Central northeastern Portuguese

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Central northeastern Portuguese
Dialeto nordestino central
Pronunciation Portuguese pronunciation: [d̪iaˈlɛtu nɔɦdɛʃˈt̪ĩnu sẽˈtɾaw]
Native to Rio Grande do Norte, Paraíba, Alagoas, Sergipe, Pernambuco (except Recife metropolitan area and Zona da Mata), Ceará (South and South-Central, region also known popularly as "Cariri"), Bahia (North and North-Central, in the São Francisco River Valley), southeastern of Piauí and southwest of Maranhão
Native speakers
about 54 million (date missing)[citation needed]
Language codes
ISO 639-3
Glottolog None
Linguasphere 51-AAA-am
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters.

The central northeastern dialect of Brazilian Portuguese (Portuguese: dialeto nordestino central, pronounced: [d̪iaˈlɛtu nɔɦdɛʃˈt̪ĩnu sẽˈtɾaw]) is a dialect spoken in the central part of the Northeast Region, Brazil, in all the states of Rio Grande do Norte, Paraíba, Alagoas and Sergipe, much of the state of Pernambuco (except for the Zona da Mata and the Recife metropolitan area), northern of Bahia, southern of Ceará, southeastern of Piauí and a few regions of Maranhão. It has roughly about 53,078,137 native speakers and varies within the region. This dialect shares similarities between north coast, Baiano and Recifense dialects.

Main features[edit]

IPA for Central northeastern Portuguese[edit]

This key also serves, for the most part, to the north coast and recifense dialects. But the dialects cited here do not have the phoneme /d͡z/ and /t͡s/, characteristic of the central northeastern dialect. Recifense dialect usually palatalize fricatives in any syllabic consonant meeting (including the end of words) and not only before /d/ and /t/. Moreover, in certain regions of southeastern of Piauí and Maranhão west coast also a greater or lesser palatalization of fricatives may occur under the influence of Amazonian dialects (northern and Amazon Plateau), and even the absence of such palatalization. That is, in some areas the sound is pronounced exactly what is written (/s/ and /z/), and others as /ʃ/ and /ʒ/. In north coast dialect, also virtually no dental stops before /i/, /j/ or /ĩ/, and in its place they use postalveolar affricates (/d͡ʒ/ and /t͡ʃ/). In contrast, the central northeastern dialect has almost exclusive predominance of dental stops before /i/, /j/ or /ĩ/. And the postalveolar affricates are used only in the following cases: in words of foreign origin in the Portuguese language, especially English; in words denoting slang and regionalisms; and phonemes are present in the standard variety of Brazilian Portuguese, are also often in television media to replace the dental stops (though never in common parlance).

Consonants[edit]

IPA Graphemes Examples English approximation
b b bucho [ˈbuʃu], bloco [ˈblɔku], bruto [ˈbɾutu] best
d d dar [ˈda], depósito [dɛˈpɔzitu] down
1 d dia [ˈd̪iɐ], açude [aˈsud̪i] dear, dream
d͡z 2 des, dis idades [iˈdad͡z] roughly like: minds
f f feio [ˈfeju] family
g g, gu galinha [ɡaˈlĩȷ̃ɐ], guisado [ɡiˈzadu] get
ɦ 3 r corda [ˈkɔɦdɐ], marmota [maɦˈmɔtɐ] behind
h 4 r, rr rio [ˈhiu], barragem [baˈhaʒẽj̃] hot, high
ʒ 5 g, j, s, z jumento [ʒuˈmẽtu], gente [ˈʒẽt̪i], desde [ˈdeʒd̪i] rouge
k c, qu caju [kaˈʒu], querer [keˈɾe] keep, call
ks6 x xi [ˈtaksi] excellent, explain
l l lombo [ˈlõbu] let
ɫ 7 l ligar [ɫiˈɡa], lindo [ˈɫĩdu] feeling
ʎ lh, li filho [ˈfiʎu], família [fɐˈmiʎɐ] roughly like: million
m m macho [ˈmaʃu] environment
n n neto [ˈnɛtu] sonic
ɲ ~ ȷ̃ nh, ni farinha [faˈɾĩȷ̃ɐ], alumínio [aluˈmĩɲu] roughly like: canyon
p p poço [ˈposu] peace
ɾ r arengar [aɾẽˈɡa], comprar [kõˈpɾa] ladder in American English
s c, ç, s, xc, z sebo [ˈsebu], pensa [ˈpẽsɐ], caça [ˈkasɐ], exceção [ejsɛˈsɐ̃w̃], cearense [sɪaˈɾẽsi], rapaz [haˈpajs] sale
t t tamanco [tɐˈmɐ̃ku], terra [ˈtɛhɐ] time
1 t tia [ˈt̪iɐ], noite [ˈn̪ojt̪i] team
t͡s 2 tes, tis artes [ˈaɦt͡s] roughly like: saints
ʃ 8 ch, s, x, z caixote [kajˈʃɔt̪i], chave [ˈʃavi], abestado [abɛʃˈtadu] shop
z z zangado [zɐ̃ˈɡadu] zero
  • 1After the vowels /i/ or /ĩ/ and semivowel /j/.
  • 2Used in plural words ending in "des", "dis", "tes" and "tis".
  • 3Between the end and the beginning of syllables.
  • 4At the beginning of words and the digraph "rr".
  • 5Also in palatalization of /z/ before /d/.
  • 6Phonetic junction between /k/ and /s/.
  • 7Allophone of /l/ before /i/ and /ĩ/.
  • 8Also in palatalization of /s/ before /t/.

Marginal phonemes[edit]

IPA Examples English approximation
1 jeans [ˈd͡ʒĩs], diabo [ˈd͡ʒabu], tédio [ˈtɛd͡ʒu] change
1 tchau [ˈt͡ʃaw], capuccino [kapuˈt͡ʃĩnu], moléstia [mʊˈlɛʃt͡ʃa] cheese
  • 1 Only in words of foreign origin in the Portuguese language, in words denoting slang, regionalisms and optionally the grapheme "di" and "ti" that are in post-tonic syllables with rising diphthongs (and never in all locations, depending on local state changes to state where it is spoken dialect), and phonemes are present in the standard variety of Brazilian Portuguese, are also often in television media to replace the dental stops (though never in common parlance).

Vowels and semivowels[edit]

IPA Graphemes Examples English approximation
a a arroz [aˈhojs] car (GA) or time
ɐ a cama [ˈkɐ̃mɐ] nut
ɐ̃ a, am, an, ã manhã [mɐˈj̃ɐ̃], arrumação [ahumaˈsɐ̃w], dança [ˈdɐ̃sɐ], bamba [ˈbɐ̃bɐ] nasal /ɐ/
e e, ê loteria [loteˈɾiɐ], glacê [ɡlaˈse] says
ɛ e, é serra [ˈsɛhɐ], pé [ˈpɛ] set
e, em, en pente [ˈpẽ(j)t̪i], exemplo [eˈzẽplu], energia [ẽnɛɦˈʒiɐ] nasal /e/
i e, i repentista [hɛpẽ(j̃)ˈt̪iʃtɐ], país [paˈiz], tarde [ˈtaɦd̪i] emission or see
ɪ 1 e segunda [sɪˈɡũdɐ], escola [ɪsˈkɔlɐ], menino [mɪˈnĩnu] big
ĩ i, im, in cinto [ˈsĩtu], vinho [ˈvĩɲu] nasal /i/
o o, ô rolinha [hoˈlĩɲɐ], sopro [ˈsopɾu], vô [ˈvo] sole
ɔ o, ó rebolar [hɛbɔˈla] ball or lot
õ om, on, õ arrombado [ahõˈbadu], cone [ˈkõni] nasal /o/
u u, ú jurubeba [ʒuɾuˈbɛbɐ], juá [ʒuˈa], food
ʊ 1 o botão [bʊˈtɐ̃w̃], boneco [bʊˈnɛku] good
ũ um, un lundu [lũˈdu], mussum [muˈsũ] nasal /u/
j i, nh jeito [ˈʒejtu], série [ˈsɛɾji] you or boy
w l, u pau [ˈpaw], alto [ˈawtu], guarda [ˈɡwaɦdɐ], quase [ˈkwazi] want or low
  • 1Substitution for unstressed vowels /e/ and /o/.