Central Treaty Organization
CENTO members shown in green
|Type||intergovernmental military alliance|
|Middle East and Europe|
The Central Treaty Organization (CENTO), originally known as the Baghdad Pact or the Middle East Treaty Organization (METO) was formed in 1955 by Iran, Iraq, Pakistan, Turkey, and the United Kingdom. It was dissolved in 1979.
U.S. pressure and promises of military and economic aid were key in the negotiations leading to the agreement, although the United States could not initially participate. John Foster Dulles, who was involved in the negotiations, ascribed this to "the pro-Israel lobby and the difficulty of obtaining Congressional Approval." Others said the reason was "for purely technical reasons of budgeting procedures." In 1958, the United States joined the military committee of the alliance. It is generally viewed as one of the least successful of the Cold War alliances. The organization's headquarters were located in Baghdad (Iraq) in 1955–1958 and in Ankara (Turkey) in 1958–1979. Cyprus was also an important location for CENTO due to its positioning within the Middle East and the British Sovereign Base Areas situated on the island.
Modeled after the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), CENTO committed the nations to mutual cooperation and protection, as well as non-intervention in each other's affairs. Its goal was to contain the Soviet Union (USSR) by having a line of strong states along the USSR's southwestern frontier. Similarly, it was known as the 'Northern Tier' to prevent Soviet expansion into the Middle East. Unlike NATO, CENTO did not have a unified military command structure, nor were many U.S. or UK military bases established in member countries, although the U.S. had communications and electronic intelligence facilities in Iran, and operated U-2 intelligence flights over the USSR from bases in Pakistan. The United Kingdom had access to facilities in Pakistan and Iraq at various times while the treaty was in effect. In addition, Turkey and the U.S. agreed to permit American access to Turkish bases, but this was done under the auspices of NATO.
On July 14, 1958, the Iraqi monarchy was overthrown in a military coup. The new government was led by General Abdul Karim Qasim who withdrew Iraq from the Baghdad Pact, opened diplomatic relations with Soviet Union and adopted a non-aligned stance. The organization dropped the name 'Baghdad Pact' in favor of 'CENTO' at that time.
The Middle East and South Asia became extremely volatile areas during the 1960s with the ongoing Arab–Israeli Conflict and the Indo-Pakistani Wars. CENTO was unwilling to get deeply involved in either dispute. In 1965 and 1971, Pakistan tried unsuccessfully to get assistance in its wars with India through CENTO, but this was rejected under the idea that CENTO was aimed at containing the USSR, not India.
CENTO did little to prevent the expansion of Soviet influence to non-member states in the area. Whatever containment value the pact might have had was lost when the Soviets 'leap-frogged' the member states, establishing close military and political relationships with governments in Egypt, Syria, Iraq, the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen, Somalia, and Libya. By 1970, the USSR had deployed over 20,000 troops to Egypt, and had established naval bases in Syria, Somalia, and P.D.R. Yemen.
The Iranian revolution spelled the end of the organization in 1979, but in reality, it essentially had been finished since 1974, when Turkey invaded Cyprus. This led the United Kingdom to withdraw forces that had been earmarked to the alliance, and the United States Congress halted Turkish military aid despite two Presidential vetoes. With the fall of the Iranian monarchy, whatever remaining rationale for the organization was lost. Future U.S. and British defense agreements with regional countries—such as Pakistan, Egypt, and the Persian Gulf states—were conducted bilaterally.
With the withdrawal of Iran, the secretary-general of CENTO, Turkish diplomat Kamran Gurun, announced on March 16, 1979, that he would call a meeting of the pact's council in order to formally dissolve the organization.
- 1954 February: Turkey signed a Pact of Mutual Cooperation with Pakistan.
- 24 February 1955: A military agreement was signed between Iraq and Turkey, and the term "Baghdad Pact" started to be used. Iran, Pakistan, and the United Kingdom join the Baghdad Pact.
- 1959 March: The new republican regime of Iraq withdrew the country from the alliance.
- 19 August 1959: METO renamed CENTO.
- 1965: Pakistan tried to get help from its allies in its war against India. The United Nations Security Council passed Resolution 211 on September 20 and the United States and the United Kingdom supported the UN decision by cutting off arms supplies to both belligerents.
- 1971: In a new war with India, Pakistan again tried unsuccessfully to get allied assistance. (The U.S. provided limited military support to Pakistan, but not under the rubric of CENTO.)
- 1979: The new Islamic regime of Iran withdrew the country from CENTO.
- Awni Khalidy (Iraq), 1955 - 31 Dec 1958
- Osman Ali Baig (ʿOṯmān-ʿAlī Beyg) (Pakistan), 1 Jan 1959 - 31 Dec 1961
- Abbas Ali Khalatbari (ʿAbbās-ʿAlī Ḵaḷʿatbarī) (Iran), Jan 1962 - Jan 1968
- Turgut Menemencioğlu (Turkey), Jan 1968 - 1 Feb 1972
- Naṣīr ʿAṣṣār (Nassir Assar) (Iran), 1 Feb 1972 - Jan 1975
- Umit Haluk Baylken (Turkey), Jan 1975 - 1 Aug 1977
- (acting) Sidar Hasan Mahmud (Pakistan), Aug 1977 - Mar 1978
- Kamuran Gurun (Turkey), 31 Mar 1978 - 1979
CENTO sponsored a railway line, some of which was completed, to enable a rail connexion between London and Tehran via Van. A section from Lake Van in Turkey to Sharafkhaneh in Iran was completed and funded in large part by CENTO (mainly the USA and UK). Part of the route included a rail ferry across Lake Van with a terminal at Tatvan on the Western side of the lake. The civil engineering was especially challenging because of the difficult terrain. Notable features of this railway on the Iranian side include 125 bridges and among them the Towering Quotor span, spanning 1 485 ft over gorge 396 ft deep.
Cultural and Research Institutions
Like its counterparts NATO and SEATO, CENTO sponsored a number of cultural and scientific research institutions. These included:
- CENTO Conferences on Teaching Public Health and Public Health Practice
- CENTO Cultural Works Programme 
- CENTO Institute of Nuclear & Applied Science
- CENTO Scientific Coordinating Board
- CENTO Scientific Council
- CENTO Symposia on Rural Development 
These institutions supported a wide range of non-military activities, with a particular focus on agriculture and development, In 1960, for example, CENTO had funded 37 projects covering agriculture, education, health, economic development and transportation. It also arranged at least one symposium on the problem of foot-and-mouth and rinderpest.
CENTO Institute of Nuclear & Applied Science
The organization that became the CENTO Institute of Nuclear Science was established by the Western powers in the Baghdad Pact, as CENTO was then known. It was initially located in Baghdad, Iraq, but was relocated to Tehran, Iran in 1958 after Iraq withdrew from CENTO. Students from Pakistan and Turkey as well as those from Iran were trained at the Institute.
CENTO Scientific Council
The CENTO Scientific Council organized a number of scientific symposia and other events, including a meeting in Lahore, Pakistan, in 1962, entitled "The Role of Science in the Development of Natural Resources with Particular Reference to Pakistan, Iran and Turkey".
- Economic Cooperation Organization
- Shanghai Cooperation Organisation
- Inter-American Treaty of Reciprocal Assistance
- Selwyn Lloyd; Suez 1956: A Personal account
- Hadley, Guy. CENTO: The Forgotten Alliance ISIO Monographs, University of Sussex, UK (1971): 2.
- Martin, Kevin W. (2008). "Baghdad Pact". In Ruud van Dijk et al. Encyclopedia of the Cold War. New York: Routledge. p. 57. ISBN 978-0-415-97515-5. Retrieved 2009-01-30.
Thus, the Baghdad Pact is widely considered the least successful of the Cold War schemes engendered by the Anglo-American alliance.
- Dimitrakis, Panagiotis, "The Value to CENTO of UK Bases on Cyprus", Middle Eastern Studies, Volume 45, Issue 4, July 2009, pp 611–624
- George Lenczowski, American Presidents and the Middle East, 1990, p. 88
- "CENTO pact members to dissolve alliance soon". The Gazette (Montreal). AP. 1979-03-17. p. 46. Retrieved 15 March 2014.
- US National Archives. 333.8 Records of the Central Treaty Organization (CENTO) 1956-79. http://www.archives.gov/research/guide-fed-records/groups/333.html#333.8.2
- CENTO nation help sought by Pakistan. Chicago Tribune. September 7, 1965 
- The India-Pakistan War of 1965. Office of the Historian, Bureau of Public Affairs, United States Department of State 
- From Encyclopedia Iranica. http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/central-treaty-organization-cento-a-mutual-defense-and-economic-cooperation-pact-among-persia-turkey-and-pakistan-wi
- Geneva Times, 15 April 1971. p9 http://fultonhistory.com/Newspaper%2011/Geneva%20NY%20Daily%20Times/Geneva%20NY%20Daily%20Times%201971%20Mar-Apr%201971%20Grayscale/Geneva%20NY%20Daily%20Times%201971%20Mar-Apr%201971%20Grayscale%20-%201035.pdf
- Meklis, Y. Along the Path of a CENTO Railway: A Narrative with Text and Photographs Telling how Iran and Turkey, with the Support of CENTO Associates, are Repeating History by Linking Their Countries with a Modern Railway. CENTO Public Relations Division (1959?). https://books.google.ae/books/about/Along_the_Path_of_a_CENTO_Railway.html?id=qEUYAAAAIAAJ&hl=en
- Kashani-Sabet., Firoozeh. OUP (2011) Conceiving Citizens: Women and the Politics of Motherhood in Iran. p291
- See for example, in "Solo exhibitions": http://www.bengalfoundation.org/old/index.php?view=artist/ArtistProfile.php&artistID=100&page=5
- ASME web page for Mr. Sadik Kakaç. https://www.asme.org/about-asme/get-involved/honors-awards/press-releases/sadik-kakac-awarded-honorary-membership
- Beeman, William O. Language, Status & Power in Iran. Indiana University Press (1986). p 226. https://books.google.ae/books?id=9g9LEPIHQz4C&pg=PA226&lpg=PA226&dq=CENTO+cultural+tehran+-centos&source=bl&ots=hp0tZvPedf&sig=3c3nWpEI7saIH0_bqPVD4ainfwk&hl=en&sa=X&ei=BO6CVa-WF4jdUaujgYAK&ved=0CDgQ6AEwCA#v=onepage&q=CENTO%20cultural%20tehran%20-centos&f=false
- Amid, Mohammad Javad. Routcledge (2011). p 172. Agriculture, Poverty and Reform in Iran. https://books.google.ae/books?id=_UYGpNW65O8C&pg=PA172&lpg=PA172&dq=CENTO+cultural+tehran+-centos&source=bl&ots=H45t7tJ8Xg&sig=RW7hqntdRkI5Ot2TjDbk_a-6i04&hl=en&sa=X&ei=BO6CVa-WF4jdUaujgYAK&ved=0CC8Q6AEwBQ#v=onepage&q=CENTO%20cultural%20tehran%20-centos&f=false
- CIA memorandum, released under US Freedom of Information provisions. "EIGHTH CENTO MINISTERIAL COUNCIL SESSION TEHRAN, APRIL 28-30, 1960 U.S. POSITION ON THE TURKISH- IRANIAN RAILWAY LINK". http://www.foia.cia.gov/document/eighth-cento-ministerial-council-session-tehran-april-28-30-1960-us-position-turkish
- "CENTO Seminar on the Control and Eradication of Viral Diseases in the CENTO Region: With Special Emphasis on Foot-and-mouth and Rinderpest and Renderpest-like dieases " CENTO (1973). https://books.google.ae/books/about/CENTO_Seminar_on_the_Control_and_Eradica.html?id=vz8aAAAAYAAJ&hl=en
- Restivo, Sal P. Science, Technology, and Society: An Encyclopedia. OUP (2005). p 534. https://books.google.ae/books?id=A8C3m8rRba4C&pg=PA534&lpg=PA534&dq=CENTO+nuclear+research+center+-centos&source=bl&ots=dsacWlV7zY&sig=55euPiqbAAfHr7YeHCU1D9Pkzbw&hl=en&sa=X&ei=U-KCVcDpOsbxUM_DgLgE&ved=0CCUQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=CENTO%20nuclear%20research%20center%20-centos&f=false
- Sahimi, M. Website. "Iran's Nuclear Energy Program. Part V: From the United States Offering Iran Uranium Enrichment Technology to Suggestions for Creating Catastrophic Industrial Failure". http://www.payvand.com/news/04/dec/1186.html
- Orr, Tamara. Iran and Nuclear Weapons. Rosen. (2009). https://books.google.ae/books?id=61ODaAcFA-EC&pg=PA22&lpg=PA22&dq=CENTO+nuclear+research+center+-centos&source=bl&ots=43MBJA9oV0&sig=hvLndpp_-RKInCVZpZ22HCQ5rUw&hl=en&sa=X&ei=U-KCVcDpOsbxUM_DgLgE&ved=0CCgQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=CENTO%20nuclear%20research%20center%20-centos&f=false
- Entessar, Nader. Middle East Policy Council website. "Iran's Nuclear Decision-Making Calculus". http://www.mepc.org/journal/middle-east-policy-archives/irans-nuclear-decision-making-calculus?print
- Smith, ML. "The Role of Science in the Development of Natural Resources with Particular Reference to Pakistan, Iran and Turkey". Elsevier (2013). https://books.google.ae/books?id=g-xsBQAAQBAJ&dq=CENTO+Institute+of+Nuclear+%26+Applied+Science+-centos&source=gbs_navlinks_s
- Central Treaty Organization (CENTO)[dead link] entry in Encyclopaedia Iranica
- A film clip "Baghdad pact. Unified Military Command Seen, 1958/01/30 (1958)" is available for free download at the Internet Archive
- CENTO on the US State Department's website.