Espadarana audax

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Espadarana audax
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Amphibia
Order: Anura
Family: Centrolenidae
Genus: Espadarana
Species: E. audax
Binomial name
Espadarana audax
(Lynch (fr) and Duellman (fr), 1973)

Centrolenella audax Lynch and Duellman, 1973
Centrolene audax (Lynch and Duellman, 1973)
Centrolene fernandoi Duellman and Schulte, 1993
Espadarana fernandoi (Duellman and Schulte, 1993)

Espadarana audax is a species of frog in the family Centrolenidae. It is found on the Amazonian versant of Andes in northeast Peru (San Martín Region), eastern Ecuador (Napo Province), and southern Colombia (Cauca and Putumayo Departments).[2][3]


The generic placement of what was originally described as Centrolenella audax in 1973 has long been uncertain, but in 2014 it was placed in the genus Espadarana. At the same time, Centrolene fernandoi was brought into synonymy with Espadarana audax.[2]


Adult males measure 22.5–26.4 mm (0.89–1.04 in) in snout–vent length. The snout is truncate or round in lateral view. The texture of dorsal skin is shagreen and includes spinules and white warts. The toes have some webbing.[4]

Habitat and conservation[edit]

The species' natural habitats are moist montane forests at elevations of 1,300–1,900 m (4,300–6,200 ft) above sea level.[1][3]

Threats to this species, assessed at the time when Centrolene fernandoi was still recognized as a separate species, include habitat loss (deforestation from agriculture and logging) and chytridiomycosis.[1]


  1. ^ a b c Coloma, L.A.; Ron, S.; Cisneros-Heredia, D. (2010). "Espadarana audax". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2010: e.T54904A11218966. Retrieved 21 February 2017. 
  2. ^ a b c Frost, Darrel R. (2017). "Espadarana audax (Lynch and Duellman, 1973)". Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0. American Museum of Natural History. Retrieved 21 February 2017. 
  3. ^ a b Acosta Galvis, A. R.; D. Cuentas (2017). "Espadarana audax (Lynch & Duellman, 1973)". Lista de los Anfibios de Colombia V.07.2017.0. Retrieved 21 February 2017. 
  4. ^ Guayasamin, Juan M.; Bustamante, Martin R.; Almeida-Reinoso, Diego; Funk, W. Chris (2006). "Glass frogs (Centrolenidae) of Yanayacu Biological Station, Ecuador, with the description of a new species and comments on centrolenid systematics". Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. 147 (4): 489–513. doi:10.1111/j.1096-3642.2006.00223.x.  — N.b. As this work predate the merger of Centrolene audax and Centrolene fernandoi, Guayasamin et al. treat C. audax and C. fernandoi as separate species. The information cited here represent data from both taxa.