Socialist Party of Minnesota

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Socialist Party of Minnesota
Founded 1899 (1899)
Dissolved ? (?)
Headquarters Minneapolis
Newspaper New Times
Membership  (July 1914) 5,600[1]
Ideology Socialism (American)
Political position Left-wing
National affiliation Social Democratic Party of America (Springfield faction)
(1899–1901)
Socialist Party of America
(1901–1972)
Socialist Party USA
(1973–?)
Colors      Dark red

The Socialist Party of Minnesota (from 1899 to 1902 the Social Democratic Party of Minnesota; from 1903 to 1913 the Public Ownership Party of Minnesota) was the state affiliate of the Springfield faction of the Social Democratic Party of America, the Socialist Party of America, and finally the Socialist Party USA in the U.S. state of Minnesota.

The state organization was established in 1899, when the Kangaroo faction bolted from the Socialist Labor Party of America in support of the American Federation of Labor and opposition to the internal regime of the SLP under Daniel DeLeon. Its initial electoral appearances were unimpressive, but it began to grow rapidly after 1905, and eventually became, together with the organizations in Wisconsin, Oklahoma, Oregon, North Dakota, Washington, New York, etc., one of the Socialist Party's stronger state organizations—even to the point where, in 1912, half of all of the counties carried by Eugene V. Debs were in Minnesota. But, in spite—or perhaps because—of its rapid growth, the Socialist Party of Minnesota soon also became a heavily contested battlefield for factional disputes within the SPA. This culminated in the period of 1914 though 1919, in which the Socialist Party of Minnesota was decimated by conflicts rooted first in differences of opinion regarding the United States' entry into World War I, and later disagreements over the Bolshevism question following the Russian Revolution. In addition to tearing itself apart, the party was also affected by shifts in public opinion during the First Red Scare, which made it increasingly difficult for the Socialist Party to access an audience.

The Socialist Party of Minnesota continued to exist after 1920, but in a severely weakened state. Many of its former members, such as William Mahoney, Thomas E. Latimer, and Thomas Van Lear, became active in the Farmer-Labor Party of Minnesota, which the former Van Lear faction of the Socialist Party helped to solidify after Van Lear was expelled from the Socialist Party. The Socialist Party of Minnesota itself participated in the Farmer-Labor Party's electoral coalition in state politics from the early 1920s into the mid 1930s. Meanwhile, the state organization continued to achieve ballot access for Norman Thomas in 1928, 1932, 1936, 1940, 1944, and 1948, although it was not able to secure ballot access for Darlington Hoopes in 1952 and 1956.

The Minnesota organization continued to send delegates to the national conventions of the Socialist Party through the 1960s, until the Social Democrats, USA were formed in 1972. Afterward, the Socialist Party of Minnesota reorganized as a part of the Socialist Party USA, sending delegates to the SPUSA's reorganizing convention in 1973. As a unit of the SPUSA, the Socialist Party of Minnesota was able to secure presidential ballot access in Minnesota for Frank Zeidler in 1976 and again for David McReynolds in 1980; however, the organization essentially disappeared at some point prior to 1988.

History[edit]

Background[edit]

Early years[edit]

Peak[edit]

Factional conflict[edit]

Thomas years[edit]

SP–SDF[edit]

SPUSA[edit]

Nominees for public office[edit]

Presidential tickets[nb 1][edit]

Year Results Candidates Ref. Notes
Votes  % for President for Vice President
1900 3,065 0.97 Eugene V. Debs (IN) Job Harriman (CA) [2][3] [nb 2]
1904 11,692 3.99 Benjamin Hanford (NY) [4][5] [nb 3]
1908 14,527 4.38 [6][7] [nb 3]
1912 27,505 8.23 Emil Seidel (WI) [8][9] [nb 3]
1916 20,117 5.19 Allan L. Benson (NY) George Ross Kirkpatrick (NJ) [10][11]
1920 56,106 7.62 Eugene V. Debs (IN) Seymour Stedman (IL) [12][13]
1924 339,192 41.26 Robert M. La Follette (WI) Burton K. Wheeler (MT) [14][15] [nb 4]
1928 6,774 0.70 Norman Thomas (NY) James H. Maurer (PA) [16]
1932 25,476 2.54 [17]
1936 2,872 0.25 George A. Nelson (WI) [18]
1940 5,454 0.44 Maynard C. Krueger (IL) [19]
1944 5,073 0.45 Darlington Hoopes (PA) [20]
1948 4,646 0.38 Tucker P. Smith (MI) [21]
1976 354 0.02 Frank Zeidler (WI) J. Quinn Brisben (IL) [22] [nb 5]
1980 536 0.03 David McReynolds (NY) Diane Drufenbrock (IN) [23] [nb 5][nb 6]

Congressional nominees[edit]

Nominees for state executive offices[edit]

Officeholders[edit]

State senators[edit]

State representatives[edit]

Mayors[edit]

Aldermen/City Councilors[edit]

Other officeholders[edit]

Other prominent members[edit]

State Secretaries (incomplete)[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Includes only presidential tickets for which the Socialist Party of America or the Socialist Party USA had presidential ballot access in Minnesota. The Socialist Party of Minnesota failed to achieve ballot access for Darlington Hoopes and Samuel H. Friedman in 1952 and 1956. The Socialist Party did not nominate any tickets in 1960, 1964, 1968, or 1972. The Socialist Party USA has not achieved ballot access in Minnesota since 1980.
  2. ^ a b c All candidates listed running in 1900 were running as candidates of the Social Democratic Party.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao In the general elections of 1904, 1906, 1908, 1910, and 1912, the Socialist Party of Minnesota was, due to state law reserving the use of the word "Socialist" in ballot designations to the Socialist Labor Party, forced to use the ballot designation of "Public Ownership Party".
  4. ^ In the presidential election of 1924, the Socialist Party opted not to nominate a ticket, instead endorsing the Progressive ticket of Robert M. La Follette of Wisconsin and Burton K. Wheeler of Montana.[15]
  5. ^ a b Zeidler/Brisben and McReynolds/Drufenbrock were tickets of the Socialist Party USA.
  6. ^ McReynolds was the first openly-gay man to be nominated for the office of President of the United States by any political party.
  7. ^ Special election.
  8. ^ From statehood through 1970, the Governor and Lieutenant Governor of Minnesota were elected separately.
  9. ^ Lillian Friedman was the first woman ever nominated by any political party for the office of Lieutenant Governor of Minnesota.
  10. ^ a b c d e f Ran as a Farmer-Laborite from 1924 onward.
  11. ^ Richard Jones was elected to the Senate as a member of the Socialist Party, running with the endorsement of the Socialist Party. However, he was expelled from the party by referendum vote of the Socialist Party of St. Louis County before he took office, for "pandering to non-Socialist votes."[84]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Georgian, Alexis, ed. (11 March 1916). "State Convention Passes Upon Many Important Questions: Finnish Difficulties Satisfactorily Settled—Many Constitutional Changes" (PDF). New Times. 6 (20). Minneapolis: The New Times Publishing Company. pp. 1, 3. 
  2. ^ a b c "Election Returns" (PDF). The Legislative Manual of the State of Minnesota Compiled for the Legislature of 1901. 1901. pp. 427–551. 
  3. ^ "1900 Presidential General Election Results - Minnesota". US Election Atlas.org. Retrieved 26 November 2016. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f "Election Returns" (PDF). The Legislative Manual of the State of Minnesota Compiled for the Legislature of 1905. 1907. pp. 382–531. 
  5. ^ "1904 Presidential General Election Results - Minnesota". US Election Atlas.org. Retrieved 26 November 2016. 
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Election Returns" (PDF). The Legislative Manual of the State of Minnesota Compiled for the Legislature of 1909. 1909. pp. 394–555. 
  7. ^ "1908 Presidential General Election Results - Minnesota". US Election Atlas.org. Retrieved 26 November 2016. 
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l "Election Returns" (PDF). The Legislative Manual of the State of Minnesota Compiled for the Legislature of 1913. 1913. pp. 364–524. 
  9. ^ "1912 Presidential General Election Results - Minnesota". US Election Atlas.org. Retrieved 26 November 2016. 
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h "Election Returns" (PDF). The Legislative Manual of the State of Minnesota Compiled for the Legislature of 1917. 1917. pp. 352–522. 
  11. ^ "1916 Presidential General Election Results - Minnesota". US Election Atlas.org. Retrieved 26 November 2016. 
  12. ^ a b c d e f "Election Returns" (PDF). The Legislative Manual of the State of Minnesota Compiled for the Legislature of 1921. 1921. pp. 364–535. 
  13. ^ "1920 Presidential General Election Results - Minnesota". US Election Atlas.org. Retrieved 26 November 2016. 
  14. ^ "1924 Presidential General Election Results - Minnesota". US Election Atlas.org. Retrieved 26 November 2016. 
  15. ^ a b Salvatore, Nick (1982). Eugene V. Debs: Citizen and Socialist. University of Illinois Press. p. 335. ISBN 0252011481. 
  16. ^ "1928 Presidential General Election Results - Minnesota". US Election Atlas.org. Retrieved 26 November 2016. 
  17. ^ "1932 Presidential General Election Results - Minnesota". US Election Atlas.org. Retrieved 26 November 2016. 
  18. ^ "1936 Presidential General Election Results - Minnesota". US Election Atlas.org. Retrieved 26 November 2016. 
  19. ^ "1940 Presidential General Election Results - Minnesota". US Election Atlas.org. Retrieved 26 November 2016. 
  20. ^ "1944 Presidential General Election Results - Minnesota". US Election Atlas.org. Retrieved 26 November 2016. 
  21. ^ "1948 Presidential General Election Results - Minnesota". US Election Atlas.org. Retrieved 26 November 2016. 
  22. ^ "1976 Presidential General Election Results - Minnesota". US Election Atlas.org. Retrieved 26 November 2016. 
  23. ^ "1980 Presidential General Election Results - Minnesota". US Election Atlas.org. Retrieved 26 November 2016. 
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  47. ^ "Our Campaigns - MN - District 05 Race - Nov 07, 1916". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 27 November 2016. 
  48. ^ "Our Campaigns - MN - District 05 Race - Nov 06, 1934". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 27 November 2016. 
  49. ^ "Our Campaigns - MN - District 06 Race - Nov 05, 1912". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 27 November 2016. 
  50. ^ "Our Campaigns - MN - District 06 Race - Nov 03, 1914". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 27 November 2016. 
  51. ^ "Our Campaigns - MN - District 08 Race - Nov 04, 1902". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 27 November 2016. 
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  54. ^ "Our Campaigns - MN - District 08 Race - Nov 03, 1908". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 27 November 2016. 
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  57. ^ "Our Campaigns - MN - District 08 Race - Nov 03, 1914". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 27 November 2016. 
  58. ^ "Our Campaigns - MN - District 08 Race - Nov 07, 1916". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 27 November 2016. 
  59. ^ "Our Campaigns - MN - District 09 Race - Nov 06, 1906". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 27 November 2016. 
  60. ^ "Our Campaigns - MN - District 09 Race - Nov 03, 1908". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 27 November 2016. 
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  64. ^ "Our Campaigns - MN - District 09 Race - Nov 07, 1916". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 27 November 2016. 
  65. ^ "Our Campaigns - MN - District 10 Race - Nov 07, 1916". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 27 November 2016. 
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  81. ^ a b "Devold, Andrew Olaf "A.O., Andy"". Legislators Past & Present. Minnesota Legislative Reference Library. Retrieved 3 December 2016. 
  82. ^ a b c "Boylan, Michael "Mike"". Legislators Past & Present. Minnesota Legislative Reference Library. Retrieved 3 December 2016. 
  83. ^ "Gardner, George H.". Legislators Past & Present. Minnesota Legislative Reference Library. Retrieved 3 December 2016. 
  84. ^ a b Hudelson, Richard; Ross, Carl (2006). "Chapter Three: Class Struggle and Ethnic Conflict". By the Ore Docks: A Working People's History of Duluth. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. pp. 74–75. ISBN 978-0-8166-4637-1. ... Indeed, by October 1914 the central committee of the St. Louis County Socialist Party, now firmly under the control of the left-wing Finns and Scandinavians, recommended that Richard Jones, elected to the Minnesota Legislature from Duluth as a Socialist, be expelled from the party for pandering to non-Socialist votes ... 
  85. ^ "Jones, Richard". Legislators Past & Present. Minnesota Legislative Reference Library. Retrieved 4 December 2016. 
  86. ^ "Boyd, John H.". Legislators Past & Present. Minnesota Legislative Reference Library. Retrieved 3 December 2016. 
  87. ^ "Hillman, Nels S. "N.S."". Legislators Past & Present. Minnesota Legislative Reference Library. Retrieved 3 December 2016. 
  88. ^ a b c "Strand, Ernest G.". Legislators Past & Present. Minnesota Legislative Reference Library. Retrieved 3 December 2016. 
  89. ^ "Woodfill, James W.". Legislators Past & Present. Minnesota Legislative Reference Library. Retrieved 3 December 2016.