Central Political and Legal Affairs Commission
|Abbreviation||Chinese: 中央政法委; pinyin: Zhōngyāng Zhèngfǎwěi; lit. 'Central Poli-Legal Commission')|
|Predecessor||Central Leading Group for Political and Legal Affairs|
|Formation||March 6, 1990|
|Founder||CCP Central Committee|
|Type||Commission directly reporting to the Central Committee|
|CCP Central Committee|
|CPC Central Political and Legal Affairs Commission|
|Literal meaning||Chinese-Communist Central Politics-Law Commission|
|Literal meaning||Central Poli-Legal Commission|
The Central Political and Legal Affairs Commission of the Communist Party of China (Chinese: 中共中央政法委员会), commonly referred to as Zhongyang Zhengfawei (中央政法委, literally "Central Poli-Legal Commission") in Chinese, is the organization under the Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) responsible for political and legal affairs. In practice the organization oversees all legal enforcement authorities, including the police force, making it a very powerful organ.
All the CCP committees of provinces, municipalities, counties and autonomous regions establish respective politics and law commissions.
The commission is headed by a secretary who is usually a CCP Politburo member.
The commission was preceded by a Politics and Law Leading Group (政法领导小组; Zhèngfǎ Lǐngdǎo Xiǎozǔ) which was set up in 1958, with Peng Zhen as its leader. During the Cultural Revolution it was led by Ji Dengkui, who served as group leader until 24 January 1980, when the commission was established, with Peng Zhen back as its secretary.
In 1988, the commission was downgraded to a small leading group (领导小组). This was part of the result of efforts by reformist Zhao Ziyang to separate the CCP from state institutions. The Small Leading Group on Political and Legal Affairs focused on a narrower set of policy and research concerns, and did not take as active a role intervening in cases or issuing directives, resulting in a degree of increased independence of the judiciary. The crisis precipitated by the 1989 Tiananmen Square protests resulted in a reversal of these reforms, and the Small Group was reverted to its Commission status, with the goal of maintaining stability through tighter control of public security and legal systems.
After the 18th National Congress of the CCP in 2012, Meng Jianzhu replaced Zhou Yongkang as the head of the commission. However, Meng, unlike Zhou, was not elected to the 18th Politburo Standing Committee. The apparent downgrading of the post followed Zhou's connection with the Wang Lijun incident, which has discredited Chongqing politician Bo Xilai's method of using the internal security apparatus for political ends. As a result, the independence of the judiciary in China increased. Reforms under Xi Jinping emphasizing simultaneous need for rule of law and stability have subsequently affected the commission. The commission now has a more policy-and-research oriented focus, although the CCP still maintains control over the legal system.
List of heads
Leaders of the Central Political and Law Group
Secretaries of the Central Politics and Legal Affairs Commission
- Peng Zhen (1980–1982)
- Chen Pixian (1982–1985)
- Qiao Shi (1985–1992)
- Ren Jianxin (1992–1998)
- Luo Gan (1998–2007)
- Zhou Yongkang (2007–2012)
- Meng Jianzhu (2012–2017)
- Guo Shengkun (2017–)
- Guo Shengkun, Member of the 19th Politburo, Secretary of the Central Secretariat, Director of the Central Public Security Comprehensive Management Commission
- Deputy Secretary
- Chief Justice Zhou Qiang, President of the Supreme People's Court (sub-national-leader-level)
- Chief Prosecutor Zhang Jun, Procurator-General of the Supreme People's Procuratorate (sub-national-leader-level)
- Chen Yixin, Secretary-General of the Central Political and Legal Affairs Commission (minister-level)
- Chen Wenqing, Minister of State Security
- Tang Yijun, Minister of Justice
- PLA Lieutenant General Wang Renhua, Secretary of the Political and Legal Affairs Commission of the Central Military Commission
- PAP General Wang Chunning, Commander of the People's Armed Police
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