region was first spanned by a trading route between Senj and Pannonia in classical antiquity and later in Middle Ages, but the first modern road in the area was the Caroline road, completed in 1732 connecting Rijeka and Karlovac via Fužine, Mrkopalj, Ravna Gora and Vrbovsko, and named after Charles VI who ordered its construction. The same emperor commissioned construction of a narrow road between Karlobag and Gospić—the first to span Velebit. Those first roads were replaced by the more modern Josephina connecting Karlovac to Senj, largely tracing the Roman trading route across the Vratnik pass, and the Theresiana following a different route between Karlobag and Gospić, completed in 1779 and 1784 respectively. In 1789, a road to Dalmatia, branching from the Josephine road at Žuta Lokva towards Gračac via Gospić. Louisiana road was completed in 1809, also running between Rijeka and Karlovac, although via Delnice. The first railway built in the region was the Zagreb – Rijeka railway, completed in 1875. Since the 2000s, the region is spanned by modern motorways.
Most of Croatia proper is distinguished in Croatia by its relatively high population density — a consequence of the fact that the region was spared from large-scale war damage. This also allowed preservation of numerous cultural heritage sites, including medieval city cores, hill forts, manor houses, castles, palaces, and churches. Because the medieval Kingdom of Croatia was governed by rulers based further south, in areas closer to the Adriatic Sea coast, there are few Early and High Middle Ages monuments preserved in the region—most of them date back to the Late Middle Ages and later periods. There are, however, archaeological sites with features from prehistory and classical antiquity. The most significant prehistoric site in the region is a Homo neanderthalensis site discovered in Krapina.
The region contains most the 180 preserved or restored castles and manor houses in Croatia—most of the best preserved-ones were built in the 17th and 18th centuries, when the Ottoman conquest was no longer a threat. A substantial number of buildings were destroyed in the Second World War. The largest number of preserved castles and manor houses are situated in Hrvatsko Zagorje, including the Trakošćan Castle—the most beautiful castle in Croatia. Its construction started in the 14th century, and it has been substantially expanded and rebuilt since. Another example is the Veliki Tabor Castle—the best-preserved medieval castle in Croatia—completed in the second half of the 15th century.
Among the cities in the region, Varaždin and Zagreb occupy particularly prominent places in terms of culture. Varaždin is often considered the most significant centre of baroque culture and heritage in Croatia. That claim is reflected in the city's historical architecture and cultural events, based on traditions of the city from the era. Zagreb, on the other hand, is the largest cultural centre, not only in the region, but also in Croatia as a whole. It is home to dozens of galleries, museums, and theatres as well as being the site of numerous landmarks. The landmarks include the Zagreb Cathedral, founded in 1093 and rebuilt numerous times since, the last major reconstruction being after the 1880 earthquake. The cathedral is the tallest structure in Croatia. Zagreb is the most significant centre of scientific work and education in the region and the entire country. It is the site of the University of Zagreb—the oldest place of higher education in Croatia and Southeast Europe, operating continuously since 1669. It is also home to the Ruđer Bošković Institute—the leading Croatia's scientific research institute—and to the Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts.
Croatia proper as a region has defined itself historically through territorial losses of the medieval Kingdom of Croatia to the Republic of Venice and Ottoman conquest starting in the 15th century. Modern history recorded the first Ottoman raids in the area in the late 15th century after fall of the Medieval Kingdom of Bosnia—culminating in the Battle of Krbava Field in 1493. In response, Croatian Military Frontier was established under direct Habsburg imperial rule. By 1528, nearly all of Lika was under Ottoman control. Venice seized the area of present-day Dalmatia as the Ottomans advanced, winning the decisive Battle of Krbava Field in 1493 and the Battle of Mohács in 1526. This led to the loss of Slavonia and the defeat of the Kingdom of Hungary, to which Croatia was tied through a personal union. The extent of the Ottoman conquest still marks the southern and eastern boundaries of Croatia proper as a geographical region. In effect, Croatia proper loosely corresponds to what was termed the relics of the relics of the formerly great and glorious Kingdom of Croatia (Latin: reliquiae reliquiarum olim magni et inclyti regni Croatiae) and subsequent Kingdom of Croatia within the Habsburg Empire. The Croatian Military Frontier was gradually established in the second half of the 16th century, removing further territory from the Kingdom of Croatia and placing the military zone under direct imperial rule. Ottoman advances into Croatian territory continued until the 1593 Battle of Sisak, the first decisive Ottoman defeat, which led to a more lasting stabilisation of the frontier. As the Ottoman control of the area waned, the Military Frontier expanded to include the entirety of Lika. In 1881, that region was incorporated into the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia, together with Gorski Kotar, which remained a part of the Kingdom of Croatia throughout the Croatian–Ottoman Wars.
After the Ottoman defeat in the Great Turkish War and the Treaty of Karlowitz (1699), a separate Kingdom of Slavonia was formed out of the regained territories, confirming the established borders of the Kingdom of Croatia. Pursuant to provisions of the Croatian-Hungarian Settlement of 1868, Slavionia was added to the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia—the territory ruled from Zagreb—and the military frontier was abolished. Rijeka was removed from the new kingdom, as the Corpus separatum attached it to Hungary instead. Following World War I and the Treaty of Trianon, Hungary lost Rijeka and Međimurje, as well as other territories, to the newly established Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes. The 1921 constitution defined the country as a unitary state and abolished the historical administrative divisions, effectively ending Croatia's autonomy. Međimurje was assigned to Croatia in 1947—when all the borders of the former Yugoslav constituent republics were defined by demarcation commissions, pursuant to decisions of the AVNOJ of 1943 and 1945.
After the break-up of Yugoslavia and Croatia's declaration of independence in 1991, the Republic of Serbian Krajina (RSK) was proclaimed in parts of Croatia, including parts of the Croatia—Banovina and Kordun—encompassing areas east of Karlovac and south of Sisak, marking the start of the Croatian War of Independence. After the January 1992 ceasefire, a United Nations peacekeeping force was deployed to the area. The area remained outside control of the government of Croatia until August 1995, when it was recaptured in Operation Storm. The Croatian Army campaign ended following the surrender of the last operational corps of the RSK military in Viduševac, near Glina.
- Frucht, Richard C. (2004). Eastern Europe: An Introduction to the People, Lands, and Culture. 1 (illustrated ed.). ABC-CLIO. p. 413. ISBN 1576078000. Retrieved 15 August 2012.
- Anita Blagojević (December 2008). "Zemljopisno, povijesno, upravno i pravno određenje istočne Hrvatske – korijeni suvremenog regionalizma" [Geographical, historical, administrative and legal determination of the eastern Croatia – the roots of modern regionalism]. Zbornik Pravnog fakulteta Sveučilišta u Rijeci (in Croatian). University of Rijeka. 29 (2): 1149–1180. ISSN 1846-8314. Retrieved 12 March 2012.
- "Nacionalno izviješće Hrvatska" [Croatia National Report] (PDF) (in Croatian). Council of Europe. January 2010. Retrieved 25 February 2012.
- "2010 – Statistical Yearbook of the Republic of Croatia" (PDF). Croatian Bureau of Statistics. December 2010. Retrieved 7 October 2011.
- "Census 2011 First Results". Croatian Bureau of Statistics. 29 June 2011. Archived from the original on 14 November 2011. Retrieved 5 August 2011.
- Boris Banovac; Robert Blažević; Željko Boneta. "Modernizacija (i/ili europeizacija) hrvatske periferije – primjeri Istre, Like i Gorskog Kotara" [Modernization (and/or Europeization) of Croatian Periphery – Examples of Istria, Lika and Gorski Kotar]. Revija za sociologiju (in Croatian). Croatian Sociological Association: 113–141. ISSN 0350-154X. Retrieved 21 June 2012.
- "Drugo, trece i cetvrto nacionalno izvješće Republike Hrvatske prema Okvirnoj konvenciji Ujedinjenih naroda o promjeni klime (UNFCCC)" [The second, third and fourth national report of the Republic of Croatia pursuant to the United Nations Framework Climate Change Convention (UNFCCC)] (PDF) (in Croatian). Ministry of Construction and Spatial Planning (Croatia). November 2006. Retrieved 2 March 2012.
- White, William B; Culver, David C, eds. (2012). Encyclopedia of Caves. Academic Press. p. 195. ISBN 9780123838339. Retrieved 3 March 2012.
- Tari-Kovačić, Vlasta (2002). "Evolution of the northern and western Dinarides: a tectonostratigraphic approach" (PDF). EGU Stephan Mueller Special Publication Series. Copernicus Publications (1): 223–236. ISSN 1868-4556. Retrieved 3 March 2012.
- Mate Matas (18 December 2006). "Raširenost krša u Hrvatskoj" [Presence of Karst in Croatia]. geografija.hr (in Croatian). Croatian Geographic Society. Archived from the original on 8 August 2012. Retrieved 18 October 2011.
- Stankoviansky, Milos; Kotarba, Adam (2012). Recent Landform Evolution: The Carpatho-Balkan-Dinaric Region. Springer. pp. 14–18. ISBN 9789400724471. Retrieved 2 March 2012.
- Hilbers, Dirk (2008). The Nature Guide to the Hortobagy and Tisza River Floodplain, Hungary. Crossbill Guides Foundation. p. 16. ISBN 9789050112765. Retrieved 2 March 2012.
- Malvić, Tomislav; Velić, Josipa (2011). "Neogene Tectonics in Croatian Part of the Pannonian Basin and Reflectance in Hydrocarbon Accumulations". In Schattner, Uri. New Frontiers in Tectonic Research: At the Midst of Plate Convergence (PDF). InTech. pp. 215–238. ISBN 9789533075945. Retrieved 2 March 2012.
- Pamić, Jakob; Radonić, Goran; Pavić, Goran. "Geološki vodič kroz park prirode Papuk" [Geological guide to the Papuk Nature Park] (PDF) (in Croatian). Papuk Geopark. Retrieved 2 March 2012.
- "Geographical and Meteorological Data" (PDF). Statistical Yearbook of the Republic of Croatia. Croatian Bureau of Statistics. 43: 41. December 2011. ISSN 1333-3305. Retrieved 28 January 2012.
- "The best national parks of Europe". BBC. 28 June 2011. Archived from the original on 4 August 2012. Retrieved 11 October 2011.
- "Postojna više nije najdulja jama u Dinaridima: Rekord drži hrvatska Kita Gaćešina" [Postojna is no longer the longest cave in the Dinarides: The record is held by Croatia's Kita Gaćešina]. Vijesti (in Croatian). 5 November 2011. Retrieved 3 March 2012.
- "Wetlands and Water". Water Framework Directive implementation project in Croatia. Retrieved 2 March 2012.
- Mayer, Darko (December 1996). "Zalihe pitkih voda u Republici Hrvatskoj" [Potable water reserves in the Republic of Croatia]. Rudarsko-geološko-naftni zbornik (in Croatian). University of Zagreb. 8 (1): 27–35. ISSN 0353-4529. Retrieved 2 March 2012.
- "Projekt – Hrvatske rijeke" [Project – Croatian rivers] (PDF) (in Croatian). Association for Biological Research – BIOM. Retrieved 3 April 2012.
- "Plitvice Lakes National Park". UNESCO. Retrieved 3 April 2012.
- "Razvoj turizma na području značajnog krajobraza Slunjčica" [Development of tourism in area of significant landscape of Slunjčica] (PDF) (in Croatian). City of Slunj. October 2010. Retrieved 11 April 2012.
- "Projekt - Hrvatske rijeke" [Project - Croatian rivers] (PDF) (in Croatian). Association for Biological Research - BIOM. Retrieved 3 April 2012.
- "Geologija - Krš" [Geology - Karst] (in Croatian). Project for Implementation of the Water Framework Directive. Retrieved 3 April 2012.
- Jasminka Radović; Kristijan Čivić; Ramona Topić, eds. (2006). Biodiversity of Croatia (PDF). State Institute for Nature Protection, Ministry of Culture (Croatia). ISBN 953-7169-20-0. Retrieved 13 October 2011.
- "Popis stanovništva 2001" [2001 Census]. Croatian Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved 12 March 2012.
- "Gross domestic product for Republic of Croatia, statistical regions at level 2 and counties, 2008". Croatian Bureau of Statistics. 11 February 2011. Retrieved 29 March 2012.
- "Grad Zagreb i Županija u odnosu na Hrvatsku" [City of Zagreb and Zagreb County compared to Croatia] (in Croatian). Croatian Chamber of Economy. Archived from the original on 19 September 2012. Retrieved 12 April 2012.
- "Struktura gospodarstva Grada Zagreba i Zagrebačke županije" [Structure of economy of the city of Zagreb and the Zagreb County] (in Croatian). Croatian Chamber of Economy. Archived from the original on 7 January 2013. Retrieved 26 June 2012.
- "Rang-ljestvica 400 najvećih" [Ranking of the top 400]. Privredni vjesnik (in Croatian). Croatian Chamber of Economy. 58 (3687): 38–50. July 2011. Retrieved 17 June 2012.
- "500 najvećih tvrtki Srednje Europe" [500 largest Central European companies] (in Croatian). Deloitte. 2011. Archived from the original on 30 November 2012. Retrieved 9 September 2011.
- "Rang lista 500 najvećih tvrtki Srednje Europe" [Ranking of the 500 Largest Central European Companies] (PDF) (in Croatian). Deloitte. Archived from the original (PDF) on 30 November 2012. Retrieved 11 October 2011.
- "About the company". Podravka. Retrieved 26 June 2012.
- "About us". PIK Vrbovec. Retrieved 27 June 2012.
- "About us". Karlovačka pivovara. Retrieved 27 June 2012.
- "Osnovna analiza stanja za područje Gorskog kotara - 2009" [The basic analysis of situation in Gorski Kotar area - 2009] (PDF) (in Croatian). Lokalna razvojna agencija Pins Skrad. Retrieved 3 April 2012.
- "Lika, Karlovac i Gorski kotar: Gastronomska ponuda" [Gastronomy of Lika, Karlovac and Gorski Kotar]. Jutarnji list (in Croatian). 12 May 2011. Retrieved 3 April 2012.
- "Transport : launch of the Italy-Turkey pan-European Corridor through Albania, Bulgaria, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia and Greece". European Union. 9 September 2002. Retrieved 6 September 2010.[permanent dead link]
- Darko Bičak (6 October 2009). "Domaće zračne luke ipak u plusu" [National airports remain in black after all] (in Croatian). Poslovni dnevnik. Retrieved 27 June 2012.
- "Potpisan Ugovor o koncesiji za izgradnju i upravljanje Zračnom lukom Zagreb" [A concession contract to build and manage Zagreb Airport is signed] (in Croatian). Government of Croatia. 11 April 2012. Archived from the original on 1 July 2012. Retrieved 27 June 2012.
- "O nama" [About us] (in Croatian). Sisak Port Authority. Retrieved 27 June 2012.
- "Čelik iz Siska ide riječnim putem u Rumunjsku" [Steel shipped from Sisak to Romania by river] (in Croatian). t-portal.hr. 1 June 2011. Retrieved 27 June 2012.
- "The JANAF system". Jadranski naftovod. Retrieved 27 June 2012.
- Branka Belamarić (2007). "Jedino domaće podzemno skladište plina grije nas i ove zime" [The only underground gas storage in the country to keep us warm this winter too]. INA Časopis (in Croatian). INA. 10 (37): 17–22. Retrieved 27 June 2012.
- Marin Kuzmić (18 September 2003). "Strategija bespuća" [Wayward strategy]. Slobodna Dalmacija (in Croatian). Retrieved 4 April 2012.
- Vedrana Glavaš (December 2010). "Prometno i strateško značenje prijevoja Vratnik u antici" [Transport and strategic significance of the Vratnik pass in the classical antiquity]. Senjski zbornik (in Croatian). Museum of the city of Senj and Senj Museum Society. 37 (1): 5–18. ISSN 0582-673X. Retrieved 4 April 2012.
- Mirela Slukan-Altić (July 2005). "Kartografski izvori za rekonstrukciju i praćenje razvoja prometnih komunikacija" [Cartographic sources in the reconstruction and development of traffic communications]. Ekonomska i ekohistorija: časopis za gospodarsku povijest i povijest okoliša (in Croatian). Društvo za hrvatsku ekonomsku povijest i ekohistoriju. 1 (1): 85–100. ISSN 1845-5867. Retrieved 4 April 2012.
- "Odluka o razvrstavanju javnih cesta u autoceste" [Decision on classification of public roads as motorways]. Narodne Novine (in Croatian). 25 July 2007. Retrieved 18 October 2010.
- "Sjeverna i Središnja Hrvatska – Prostor bogate povijesti, nalazišta, kulture i tradicije" [Northern and Central Croatia – Area of rich history, finds, culture and tradition]. Jutarnji list (in Croatian). 14 August 2010. Retrieved 29 June 2012.
- Željko Žutelija (12 May 2011). "Pregled dvoraca: Baština naših davnih predaka" [Review of castles: Heritage of our ancestors]. Jutarnji list (in Croatian). Retrieved 29 June 2012.
- "Varaždin" (in Croatian). Croatian National Tourist Board. Retrieved 3 July 2012.
- "Grad Zagreb" [The city of Zagreb] (in Croatian). Croatian National Tourist Board. Retrieved 29 June 2012.
- "Katedrala Marijina Uznesenja [The Cathedral of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary]". In Your Pocket City Guides. Retrieved 29 June 2012.
- Feđa Gavrilović (12 January 2012). "Razbijene zastarjele predrasude" [Obsolete prejudices shattered]. Vijenac (in Croatian). Matica hrvatska (466). ISSN 1330-2787. Retrieved 29 June 2012.
- "University of Zagreb 1699 – 2005". University of Zagreb. Retrieved 29 June 2012.
- "About the RBI". Ruđer Bošković Institute. Retrieved 29 June 2012.
- "The Founding of the Academy". Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts. Archived from the original on 6 June 2010. Retrieved 29 June 2012.
- Mislav Ježić (September 1992). "Nešto kulturoloških razmišljanja o regionalizmu u Hrvatskoj i Europi" [Some culturological reflections on regionalism in Croatia and Europe]. Društvena istraživanja (in Croatian). Social Sciences Institute Ivo Pilar. 1 (1): 13–24. ISSN 1330-0288. Retrieved 11 April 2012.
- Dino Mujadžević (July 2009). "Osmanska osvajanja u Slavoniji 1552. u svjetlu osmanskih arhivskih izvora" [The 1552 Ottoman invasions in Slavonia according to the Ottoman archival sources]. Povijesni prilozi (in Croatian). Croatian History Institute. 36 (36): 89–107. ISSN 0351-9767. Retrieved 11 March 2012.
- Richard C. Frucht (2005). Eastern Europe: An Introduction to the People, Lands, and Culture. ABC-CLIO. pp. 422–423. ISBN 9781576078006. Retrieved 18 October 2011.
- Ladislav Heka (December 2007). "Hrvatsko-ugarska nagodba u zrcalu tiska" [Croatian-Hungarian compromise in light of press clips]. Zbornik Pravnog fakulteta Sveučilišta u Rijeci (in Croatian). University of Rijeka. 28 (2): 931–971. ISSN 1330-349X. Retrieved 10 April 2012.
- Branko Dubravica (January 2002). "Političko-teritorijalna podjela i opseg civilne Hrvatske u godinama sjedinjenja s vojnom Hrvatskom 1871–1886" [Political and territorial division and scope of civilian Croatia in the period of unification with the Croatian military frontier 1871–1886]. Politička misao (in Croatian). University of Zagreb, Faculty of Political Sciences. 38 (3): 159–172. ISSN 0032-3241. Retrieved 20 June 2012.
- "Trianon, Treaty of". The Columbia Encyclopedia. 2009.
- Tucker, Spencer (2005). Encyclopedia of World War I (1 ed.). ABC-CLIO. p. 1183. ISBN 9781851094202.
Virtually the entire population of what remained of Hungary regarded the Treaty of Trianon as manifestly unfair, and agitation for revision began immediately.
- "Parlamentarni izbori u Brodskom kotaru 1923. godine" [Parliamentary Elections in the Brod District in 1932]. Scrinia Slavonica (in Croatian). Croatian Institute of History – Slavonia, Syrmium and Baranya history branch. 3 (1): 452–470. November 2003. ISSN 1332-4853. Retrieved 17 October 2011.
- Egon Kraljević (November 2007). "Prilog za povijest uprave: Komisija za razgraničenje pri Predsjedništvu Vlade Narodne Republike Hrvatske 1945.-1946" [Contribution to the history of public administration: commission for the boundary demarcation at the government's presidency of the People's Republic of Croatia, 1945–1946 (English language summary title)] (PDF). Arhivski vjesnik (in Croatian). Croatian State Archives. 50 (50). ISSN 0570-9008. Retrieved 10 December 2010.
- "Izvješće o djelovanju "Specijalne jedinice milicije Krajine" iz Dvora na području Banovine u lipnju i srpnju 1991. (II. dio)" [Report on activity of "Special unit of Krajina militia" from Dvor in Banovina area in June and July 1991 (part 2)]. Hrvatski vojnik (in Croatian). Ministry of Defence (Croatia) (297). June 2010. ISSN 1333-9036. Archived from the original on 14 July 2014. Retrieved 29 June 2012.
- Chuck Sudetic (3 January 1992). "Yugoslav Factions Agree to U.N. Plan to Halt Civil War". The New York Times. Retrieved 29 June 2012.
- Robert Stallaerts (2010). Historical Dictionary of Croatia. Scarecrow Press. pp. 326–328. ISBN 9780810867505. Retrieved 29 June 2012.
- Zvonko Alač (5 August 2011). "Oluja: 16 godina od hrvatskog rušenja Velike" [Storm: 16 years since Croatia dismantled Greater Serbia] (in Croatian). Index.hr. Retrieved 29 June 2011.