Central market (Rostov-on-Don)
Central market (Russian: Центральный рынок; also known as Old bazaar (Старый базар), unofficial name is «Starbaz» (Russian «Старбаз» can be parsed as «Oldbaz») is a trade enterprise in Rostov-on-Don. Its official name during the Soviet period was the market of Andreevsky District, now it’s CJSC «Central market» of Rostov-on-Don).
It is situated in one of the city's oldest districts – Leninsky . Besides its social role of "urban area for trade in provision and other supplies on the outside", the market is a historic center. It is bordered by Lane of Semashko in the East, Turgenevskaya Street in the South, Budyonnovsky Prospect in the West and Street of Stanislavsky in the North.
This near rectangle includes Rostov-on-Don’s branch of Russian State University of Trade and Economy, metochion of Cathedral of the Nativity of the Blessed Virgin Mary and a Soviet-built two-story house (a former shop and architectural and cultural heritage site in the classical style) The Mansion of grain merchant P. R. Maksimov was built in the first half of the 19th century, a project of Sharzhinsky. It became one of the city's first stone buildings). P. E. Chekhov, father of future writer and playwright A. P. Chekhov, allegedly worked there as a clerk and a merchant.
The Central bazaar Rostov-on-Don flourished as a merchant city for a long period.
The city originated on 15 December 1749 when an Imperial order fixed the establishment of Customs at the mouth of the Temernik river. Rostov-on-Don’s market was first mentioned in historical documents from the 1840s. In the beginning of the 18th century a small wooden chapel was consecrated in honor of Nativity of Mary was built there – it was meant to become a kind of a guardian for a future market.
In 1820, Gostiny dvor set in motion formation of the architectural ensemble that became Central market was built at trading area as a project of architect Sharzhinsky. The old bazaar was renamed in 1840s as New bazaar (Russian: Новый базар). It specialized in trading non-food items. In 1905 it was destroyed by fire during Anti-Jewish pogroms and in 1906 opened again but possibly in a different location.
In 1860, the dilapidated wooden Chapel of the Nativity of the Blessed Virgin Mary was replaced with a stone Cathedral of the Nativity of the Blessed Virgin Mary. It was a project a academician K. A. Ton and its construction was sponsored by local merchants S. N. Koshkin and F. N. Mikhailov. A four-deck bell tower was built there in 1878 as a project of architect A. Campioni.
Construction of the three indoor halls was completed by 1893. Urban architect Sokolov designed the market. Projects of the second and third floor of indoor halls were demonstrated at the fair in Nizhny Novgorod in 1896 where they were awarded gold medals and became a standard for Russian markets. Only the third hall is extant. It has been renovated and bears name of Commodity hall №1 of CSJC «Central market» (Russian: Вещевой рынок №1 ЗАО "Центральный рынок"). The other two indoor halls and the bell tower were ruined during the Great Patriotic War by German bombers. In the 1960s a meat hall was built over the ruins. After reconstruction held in 1989-1990 it became well-known to citizens of Rostov-on-Don.
- "Ростов-на-Дону (объекты культурного наследия регионального значения)". Официальный портал Правительства Ростовской области. Retrieved 2013-09-28.
- Кукушин B. C. (1995). "Русский классицизм". История архитектуры Нижнего Дона и Приазовья. Ростов-на-Дону: ГинГО. ISBN 5-88616-027-2.
- Есаулов Г. В., Черницына В. А. (2002). Архитектурная летопись Ростова-на-Дону (2-е изд. ed.). Ростов-на-Дону. pp. 39–40. ISBN 5-8456-0489-3.