Centrism

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"Political centre" redirects here. For the Russian movement (1919–20), see Political Centre (Russia).

In politics, centrism or the centre is a political outlook or specific position that involves acceptance or support of a balance of a degree of social equality and a degree of social hierarchy; while opposing political changes which would result in a significant shift of society either strongly to the left or the right.[1] Centre-left and centre-right politics both involve a general association with centrism combined while leaning somewhat to their respective sides of the spectrum.

Definitions[edit]

Voters may identify with moderation for a number of reasons: pragmatic, ideological or otherwise. It has even been suggested that individuals vote for 'centrist' parties for purely statistical reasons.[2]

Centrists usually support to a degree of equal opportunity and economic freedom. They can generally lean conservative on economic issues and lean liberal on social issues and sometimes vice versa.

Usage by political parties by country[edit]

Australia[edit]

The Australian Democrats is a centrist party with a social liberal ideology. South Australian Senator Nick Xenophon had launched his own centrist political party called the Nick Xenophon Team (NXT) in 2014. The Palmer United Party has been suggested as being a centrist party as well however the party itself does not make such formal claims of being politically centrist.[3]

Belgium[edit]

The utmost centrist party of Flanders has been the Volksunie, which not only embraced social liberalism but also displayed the national sentiment of the Dutch speaking Belgians who felt culturally suppressed by Francophones. The New Flemish Alliance is the largest, and since 2009, the only successor of that party.

Among French speaking Belgians the Humanist Democratic Centre is a centre-right or centre party as it is considerably less conservative than its Flemish counterpart, Christian Democratic & Flemish. Another party in the centre of the political spectrum is the liberal Reformist Movement.

Canada[edit]

Liberal Party of Canada is the dominant centrist party, they have traditionally positioned themselves as being more moderate and centrist than the Conservative Party of Canada or New Democratic Party, putting them somewhere between the centre and centre-left. The Liberals are currently the largest party in Canada's House of Commons.

Czech Republic[edit]

Czech Republic has two main centrist political parties which are currently in the government: liberal ANO (Yes) and Christian democratic Christian and Democratic Union – Czechoslovak People's Party.

Estonia[edit]

Main article: Centrism in Estonia

France[edit]

France has a tradition of parties that call themselves centriste. The most notable centrist party, often also called liberal, was the Union for French Democracy, created in 1978. Among its successors belongs the small Centrist Alliance, the most successful of them is the Democratic Movement of François Bayrou, founded in 2007. However, the centrist parties often oppose to the left-wing parties such as Socialists and Left Front. It often support the centre-right Gaullist parties and join several coalitions which governed by Jacques Chirac and Nicolas Sarkozy.

Germany[edit]

Joachim Gauck, the current German president who is a centrist politician and activist without party affiliation. In 1990 he took part in the Alliance 90, having become an independent after its merger with The Greens.

Zentrismus is a term only known to experts, as it is easily confused with Zentralismus ("centralism", the opposite to decentralisation/federalism); so the usual term in German for the political centre/centrism is politische Mitte (literally "political middle", or "political centre"). Historically, the German party with the most purely centrist nature among German parties to have had current or historical parliamentary representations was most likely the social-liberal German Democratic Party of the Weimar Republic (1918–1933).

There existed during the Weimar Republic (and again after the Nazi period) a Zentrum, a party of German Catholics founded in 1870. It was called Centre Party not for being a proper centrist party, but because it united left-wing and right-wing Catholics, because it was the first German party to be a Volkspartei (catch-all party), and because his elected representatives sat between the liberals (the left of the time) and the conservatives (the right of the time). It was, though, distinctly right-wing conservative in that it was not neutral on religious issues (such as on secular education), being markedly against more liberal and modernist positions. The main successor of Zentrum after the return of democracy to West Germany in 1945, the Christian Democratic Union, has throughout its history alternated between describing itself as right-wing or centrist, and sitting on the right-wing (with the Free Democratic Party in its social liberal moments sitting at its left, in the centre, and themselves sitting at the centre, with the FDP in its classical liberal moments sitting at its right, in the right-wing). The representatives of the Social Democratic Party of Germany, although they have, since the 1990s, many times referred to themselves as "the new middle" (under influence of the Third way of the time), feel less at ease in describing their party as centrist due to their history and socialist identity.

Alliance '90/The Greens was founded in 1993 as a merger from the East German Alliance 90, a group of centrist/transversalist civil rights activists, and the (West) German Greens. The latter was a coalition of various unorthodox-left politicians and more liberal "realists". This Bundestag party also hesitates in using the term centre, although it does distance itself as well from the tag of left (which identifies it, for the moment, as a transversalist party). The transversalist moderation of the party and its position in the Bundestag in the middle of the way, between the Social Democrats and the Christian Democrats (while the FDP has its seats at the right of the Christian Democrats) also points somewhat to The Greens being a more or less centrist party.

In the state parliaments of specific German states there are other specifically regional parties which could be identified as centrist. The South Schleswig Voter Federation, of the Danish and Frisian minorities in the state of Schleswig-Holstein has currently a centrist political position, although in the past the party usually leaned to the left. In the German presidential elections of 2009, 2010 and 2012, it supported the candidates of the Social Democrats and the Greens. In Bavaria, the Free Voters party present at the state parliament may also be seen as a centrist party.

Greece[edit]

In Greece centrism has its roots to centrist politician and founder of Agricultural and Labour Party, Alexandros Papanastasiou. In 1961 Georgios Papandreou created along with other political leaders the coalition party of Centre Union. Five parties were merged: Liberal Party, Progressive Agricultural Democratic Union, National Progressive Center Union, Popular Social Party into one, with strong centrist agenda opposed equally to right wing party of National Radical Union and left wing party of United Democratic Left. The Centre Union Party was the last Venizelist party to hold power in Greece. The party nominally continued to exist until 1977 (after the Junta it was known as the Center Union - New Forces), when its successor Union of the Democratic Centre (EDIK) party was created.

Union of Centrists was created by Vassilis Leventis in 1992 under the title "Union of Centrists and Ecologists". The name was changed shortly after. The Union of Centrists claims to be the ideological continuation of the old party Center Union. The party strives to become "the political continuance of the centrist expression in Greece". Leventis aimed to become part of the Venizelist legacy of some great politicians of the past, such as Eleftherios Venizelos and George Papandreou Sr. However, the party's total influence had been marginal until 2015, with 1.79% of the total votes (in the Greek legislative election, January 2015) being its highest achievement before finally making its way to the Greek Parliament in September 2015 with 3.43% of the total votes and 9 members elected.

Hong Kong[edit]

Politics of Hong Kong has traditionally divided into two alliances: the pro-Beijing camp and the pan-democracy camp. However, some political parties, pressure groups, and politicians do not fall neatly into this dichotomy. Many centrist politicians defected from one of the two main alliances after they have become discontent with the increasing polarization of Hong Kong politics and their parties' policies.

From the pro-Beijing side, councillor Christine Fong and her Professional Power group defected from the pro-Beijing Liberal Party and now focus on local issues. From the pan-democracy side, ex-legislator Wong Shing Chi left Democratic Party to campaign on a centrist platform under the new political party Third Side, and was joined by former fellow Democrat Tik Chi Yuen. In 2015, ex-legislator Ronny Tong resigned from the Legislative Council and Civic Party to start a centrist platform called Path of Democracy.

Leung Ka-lau, who has represented the medical functional constituency since 2008, does not self-identify with either pro-Beijing or pan-democracy camp, and has voted with both sides on various issues.[4] However, he is widely considered as a pro-Beijing politician.[5]

India[edit]

In Indian politics, the main centrist party is Indian National Congress (INC). It is regarded as one of the national parties by the Election Commission of India. It is slightly tilted towards left in some regions of the country. Since India have a multi-party democracy, there many other centrist parties which may got split from INC out emerged as a new party.

Ireland[edit]

In the Republic of Ireland, the two main political parties, Fianna Fáil and Fine Gael, both claim the political centre ground, but seem to mostly lean to the centre-right and be mostly made up of centre-right memberships.[6][6][7] The two parties have shared broadly similar policies in the past, with their primary division being perceived as being steeped in Irish Civil War politics. Fine Gael is aligned to Christian democratic parties in Europe via its membership of the European People's Party, and is described internationally as centre-right by the likes of Reuters.[8] The consensus in analysis seems to be that Fianna Fáil is mostly centrist, expanding to the centre-right space, and that Fine Gael is mostly centre-rightist, expanding also to the centre space.

Netherlands[edit]

In the Netherlands, four parties have, more than once, sent members into the cabinet. From them, the Christian Democratic Appeal (CDA) tends to be centre-right and the Democrats 66 (D66) centrist.[9]

Livable Netherlands was originally a centrist political movement of local grass-root parties with an anti-establishment touch similar to early D66. However, the party entered in 2002 national parliament with a right-wing populist programme based on security and immigration as the major issues.[citation needed]

The fundamentalist Protestant ChristianUnion has a transversalist position that can be confused with a certain kind of centrist position, in so far it is left-leaning on issues such as immigration and environment, but right-leaning on social issues, drugs issues and euthanasia.

New Zealand[edit]

In New Zealand, there are two main current centrist parties. The largest one is New Zealand First, which was founded by Winston Peters after he resigned from the New Zealand National Party. New Zealand First has a focus on unitary, economic nationalism. It's principles include the reduction of government while at the same time increasing the amount of State owned Enterprises. New Zealand First is currently in opposition with 12 seats, in the 121 seat House of Representatives.

The other one is the United Future party, founded by a fusion of a previous centrist social liberal party and a previous Christian conservative party. United Future currently has one seat in the New Zealand parliament, supporting the current Government led by the National Party alongside ACT and the Maori Party.

Nordic countries[edit]

Campaign for the Norwegian Centre Party at Nærbø. Like its Finnish and Swedish counterparts, the party has a strong focus on decentralisation, rural and agrarian issues.

In most of the Nordic countries, there are Nordic agrarian parties. These share in addition to the centrist position on the socio-economic left-right scale a clear, separate ideology. This position is centred on decentralisation, a commitment to small business and environmental protection. Centrists have aligned themselves with the Liberal International and European Liberal Democrat and Reform Party. Historically, all of these parties were farmers' parties committed to maintaining rural life. In the 1960s, these parties broadened their scope to include non-farmer related issues and renamed themselves Centre Party.

Neither the Centre Democrats (a now defunct centrist political party) nor the Liberal Alliance (a political party founded as a centrist social liberal party but that now is a classical liberal party), both of Denmark, are rooted in centrist agrarianism.

Pakistan[edit]

Pakistan Tehreek-e-Insaf (PTI) founded by Imran Khan, claims to be a centrist/centre-left political party.[10] PTI emerged as the second largest political party in Pakistan, following the general election of 2013, by number of votes.[11]

Palestinian Authority[edit]

The Third Way is a small centrist Palestinian political party active in Palestinian politics. Founded on 16 December 2005, the party is led by Salam Fayyad and Hanan Ashrawi. In the January 2006 PLC elections it received 2.41% of the popular vote and won two of the Council's 132 seats. The party presents itself as an alternative to the two-party system of Hamas and Fatah.

Poland[edit]

Civic Platform (PO), ruling in 2007-2015, begun in 2001 as a rightist party, but later, under the leadership of Donald Tusk, turned into typical centrist. Depending on the context, it is described as either Christian Democratic (since it is a member of European People's Party), conservative, liberal, or social. Its pragmatism, technocracy and lack of ideology have been nevertheless criticized and currently, under the new leader Grzegorz Schetyna, it is returning to the right. Other political groups like Polish People's Party (PSL) may be described as centrist too (in Poland, national-moral right-wing is usually at the same time economical left, and vice versa).

Spain[edit]

The only national party that defends itself as a centrist party is Citizens, in fact its program tends to go both left and right ways. This party, however, is seen as a left party by conservatives and as a right party by socialists voters. In Catalonia, place where the party was born, many people even consider it as an extreme right-wing party, considering its fierce opposition to nationalism. Not even the media agree on its place; several newspapers from different ideologies manifest that Citizens is either left or right, depending on their political line. Regardless of subjective opinions, the truth is that Ciudadanos has always tried to reach agreements[12] with the national party which, according to several opinion polls, Spanish voters most traditionally considered to be the closest to the centre: Union, Progress and Democracy (UPyD). This popular perception was pointed out by UPyD, which positions itself simultaneously on the political centre and cross-sectionalism, thus embracing ideas across the political spectrum.[13][14] UPyD has lost a great deal of its voters to Ciudadanos,[15] the latter counting with 40 representatives in the Spanish Congress in the last election. Electors also consider as centrists the Convergence and Union coalition from Catalonia and the Basque Nationalist Party from the Spanish Basque Country, although these two usually consider themselves as right-centrist parties.[16]

United Kingdom[edit]

In the late 1990s, the traditionally socialist Labour Party, under the leadership of Tony Blair, began to move towards a centrist Third Way policy platform, creating the New Labour movement.

Traditionally, however, the party commonly seen as holding the centre ground is the Liberal Democrats (and its predecessor the Liberal Party) which is placed between the centre left and the radical centre. In March 2011, Nick Clegg, the leader of the Liberal Democrats and Deputy Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, stated that he believed that his party belonged to the radical centre, mentioning John Maynard Keynes, William Beveridge, Jo Grimond, David Lloyd George and John Stuart Mill as examples of the radical centre that preceded the Liberal Democrats' establishment in 1988. He pointed to liberalism as an ideology of people, and described the political spectrum and his party's position as follows: "For the left, an obsession with the state. For the right, a worship of the market. But as liberals, we place our faith in people. People with power and opportunity in their hands. Our opponents try to divide us with their outdated labels of left and right. But we are not on the left and we are not on the right. We have our own label: Liberal. We are liberals and we own the freehold to the centre ground of British politics. Our politics is the politics of the radical centre."

In the 2000s, David Cameron also moved the Conservative Party towards the centre, allowing his party to be elected in 2010 in a coalition with the Liberal Democrats. In the 2015 election the Conservatives gained a majority and the Liberal Democrats lost most of their seats.

United States[edit]

Ross Perot, former United States Presidential candidate in the 1992 and 1996 elections.

Independent candidate H. Ross Perot garnered nearly 19% of the popular vote in the 1992 Presidential election. His "get under the hood" campaign focusing on balancing the budget has been one of the most successful centrist efforts in U.S. history,[17] but he did not carry a single state in the Electoral College. He went on to form the Reform Party and run a second time in the 1996 Presidential election with less success.

A late 2011 Reason-Rupe poll of Americans' attitudes towards government reported that 17% expressed conservative views, 22% expressed libertarian views, 20% expressed communitarian views, 17% expressed centrist views, and 24% expressed liberal views.[18]

Americans Elect, a coalition of American centrists funded by wealthy donors such as business magnate Michael Bloomberg, former junk-bond trader Peter Ackerman, and hedge fund manager John H. Burbank III, launched an effort in mid-2011 to create a national 'virtual primary' that would challenge the current two-party system. The group aims to nominate a presidential ticket of centrists with names that would be on ballots in all 50 states. The group banks on broad cultural dissatisfaction with the partisan gridlock in Washington, D.C. The Christian Science Monitor has stated that "the political climate couldn't be riper for a serious third-party alternative" such as their effort, but the "hurdles Americans Elect faces are daunting" to get on ballots.[17]

Journalist and political commentator E.J. Dionne wrote in his book Why Americans Hate Politics, published on the eve of the 1992 Presidential election, that he believes American voters are looking for a "New Political Center" that intermixes "liberal instincts" and "conservative values." He labelled people in this centre position as "tolerant traditionalists". He described them as believers in conventional social morals that ensure family stability, as tolerant within reason to those who challenge those morals, and as pragmatically supportive of government intervention in spheres such as education, child care, and health care, as long as budgets are balanced.[19]

In addition, Washington political journalist Linda J Killian describes the current situation in her book The Swing Vote. She writes that Americans are frustrated with Congress and its dysfunction and inability to do its job. A growing number of Americans are not satisfied with the political process because a number of factors from influx of money into politics and the influence of special interests and lobbyists. The book classifies four types of independent voters including "NPR Republicans", "America First Democrats", "The Facebook Generation" and "Starbucks Moms and Dads" who will be big determinates of Swing votes in the 2012 Presidential election.[20]

Currently, centrists in the two major US political parties are often found in the New Democrat Coalition[21] and the Blue Dog Coalition of the Democratic Party and the Republican Main Street Partnership of the Republican Party.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Oliver H. Woshinsky. Explaining Politics: Culture, Institutions, and Political Behavior. Oxon, England; New York, New York, USA: Routledge, 2008. Pp. 141, 161.
  2. ^ "Probabilistic Voting and the Importance of Centrist Ideologies in Democratic Elections" Enelow and Hinich, The Journal of Politics, 1984 Southern Political Science Association
  3. ^ https://theconversation.com/populist-palmer-drops-his-jester-act-to-appeal-to-middle-australia-26919
  4. ^ "881903.com 商業電台 - 梁家騮說沒自視為建制派". Retrieved 2016-06-16. 
  5. ^ Apple Daily HK: LegCo 2016
  6. ^ a b Iran Daily – Dot Coms – 05-31-07, Bertie's Challenge, 5th paragraph
  7. ^ Irish Poll Hits Fianna Fáil, 2nd paragraph
  8. ^ "Irish opposition party says IMF/EU deal too costly". Reuters. 12 December 2010. 
  9. ^ Politieke Barometer: D66 middenpartij bij uitstek.
  10. ^ http://www.thenewstribe.com/2012/06/28/survey-imran-khan-most-popular-leader-of-pakistan
  11. ^ http://www.elections.com.pk/
  12. ^ [1], El Confidencial
  13. ^ "Andrés Herzog sucederá a Rosa Díez al frente de UPyD" (in Spanish). Reuters. 11 July 2015. Retrieved 24 January 2016. En su último discurso como portavoz de UPyD, Díez reivindicó a su formación -que se define como un partido progresista situado en el centro político-, como el artífice del cambio político en España 
  14. ^ González Almeida, José María (12 November 2013). "UPyD: La evolución de la política en España". upyd.es (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 28 April 2015. Retrieved 22 May 2016. UPyD ofrece entendimiento a través del transversalismo, que bien pueden servir sin necesidad de inclinarse a un lado o a otro, ya que todos tienen algo positivo que aportar y la formación magenta sabe bien sintetizar lo mejor de cada idea, ofreciendo un dulce cóctel al ciudadano 
  15. ^ [2] Europa Press
  16. ^ DISTRIBUCIONES DE FRECUENCIA MARGINALES DEL ESTUDIO 2909 CUESTIONARIO 0 MUESTRA 0, CIS-Centro de Estudios Sociológicos (see Question number 27) (Spanish)
  17. ^ a b Jonsson, Patrik (29 July 2011). "Americans Elect launches centrist third-party bid amid Washington dysfunction". The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved 1 January 2012. 
  18. ^ Ekins, Emily (29 August 2011). "Reason-Rupe Poll Finds 24 Percent of Americans are Economically Conservative and Socially Liberal, 28 Percent Liberal, 28 Percent Conservative, and 20 Percent Communitarian". Reason. Retrieved 1 January 2012. 
  19. ^ Dionne, Jr., E.J. (Winter 2000). "Why Americans Hate Politics: A Reprise". Brookings Research. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution. Retrieved 16 April 2014. 
  20. ^ "4 Types of Independent Voters Who Could Swing the 2012 Elections", Linda Killian, 2 February 2012
  21. ^ Pollard, Vic (March 15, 2007). "Pollard column: 'Mod squad' lockout has Parra steamed". The Bakersfield Californian. Retrieved July 23, 2014. 

External links[edit]