Centre-right coalition

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Centre-right coalition

Coalizione di centro-destra
LeaderMatteo Salvini[1]
FounderSilvio Berlusconi
Founded18 January 1994
Political positionCentre-right[2][3]
ColoursBlue
Chamber of Deputies
263 / 630
Senate
135 / 315
European Parliament
22 / 73
Regional Government
7 / 20

The centre-right coalition (Italian: coalizione di centro-destra) is a political alliance of political parties in Italy, active—under several forms and names—since 1994, when Silvio Berlusconi entered politics and formed his Forza Italia party.

In the 1994 general election, under the leadership of Berlusconi, the centre-right ran with two coalitions, the Pole of Freedoms in northern Italy and Tuscany (mainly Forza Italia and the Northern League) and the Pole of Good Government (mainly Forza Italia and National Alliance) in central and southern Italy.[4][5] In the 1996 general election, after the Northern League had left in late 1994, the centre-right coalition took the name of Pole for Freedoms. The Northern League returned in 2000, and the coalition was re-formed as the House of Freedoms; this lasted until 2008.[6]

Since 2008, when Forza Italia and National Alliance merged into The People of Freedom, the coalition has not had official names. The new Forza Italia was formed in late 2013; for the 2018 general election it joined forces with the Northern League, the Brothers of Italy and a collection of mainly centrist forces named Us with ItalyUnion of the Centre.

History[edit]

Pole of Freedoms[edit]

Silvio Berlusconi during a Forza Italia meeting in May 1994.

In 1994, the media magnate Silvio Berlusconi, previously very close to the Socialist Prime Minister Bettino Craxi and even having appeared in commercials for the Italian Socialist Party, was studying the possibility of making a political party of his own to avoid what seemed to be the unavoidable victory of the left wing at the next elections. Only three months before the election, he presented, with a televised announcement, his new party, Forza Italia. Supporters believe he wanted to avert a communist victory, opponents that he was defending the ancién regime by rebranding it. Whatever his motives, he employed his power in communication (he owned, and still owns, all of the three main private TV stations in Italy) and advanced communication techniques he and his allies knew very well, as his fortune was largely based on advertisement.

Berlusconi managed, in a surprise move, to ally himself both to National Alliance and Lega Nord, without these being allied with each other. Forza Italia teamed up with the League in the North, where they competed against National Alliance, and with National Alliance in the rest of Italy, where the League was not present. This unusual coalition configuration was caused by the deep hate between the League, which wanted to separate Italy and held Rome in deep contempt, and the nationalist post-fascists; on one occasion, Bossi encouraged his supporters to go find National-Alliance supporters "house by house," suggesting a lynching (which however did not actually take place).

In the 1994 general election, Berlusconi's coalition won a decisive victory over Occhetto's one, becoming the first center-right coalition to win general election since the Second World War. In the popular vote, Berlusconi's coalition outpolled the Alliance of Progressive by over 5.1 million votes. Pole of Freedoms won in the main regions of Italy.

Pole for Freedoms[edit]

Pole for Freedoms was formed as a continuation of the Pole of Freedoms and Pole of Good Government coalitions, which had both supported the leadership of Silvio Berlusconi at the 1994 general election: the Pole of Freedom was constituted by Forza Italy and Lega Nord, the Pole of Good Government by Forza Italia and the National Alliance. After that, Lega Nord left the coalition at the end of 1994, the centre-right was forced to reform itself: in 1995, in occasion of the regional elections, an organic alliance was formed. In 1996 it was officially named "Pole for Freedoms" and debuted in the 1996 general election; however, it was defeated by the centre-left alliance The Olive Tree, whose leader was Romano Prodi.

House of Freedoms[edit]

Silvio Berlusconi at a PdL rally, 2008.

The House of Freedoms was the successor of the Pole of Freedoms/Pole of Good Government and the Pole for Freedoms.

In the run-up of the 2001 general election, after a six-year spell in opposition, which Berlusconi called "the crossing of the desert", he managed to re-unite the coalition under the "House of Freedoms" banner. According to its leader, the alliance was a "broad democratic arch, composed of the democratic right, namely AN, the great democratic centre, namely Forza Italia, CCD and CDU, and the democratic left represented by the League, the New PSI, and the Italian Republican Party.[7][8]

The CdL won the 2001 general election by a landslide and, consequently, the Berlusconi II Cabinet was formed. In government, FI, whose strongholds included Lombardy as well as Sicily, and the LN, which was active only in the Centre-North, formed the so-called "axis of the North", through the special relationship between three Lombards leaders, Berlusconi, Giulio Tremonti and Umberto Bossi; on the other side of the coalition, AN and the Union of Christian and Centre Democrats (UDC), the party emerged from the merger of the CCD and the CDU in late 2002, became the natural representatives of Southern interests.[9][10][11][12]

In 2003 the CdL was routed in local elections by The Olive Tree and the LN threatened to pull out. Also the 2004 European Parliament election were disappointing for FI and the coalition as a whole, even though AN, the UDC and the LN did better than five years before. As a result, Berlusconi and FI were weaker within the CdL.

In 2005 the coalition lost heavily in regional elections, losing six of the eight regions it controlled. The defeat was particularly damaging in the South, while the only two regions which the coalition managed to keep, Lombardy and Veneto, were in the North, where the LN was decisive . This led to a government crisis, particularly after the UDC pulled its ministers out. A few days later, the Berlusconi III Cabinet was formed with minor changes from the previous cabinet.

In the 2006 general election the CdL, which had opened its ranks to a number of minor parties, lost to The Olive Tree.

The People of Freedom[edit]

The People of Freedom, launched by Silvio Berlusconi on 18 November 2007, was initially a federation of political parties, notably including Forza Italia and National Alliance, which participated as a joint election list in the 2008 general election.[13] The federation was later transformed into a party during a party congress on 27–29 March 2009. The UDC, now UdC, leaves the centre-right coalition and makes a alliance with The Rose for Italy, the Populars and other centrist parties. UdC joined later the New Pole for Italy in 2010 and With Monti for Italy in 2012.

The PdL formed Italy's government from 2008 to 2011 in coalition with Lega Nord. In 2010 the Future and Freedom (FLI) movement, led by the former MSI/AN leader Gianfranco Fini, split from PdL. FLI joined UdC and other parties to form the New Pole for Italy, but they kept supporting the government.

After Berlusconi's resignation during the European debt crisis, the PdL supported Mario Monti's technocratic government in 2011–2012, and after the 2013 general election, it became part of Enrico Letta's government of grand coalition with the Democratic Party, Civic Choice and the Union of the Centre. Angelino Alfano, then party's secretary, functioned as Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of the Interior.

Centre-right coalition[edit]

In June 2013 Berlusconi announced Forza Italia's revival and the PdL's transformation into a centre-right coalition.[14][15] On 16 November 2013 the PdL's national council voted to dissolve the party and start a new Forza Italia; the assembly was deserted by a group of dissidents, led by Alfano, who had launched the alternative New Centre-Right party the day before.[16]

After the 2016 constitutional referendum, UdC left the centre-left coalition and approached the centre-right coalition again. In 2017 Civic Choice also joined the centre-right coalition. UdC and Civic Choice ran with the centre-right coalition in the 2017 Sicilian regional election.

Follwing the 2018 general election, the centre-right coalition, led by Matteo Salvini's League, emerged with a plurality of seats in the Chamber of Deputies and in the Senate, while the anti-establishment Five Star Movement led by Luigi Di Maio became the party with the largest number of votes. The centre-left coalition, led by former Prime Minister Matteo Renzi, came third.[17][18] However, no political group or party won an outright majority, resulting in a hung parliament.[19]

After three months of negotiation, a coalition was finally formed on 1 June between the M5S and the League, whose leaders both became Deputy Prime Ministers in a government led by the M5S-linked independent Giuseppe Conte as Prime Minister.

1994 general election[edit]

In the 1994 general election the Pole of Freedoms ran only in northern Italy and Tuscany. It was composed of four parties:

Party Ideology Leader
Forza Italia (FI) Liberal conservatism Silvio Berlusconi
Northern League (LN) Regionalism Umberto Bossi
Christian Democratic Centre (CCD) Christian democracy Pier Ferdinando Casini
Union of the Centre (UdC) Liberalism Raffaele Costa

The Pole of Good Government ran only in central Italy (except Tuscany) and southern Italy. It was composed of six parties:

Party Ideology Leader
Forza Italia (FI) Liberal conservatism Silvio Berlusconi
National Alliance[a] (AN) National conservatism Gianfranco Fini
Christian Democratic Centre (CCD) Christian democracy Pier Ferdinando Casini
Union of the Centre (UdC) Liberalism Raffaele Costa
Liberal Democratic Pole (PLD) Liberalism Adriano Teso
Pannella List (LP) Liberalism Marco Pannella
  1. ^ Including also the Italian Liberal Right.

1996 general election[edit]

In the 1996 general election the Pole for Freedoms was composed of four parties:

Party Ideology Leader
Forza Italia[a] (FI) Liberal conservatism Silvio Berlusconi
National Alliance[b] (AN) National conservatism Gianfranco Fini
Christian Democratic Centre[c] (CCD) Christian democracy Pier Ferdinando Casini
United Christian Democrats[c] (CDU) Christian democracy Rocco Buttiglione
Federalist Italian League (LIF)[20] Federalism Luigi Negri
Federalist Party Federalism Gianfranco Miglio
Liberal Democratic Greens[21] Green liberalism Silvano Vinceti
  1. ^ Including also the List for Trieste (see below) and the Union of the Centre.
  2. ^ Including also the Italian Liberal Right.
  3. ^ a b The two parties contested the election in a joint list, including also the Federalist Greens.

The coalition also had an electoral agreement with:

Party Ideology Leader
Pannella–Sgarbi List (LPS) Liberalism Marco Pannella


The coalition had one regional partner:

Region Party Ideology Leader
Friuli-Venezia Giulia List for Trieste (LpT) Social liberalism Roberto Antonione

2001 general election[edit]

In the 2001 general election the House of Freedoms was composed of seven parties:

Party Ideology Leader
Forza Italia[a] (FI) Liberal conservatism Silvio Berlusconi
National Alliance[b] (AN) Conservatism Gianfranco Fini
Northern League[c] (LN) Regionalism Umberto Bossi
Christian Democratic Centre[d] (CCD) Christian democracy Pier Ferdinando Casini
United Christian Democrats[d] (CDU) Christian democracy Rocco Buttiglione
New Italian Socialist Party (NPSI) Social democracy Gianni De Michelis
Italian Republican Party[e] (PRI) Liberalism Giorgio La Malfa
Scorporo Abolition[f] (AS) Single-issue politics
  1. ^ Including also the Christian Democratic Party, the List for Trieste and The Liberals–Sgarbi.[22]
  2. ^ Including also the Liberal Right – Liberals for Italy.
  3. ^ Including also the Trentino Tyrolean Autonomist Party and the Lega Sud Ausonia (see below).
  4. ^ a b The two parties contested the election in a joint list, including also the Federalist Greens.
  5. ^ The party was included in Forza Italia's lists.
  6. ^ Scorporo Abolition was a lista civetta.

The coalition had five regional partners:

Region Party Ideology Leader
Trentino Trentino Tyrolean Autonomist Party (PATT) Regionalism Giacomo Bezzi
Friuli-Venezia Giulia List for Trieste (LpT) Social liberalism Roberto Antonione
Campania Lega Sud Ausonia (LSA) Regionalism Gianfranco Vestuto
Sicily New Sicily (NS) Regionalism Bartolo Pellegrino
Sardinia Sardinian Reformers (RS) Regionalism Massimo Fantola

The coalition also had an electoral agreement with:

Party Ideology Leader
Tricolour Flame (FT) Neo-fascism Pino Rauti

2006 general election[edit]

In the 2006 general election the House of Freedoms was composed of seventeen parties:

Party Ideology Leader
Forza Italia[a] (FI) Liberal conservatism Silvio Berlusconi
National Alliance (AN) Conservatism Gianfranco Fini
Union of Christian and Centre Democrats[b] (UDC) Christian democracy Pier Ferdinando Casini
Northern League[c] (LN) Regionalism Umberto Bossi
Movement for Autonomy[c] (MpA) Regionalism Raffaele Lombardo
Christian Democracy for the Autonomies[d] (DCA) Christian democracy Gianfranco Rotondi
New Italian Socialist Party[d] (NPSI) Social democracy Gianni De Michelis
Social Alternative[e][a] (AS) Neo-fascism Alessandra Mussolini
Tricolour Flame[f] (FT) Neo-fascism Luca Romagnoli
United Pensioners (PU) Pensioners' interests Filippo De Jorio
Italian Republican Party[g] (PRI) Liberalism Francesco Nucara
No Euro Movement (MNE) Euroscepticism Renzo Rabellino
Italian Liberal Party (PLI) Liberalism Stefano De Luca
Extended Christian Pact (PACE) Christian democracy Gilberto Perri
Liberal Reformers[g] (RL) Liberalism Benedetto Della Vedova
S.O.S. Italy (SOS) Consumer protection Diego Volpe Pasini
Federalist Greens[h] (VF) Green liberalism Laura Scalabrini
  1. ^ a b Negotiations with the Social Idea Movement failed.
  2. ^ The list included also the Sardinian Reformers (see below).
  3. ^ a b The two parties formed a joint list. The list included also the Sardinian Action Party (see below).
  4. ^ a b The two parties contested the election in a joint list and including the Autonomist People's Union (see below).
  5. ^ Including Social Action, New Force and the National Front.
  6. ^ Including CasaPound.[23]
  7. ^ a b The two parties were included in Forza Italia's lists.
  8. ^ Including the Greens Greens (see below).

The coalition had seven regional partners:

Region Party Ideology Leader
Trentino Autonomist People's Union (UPA) Christian democracy Renzo Gubert
Piedmont Greens Greens (VV) Green conservatism Maurizio Lupi
Apulia Apulia First of All (PPT) Regionalism Raffaele Fitto
Sicily New Sicily (NS) Social democracy Bartolo Pellegrino
Pact for Sicily (PpS) Christian democracy Nicolò Nicolosi
Sardinia Sardinian Action Party (PSd'Az) Sardinian nationalism Giacomo Sanna
Sardinian Reformers (RS) Regionalism Massimo Fantola

The coalition had one regional partner in foreign constituencies:

Region Party Ideology Leader
Italians abroad For Italy in the World with Tremaglia (RS) Conservatism Mirko Tremaglia

The House of Freedoms was also supported by Unitalia.

Berlusconi launched The People of Freedom in late 2007; this was joined by FI, AN and minor parties,[24] and continued its alliance with the LN.[25]

2008 general election[edit]

In the 2008 general election the coalition was composed of three parties:

Party Ideology Leader
The People of Freedom[a] (PdL) Liberal conservatism Silvio Berlusconi
Northern League (LN)[b] Regionalism Umberto Bossi
Movement for Autonomy[c] (MpA) Regionalism Raffaele Lombardo
  1. ^ The list, which would be transformed into a party in 2009, included Forza Italia, National Alliance, the Liberal Populars, the Christian Democracy for the Autonomies, the New Italian Socialist Party, the Italian Republican Party, the Liberal Reformers, the Pensioners' Party, the Liberal Democrats, Federation of Christian Populars,[26] Decide!, Italians in the World, Social Action (formerly part of Social Alternative), the Libertarian Right, the Reformist Socialists and Fortza Paris (see below). Not all of these parties would be officially merged into the joint party in 2009. The PdL was also supported by Christian Democracy, after excluded by the Ministry of the Interior from the electoral competition because of the similarity of its symbol with that of the UDC and the Italian Democratic Socialist Party in Lombardy. The Sardinian Reformers tried to form an alliance, but talks failed. Also the Union of the Centre refused to join forces[27][28][29] (and was joined by the Sardinian Reformers).
  2. ^ Including also the Federalist Alliance.
  3. ^ The party was based in Sicily, but fielded lists everywhere the LN was not present. It included minor parties, like Italy of the Centre[30] and the Southern Action League, and was supported by the Italian Democratic Socialist Party in Sicily.

The coalition had three regional partners:

Region Party Ideology Leader
Piedmont Greens Greens (VV) Green liberalism Maurizio Lupi
Apulia Apulia First of All (PPT) Regionalism Raffaele Fitto
Sardinia Fortza Paris (FP) Sardinian nationalism Silvestro Ladu

2013 general election[edit]

In the 2013 general election[31] the coalition was composed of nine parties.

Party Ideology Leader
The People of Freedom[a] (PdL) Liberal conservatism Silvio Berlusconi
Northern League[b] (LN) Regionalism Roberto Maroni
Brothers of Italy (FdI) National conservatism Giorgia Meloni
The Right (LD) National conservatism Francesco Storace
Great SouthMpA[c][d] (GS–MpA) Regionalism Gianfranco Micciché
Moderates in Revolution (MIR) Liberal conservatism Gianpiero Samorì
Pensioners' Party (PP) Pensioners' interests Carlo Fatuzzo
People's Agreement[e] (IP) Christian democracy Giampiero Catone
Stop Taxes (BT)[38][39] Anti-tax Luciano Garatti
  1. ^ The list was supported by the Italian Democratic Socialist Party and the Christian Democratic Party[32] and included the Union of Democrats for Europe,[33][34] the New Italian Socialist Party, the Christian Democracy, the Popular Construction, the Movement for the Autonomies, Fortza Paris (see below) and the Federation of Christian Populars.[35]
  2. ^ The list included the Labour and Freedom List and was supported by Fassa Association[36].
  3. ^ Both parties were based in Sicily, but ran in several regions.
  4. ^ Including Force of the South, I the South and We the South.
  5. ^ Including Social Justice[37] and Christian Democracy.

The coalition had five regional partners:

Region Party Ideology Leader
Apulia Apulia First of All (PPT) Regionalism Raffaele Fitto
Sicily Popular Construction (CP) Regionalism Francesco Saverio Romano
Party of Sicilians (PdS) Regionalism Raffaele Lombardo
Sardinia Fortza Paris (FP) Sardinian nationalism Silvestro Ladu
Campania Free for a Fair Italy (LIE)[40][41] Angelo Pisani

Negotiations with Alto Adige in the Heart failed.[42]

2018 general election[edit]

In the 2018 general election the coalition was composed of five parties:

Party Ideology Leader
League[a] (L) Populism Matteo Salvini
Forza Italia[b] (FI) Liberal conservatism Silvio Berlusconi
Brothers of Italy[c] (FdI) National conservatism Giorgia Meloni
Us with Italy[d][e] (NcI) Liberal conservatism Raffaele Fitto
Union of the Centre[e] (UdC) Christian democracy Lorenzo Cesa

The coalition had ten regional partners:

Region Party Ideology Leader
Aosta Valley Movement New Aosta Valley (MNVdA) Regionalism Roberto Di Francesco
South Tyrol Alto Adige in the Heart (AAC) Conservatism Alessandro Urzì
Trentino Fassa Association (AF) Christian democracy Elena Testor
Veneto Veneto for Autonomy (VpA) Regionalism Maurizio Conte
Friuli-Venezia Giulia Responsible Autonomy (AR) Centrism Renzo Tondo
Sicily Popular Construction[a] (CP) Regionalism Francesco Saverio Romano
Movement for the Autonomies[a] (MpA) Regionalism Raffaele Lombardo
She Will Become Most Beautiful (DB) Regionalism Nello Musumeci
Sardinia Sardinian Reformers (RS) Regionalism Michele Cossa
Sardinian Action Party (PSd'Az) Sardinian nationalism Christian Solinas
  1. ^ a b Both parties were formerly active nationally, but now only in Sicily.

Electoral results[edit]

Italian Parliament[edit]

Chamber of Deputies
Election year # of
overall votes
% of
overall vote
# of
overall seats won
+/– Leader
1994 18,200,270 (#1) 46.1
366 / 630
Silvio Berlusconi
1996 16,475,191 (#1) 44.0
246 / 630
Decrease 120
Silvio Berlusconi
2001 18,569,126 (#1) 50.0
368 / 630
Increase 122
Silvio Berlusconi
2006 18,995,697 (#2) 49.7
281 / 630
Decrease 87
Silvio Berlusconi
2008 17,064,506 (#1) 46.8
344 / 630
Increase 43
Silvio Berlusconi
2013 9,923,109 (#2) 29.2
125 / 630
Decrease 219
Silvio Berlusconi
2018 12,152,345 (#1) 37.0
265 / 630
Increase 140
Matteo Salvini[a]
Senate of the Republic
Election year # of
overall votes
% of
overall vote
# of
overall seats won
+/– Leader
1994 14,110,705 (#1) 42.5
156 / 315
Silvio Berlusconi
1996 12,694,846 (#2) 38,9
117 / 315
Decrease 39
Silvio Berlusconi
2001 17,255,734 (#1) 50.4
176 / 315
Increase 60
Silvio Berlusconi
2006 17,359,754 (#1) 49.8
156 / 315
Decrease 20
Silvio Berlusconi
2008 15,508,899 (#1) 47.3
174 / 315
Increase 18
Silvio Berlusconi
2013 9,405,679 (#2) 30.7
117 / 315
Decrease 57
Silvio Berlusconi
2018 11,327,549 (#1) 37.5
135 / 315
Increase 18
Matteo Salvini[a]
  1. ^ a b Salvini became leader of the centre-right coalition after the results of 2018 general election, as head of the leading party in the coalition.

Regional Councils[edit]

Region Latest election # of
overall votes
% of
overall vote
# of
overall seats won
+/–
Aosta Valley[a] 2018 12,734 20.0
7 / 35
Increase 7
Piedmont[a] 2014 613,800 27.3
9 / 50
Decrease 27
Lombardy 2018 2,686,610 (#1) 51.3
49 / 80
South Tyrol[a] 2018 39,218 14.0
5 / 35
Increase 3
Trentino 2018 120,906 (#1) 47.4
21 / 35
Increase 11
Veneto 2015 965,994 (#1) 52.2
29 / 51
Decrease 8
Friuli-Venezia Giulia 2018 264,769 (#1) 62.7
29 / 49
Increase 12
Emilia-Romagna 2014 356,969 (#2) 29.7
12 / 50
Decrease 3
Liguria 2015 203.326 (#1) 37.7
16 / 31
Increase 1
Tuscany[a] 2015 386,236 29.1
9 / 41
Decrease 10
Marche[a] 2015 178,924 33.7
9 / 31
Decrease 6
Umbria 2015 125,594 (#2) 38.6
6 / 20
Decrease 4
Lazio 2018 922,664 (#1) 36.4
15 / 50
Increase 1
Abruzzo 2014 197,264 (#2) 29.3
7 / 31
Decrease 20
Molise 2018 71,677 (#1) 49.3
13 / 21
Increase 7
Campania 2015 904,881 (#2) 39.7
13 / 51
Decrease 25
Apulia[a] 2015 528.292 31.4
13 / 51
Decrease 14
Basilicata 2013 50,904 (#2) 21.5
5 / 21
Decrease 5
Calabria 2014 182,608 (#2) 23.3
8 / 30
Decrease 22
Sicily 2017 809,121 (#1) 42.0
36 / 70
Increase 15
Sardinia 2014 299,349 (#1) 43.9
24 / 60
Decrease 19
  1. ^ a b c d e f In Aosta Valley, Piedmont, South Tyrol Tuscany, Marche and Apulia the centre-right coalition ran divided.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ As leader of the main party.
  2. ^ Squires, Nick (6 November 2017). "Berlusconi is back after centre-Right sweeps to victory in Sicily elections". The Telegraph.
  3. ^ "Italy's 5-Star seeks talks with PD, closes door on centre-right". Reuters. 24 April 2018.
  4. ^ Mark Donovan (2004). "The Italian State: No Longer Catholic, no Longer Christian". In Zsolt Enyedi; John T.S. Madeley. Church and State in Contemporary Europe. Routledge. p. 102. ISBN 978-1-135-76141-7.
  5. ^ Andrej Zaslove (2011). The Re-invention of the European Radical Right: Populism, Regionalism, and the Italian Lega Nord. McGill-Queen's Press - MQUP. p. 65. ISBN 978-0-7735-3851-1.
  6. ^ Vittorio Vandelli (2014). 1994-2014 Berlusconi’s new ventennio. Vittorio Vandelli. p. 189. ISBN 978-605-03-2890-5.
  7. ^ "Polo, lo sgarbo di Bossi - la Repubblica.it". Retrieved 19 June 2018.
  8. ^ "Archivio Corriere della Sera". archiviostorico.corriere.it. Retrieved 19 June 2018.
  9. ^ "Archivio Corriere della Sera". archiviostorico.corriere.it. Retrieved 19 June 2018.
  10. ^ "Archivio Corriere della Sera". archiviostorico.corriere.it. Retrieved 19 June 2018.
  11. ^ "Archivio Corriere della Sera". archiviostorico.corriere.it. Retrieved 19 June 2018.
  12. ^ "Archivio Corriere della Sera". archiviostorico.corriere.it. Retrieved 19 June 2018.
  13. ^ "Berlusconi: "Simbolo unico per Fi e An"". Corriere della Sera (in Italian). 8 February 2008.
  14. ^ 28 giugno 2013. "''Berlusconi: Forza Italia back and I will be driving it'' (Italian language)". Ilsole24ore.com. Retrieved 2013-07-28.
  15. ^ Berlusconi annuncia ritorno di Forza Italia. "Temo che sarò ancora il numero uno". Repubblica.it (2013-06-28). Retrieved on 2013-08-24.
  16. ^ "Berlusconi breaks away from Italy government after party ruptures". Reuters. 16 November 2013. Retrieved 16 November 2013.
  17. ^ "Elezioni politiche: vincono M5s e Lega. Crollo del Partito democratico. Centrodestra prima coalizione. Il Carroccio sorpassa Forza Italia". 4 March 2018.
  18. ^ Sala, Alessandro. "Elezioni 2018: M5S primo partito, nel centrodestra la Lega supera FI".
  19. ^ Italy election to result in hung parliament
  20. ^ "Dipartimento per gli Affari Interni e Territoriali". elezionistorico.interno.it. Retrieved 14 August 2018.
  21. ^ https://www.radioradicale.it/scheda/80430/80510-elezioni-politiche-96-i-verdi-liberaldemocratici-chiedono-di-allearsi-con-il-polo
  22. ^ "Camera dei Deputati - XIV legislatura - Deputati - La scheda personale - SGARBI Vittorio". Legxiv.camera.it. Retrieved 2014-07-16.
  23. ^ CasaPound fa paura, ma i suoi voti piacciono a tutti, Linkiesta 3 March 2015
  24. ^ "Italy returns Berlusconi to power". BBC News. 15 April 2008. Retrieved 24 January 2016.
  25. ^ Daniele Albertazzi; Duncan McDonnell (2015). Populists in Power. Routledge. p. 80. ISBN 978-1-317-53503-4. Retrieved 25 January 2016.
  26. ^ "Antonio Satta (Upc) dà la "sveglia" a Casini per il nuovo grande Centro". Retrieved 14 August 2018.
  27. ^ "Casini rompe gli indugi: Udc da sola". 16 February 2008.
  28. ^ http://www.repubblica.it/2008/02/sezioni/politica/verso-elezioni-2/udc-corre-sola/udc-corre-sola.html?refresh_ce
  29. ^ http://www.repubblica.it/2008/02/sezioni/politica/verso-elezioni-2/retroscena-casini/retroscena-casini.html
  30. ^ "mpa-italia.it". www.mpa-italia.it. Archived from the original on 2016-03-03. Retrieved 14 August 2018.
  31. ^ "Italian election results: gridlock likely – as it happened". Guardian. 26 February 2013. Retrieved 27 February 2013.
  32. ^ [dead link]
  33. ^ «Con Forza Italia da moderati» Il sì dell’Udeur a Berlusconi Archived December 6, 2013, at the Wayback Machine.
  34. ^ "Mastella: «Voli di Stato, Boldrini linciata come me quando andai a Monza»". Retrieved 14 August 2018.
  35. ^ "Elezioni, Baccini: Bene così, Cristiano popolari faranno loro parte". il Velino. 22 January 2013. Retrieved 8 January 2014.
  36. ^ "Invito al voto per le Elezioni Politiche 24 e 25 febbraio 2013". 22 February 2013. Retrieved 14 August 2018.
  37. ^ Catone: "Intesa Popolare portavoce di valori concreti"
  38. ^ "Comune Senago" (PDF).[permanent dead link]
  39. ^ "Site is under maintenance". www.illatv.it. Retrieved 14 August 2018.
  40. ^ Prefettura - Ufficio Territoriale del Governo di Caserta Archived 15 February 2013 at the Wayback Machine.
  41. ^ "Assegnazione spazi propaganda elettorale" (PDF).
  42. ^ [1]
  43. ^ "Pöder empfiehlt die Lega". 28 February 2018. Retrieved 14 August 2018.
  44. ^ "Pöder wählt Salvini – Die Neue Südtiroler Tageszeitung". www.tageszeitung.it. Retrieved 14 August 2018.
  45. ^ https://www.ildolomiti.it/politica/2018/la-lega-apre-al-patt-fugatti-il-dialogo-e-soltanto-con-gli-autonomisti-veri
  46. ^ "Dalla Lega a Fi passando per Tosi, Caon: «Dalla parte dei primi cittadini»". Retrieved 14 August 2018.
  47. ^ "Testor, la val di Fassa ora guarda a destra". Retrieved 14 August 2018.
  48. ^ "Fratelli d'Italia - Alleanza nazionale Trentino * Congresso Nazionale: nuovo simbolo e rinforzamento del Partito - Agenzia giornalistica Opinione". 3 December 2017. Retrieved 14 August 2018.
  49. ^ ntervista all'On. Luca Romagnoli al convegno di “Fratelli d'Italia” a Pescara
  50. ^ Giorgia Meloni, il tenore Matteo Tiraboschi annuncia una canzone in onore della leader di Fratelli d'Italia
  51. ^ Destra Sociale, domani nasce “Viva l’italia”, cinque movimenti si uniscono
  52. ^ Official website of Renzo Gubert
  53. ^ Official facebook account of New CDU