Centranthus ruber

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Centranthus ruber
GardenValerian.jpg
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Asterids
Order: Dipsacales
Family: Caprifoliaceae
Genus: Centranthus
Species: C. ruber
Binomial name
Centranthus ruber
(L.) DC.
Synonyms[1]
  • Centranthus latifolius Dufr.
  • Centranthus marinus Gray
  • Centranthus maritimus DC.
  • Centranthus maritimus Gray
  • Centranthus sibthorpii Heldr. & Sart. ex Boiss.
  • Centranthus velenovskyi Vandas
  • Kentranthus ruber (L.) Druce
  • Valeriana florida Salisb.
  • Valeriana hortensis Garsault nom. inval.
  • Valeriana rubra L.

Centranthus ruber, also called red valerian,[2] spur valerian,[3] kiss-me-quick,[3] fox's brush,[3] and Jupiter's beard,[3] is a popular garden plant grown for its ornamental flowers.

Description[edit]

Closeup of inflorescence

It grows as a perennial plant, usually as a subshrub though it can take any form from a herb to a shrub depending on conditions; the plants are usually woody at the base. The leaves are generally 5–8 cm in length. Their form changes from the bottom to the top of the plant, the lower leaves being petioled while the upper leaves are sessile. The leaves grow in opposite pairs and are oval or lanceolate in shape. The plant flowers profusely, and though the individual flowers are small (no more than 2 cm), the inflorescences are large and showy. The flowers are small in rounded clusters each with 5 fused petals and a spur. The most typical color is a brick red or purplish red, but colors include deep crimson, pale pink, and lavender. Centranthus ruber 'Albus' (about 10% of individuals) has white blooms. Flowering takes place in early summer and, in cool summer areas, continues sporadically throughout the summer and into fall. The cultivar 'coccineus' is especially long-blooming. The blooms have a strong and somewhat rank scent. They are pollinated by both bees and butterflies and the plant is noted for attracting insects. It is used as a food plant by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including Angle Shades. Seeds have tufts similar to dandelions that allow wind dispersal, and as such can become self-seed and become invasive if not properly controlled.

Distribution[edit]

A native of the Mediterranean region, Centranthus ruber has been introduced into many other parts of the world as a garden escape. It is naturalised in France, Australia, Great Britain, Ireland and the United States. In the US it can be found growing wild in such western states as Arizona, Utah, California, Hawaii, and Oregon, usually in disturbed, rocky places at elevations below 200 m. It is often seen by roadsides or in urban wasteland. It can tolerate very alkaline soil conditions. Because it can tolerate the lime in mortar, Centranthus ruber may frequently be seen growing in old walls in Italy and Southern France.

Uses[edit]

White form of Centranthus ruber
Centranthus ruber showing both petioled and sessile leaf forms.

Both leaves and roots can be eaten, the leaves either fresh in salads or lightly boiled, the roots boiled in soups. Opinions differ as to whether either make very good eating, however. Although it is sometimes reported to have medicinal properties, there is no basis for this view, which is almost certainly due to confusion with true valerian, (Valeriana officinalis).

References[edit]

  1. ^ "The Plant List: A Working List of All Plant Species". Retrieved 8 April 2015. 
  2. ^ "BSBI List 2007". Botanical Society of Britain and Ireland. Archived from the original (xls) on 2015-02-25. Retrieved 2014-10-17. 
  3. ^ a b c d USDA GRIN Taxonomy, retrieved 8 April 2015 

External links[edit]